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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 309-316, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner's protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre- and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Caminhada , Pressão Sanguínea , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente , Masculino
2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(2): 309-316, ago. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339166

RESUMO

Resumo Fundamento: Embora a caminhada máxima e submáxima sejam recomendadas para pacientes com doença arterial periférica (DAP), a realização desses exercícios pode induzir diferentes respostas fisiológicas. Objetivos: Comparar os efeitos agudos de caminhada máxima e submáxima na função cardiovascular, a regulação e os processos fisiopatológicos associados pós-exercício em pacientes com DAP sintomática. Métodos: Trinta pacientes do sexo masculino foram submetidos a 2 sessões: caminhada máxima (protocolo de Gardner) e caminhada submáxima (15 períodos de 2 minutos de caminhada separados por 2 minutos de repouso ereto). Em cada sessão, foram medidos a pressão arterial (PA), a frequência cardíaca (FC), a modulação autonômica cardíaca (variabilidade da FC), os fluxos sanguíneos (FS) do antebraço e da panturrilha, a capacidade vasodilatadora (hiperemia reativa), o óxido nítrico (ON), o estresse oxidativo (a peroxidação lipídica) e a inflamação (quatro marcadores), pré e pós-caminhada. ANOVAs foram empregadas e p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: A PA sistólica e a PA média diminuíram após a sessão submáxima, mas aumentaram após a sessão máxima (interações, p < 0,001 para ambas). A PA diastólica não foi alterada após a sessão submáxima (p > 0,05), mas aumentou após a caminhada máxima (interação, p < 0,001). A FC, o equilíbrio simpatovagal e os FS aumentaram de forma semelhante após as duas sessões (momento, p < 0,001, p = 0,04 e p < 0,001, respectivamente), enquanto a capacidade vasodilatadora, o ON e o estresse oxidativo permaneceram inalterados (p > 0,05). As moléculas de adesão vascular e intercelular aumentaram de forma semelhante após as sessões de caminhada máxima e submáxima (momento, p = 0,001). Conclusões: Nos pacientes com a DAP sintomática, a caminhada submáxima, mas não a máxima, reduziu a PA pós-exercício, enquanto a caminhada máxima manteve a sobrecarga cardíaca elevada durante o período de recuperação. Por outro lado, as sessões de caminhada máxima e submáxima aumentaram a FC, o equilíbrio simpatovagal cardíaco e a inflamação pós-exercício de forma semelhante, enquanto não alteraram a biodisponibilidade de ON e o estresse oxidativo pós-exercício.


Abstract Background: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. Objectives: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. Methods: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner's protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre- and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.

3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. RESULTS: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(6): 954-963, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of submaximal walking training (WT) on local and systemic nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). METHODS: The study employed a randomised, controlled, parallel group design and was performed in a single centre. Thirty-two men with IC were randomly allocated to two groups: WT (n = 16, two sessions/week, 15 cycles of two minutes walking at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate obtained at the pain threshold interspersed by two minutes of upright rest) and control (CO, n = 16, two sessions/week, 30 minutes of stretching). NO bioavailability (blood NO and muscle nitric oxide synthase [eNOS]), redox homeostasis (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], lipid peroxidation [LPO] measured in blood and muscle), and inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP], tumour necrosis factor α [TNF-α], intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAM], vascular adhesion molecules [VCAM] measured in blood and muscle) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: WT statistically significantly increased blood NO, muscle eNOS, blood SOD and CAT, and muscle SOD and abolished the increase in circulating and muscle LPO observed in the CO group. WT decreased blood CRP, ICAM, and VCAM and muscle IL-6 and CRP and eliminated the increase in blood TNF-α and muscle TNF-α, ICAM and VCAM observed in the CO group. CONCLUSION: WT at an intensity of pain threshold improved NO bioavailability and decreased systemic and local oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with IC. The proposed WT protocol provides physiological adaptations that may contribute to cardiovascular health in these patients.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação , Claudicação Intermitente , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/análise
5.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. Results: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. Conclusion: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento resistido nas respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo em pacientes com doença de Parkinson. Métodos: Vinte e quarto pacientes com doença de Parkinson (estágios 2 a 3 de Hoehn e Yahr modificado) foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Controle e Treinamento Resistido. O Grupo Treinamento Resistido realizou, duas vezes por semana, cinco exercícios resistidos, duas a quatro séries, seis a 12 repetições máximas por série. O Grupo Controle manteve seu estilo de vida. No início e após 12 semanas, consumo de oxigênio, pressão arterial sistólica e frequência cardíaca foram avaliados em repouso e durante um teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo realizado em um cicloergômetro. As avaliações durante o exercício foram realizadas nas intensidades submáximas (a inclinação da regressão linear entre as variáveis fisiológicas e as cargas absolutas), nas intensidades submáximas relativas (limiar anaeróbico e ponto de compensação respiratória) e na intensidade máxima (pico do exercício). Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a força muscular. Resultados: Comparado com o início, o consumo de oxigênio pico aumentou, de forma semelhante, em ambos os grupos após 12 semanas. A frequência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistólica avaliadas nas intensidades submáximas absolutas e relativas, assim como no pico do exercício, não se modificaram em nenhum dos grupos. Finalmente, diferente do Grupo Controle, a força muscular aumentou no Grupo Treinamento Resistido após 12 semanas. Conclusão: Em pacientes com doença de Parkinson sem comorbidades cardiovasculares, o treinamento resistido aumenta a força muscular, mas não modifica as respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca
6.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a single bout of maximal walking on blood and muscle nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, and inflammation in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 men with symptomatic PAD performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill (3.2 km/h, 2% increase in grade every 2 minutes). Plasma samples and gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected preexercise and postexercise for assessment of NO bioavailability (plasma NO and muscle, endothelial NO synthase), oxidative stress and antioxidant function (lipid peroxidation [LPO], catalase [CAT], and superoxide dismutase), and inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecules, and vascular adhesion molecules). The effects of the walking exercise were assessed using paired t tests or Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: After maximal walking, plasma NO and LPO were unchanged (P > .05), plasma CAT decreased, and all blood inflammatory markers increased (all P ≤ .05). In the disease-affected skeletal muscle, endothelial NO synthase, CAT, LPO, and all inflammatory markers increased, whereas superoxide dismutase decreased (all P ≤ .05). CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic PAD, maximal exercise induces local and systemic impairments, which may play a key role in atherogenesis. Exercise strategies that avoid maximal effort may be important to reduce local and systemic damage and enhance clinical benefits.

7.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(5): 533-539, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drinking water is recommended before and after exercise to avoid dehydration. However, water ingestion may mitigate or prevent postexercise hypotension. This study investigated the effects of intentional hydration on postaerobic exercise hemodynamics and autonomic modulation. METHODS: A total of 18 young men randomly underwent 4 experimental sessions as follows: (1) control with intentional hydration (1 L of water in the previous night, 500 mL 60 min before the intervention, and 1 mL for each 1 g of body mass lost immediately after the intervention); (2) control without intentional hydration (ad libitum water ingestion before the intervention); (3) exercise (cycle ergometer, 45 min, 50% of VO2peak) with intentional hydration; and (4) exercise without intentional hydration. Hemodynamic and autonomic parameters were measured before and after the interventions and were compared by 3-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Intentional hydration did not change any postexercise hemodynamic nor autonomic response. Exercise decreased systolic blood pressure and stroke volume (-4.1 [0.8] mm Hg and -4.9 [1.5] mL, P < .05), while increased cardiac sympathovagal balance (0.3 [0.3], P < .05) during the recovery. In addition, it abolished the increase in diastolic blood pressure and the decrease in heart rate observed in the control sessions. CONCLUSION: Intentional hydration does not modify the hypotensive effect promoted by previous aerobic exercise and did not alter its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 40(2): 114-121, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is determined by cardiac autonomic restoration after exercise and is reduced in hypertension. Postexercise cooling accelerates HRR in healthy subjects, but its effects in a population with cardiac autonomic dysfunction, such as hypertensives (HT), may be blunted. This study assessed and compared the effects of postexercise cooling on HRR and cardiac autonomic regulation in HT and normotensive (NT) subjects. METHODS: Twenty-three never-treated HT (43 ± 8 years) and 25 NT (45 ± 8 years) men randomly underwent two exercise sessions (30 min of cycling at 70% VO2peak ) followed by 15 min of recovery. In one randomly allocated session, a fan was turned on in front of the subject during the recovery (cooling), while in the other session, no cooling was performed (control). HRR was assessed by heart rate reductions after 60 s (HRR60s) and 300 s (HRR300s) of recovery, short-term time constant of HRR (T30) and the time constant of the HRR after exponential fitting (HRRτ). HRV was assessed using time- and frequency-domain indices. RESULTS: HRR and HRV responses in the cooling and control sessions were similar between the HT and NT. Thus, in both groups, postexercise cooling equally accelerated HRR (HRR300s = 39±12 versus 36 ± 10 bpm, P≤0·05) and increased postexercise HRV (lnRMSSD = 1·8 ± 0·7 versus 1·6 ± 0·7 ms, P≤0·05). CONCLUSION: Differently from the hypothesis, postexercise cooling produced similar improvements in HRR in HT and NT men, likely by an acceleration of cardiac parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal. These results suggest that postexercise cooling equally accelerates HRR in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 57: 144-151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify, in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (IC), the reproducibility of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product, heart rate variability (HRV), and forearm and calf blood flow (BF) and vasodilatory assessments. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with IC underwent test and retest sessions, 8-12 days apart. During each session, HR, BP, HRV, BF, and vasodilatory responses were measured by electrocardiogram, auscultation, spectral analysis of HRV (low frequency, LFR-R; high frequency, HFR-R), and strain gauge plethysmography (baseline BF, post-occlusion BF, post-occlusion area under the curve). Reproducibility was determined by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error, coefficient of variation (CV), and limits of agreement. RESULTS: The ICC for HR and BP was >0.8 with CV <9%. For most HRV measures, ICC was >0.9 while CV was <7%, except for LF/HF (ICC = 0.737, CV = 93.8%). The ICC for forearm and calf baseline BF assessments was >0.9 while CV was <19%; variable ICC and CV for vasodilatory responses were exhibited for calf (0.653-0.770, 35.2-37.7%) and forearm (0.169-0.265, 46.2-55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In male patients with IC, systemic hemodynamics (HR and BP), cardiac autonomic modulation (LFR-R and HFR-R), and forearm and calf baseline BF assessments exhibited excellent reproducibility, whereas the level of reproducibility for vasodilatory responses were moderate to poor. Assessment reproducibility has highlighted appropriate clinical tools for the regular monitoring of disease/intervention progression in patients with IC.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Coração/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Pletismografia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasodilatação
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(4): 653-662, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The acute blood pressure (BP) decrease is greater after evening than morning exercise, suggesting that evening training (ET) may have a greater hypotensive effect. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the hypotensive effect of aerobic training performed in the morning versus evening in treated hypertensives. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive men were randomly allocated to three groups: morning training (MT), ET, and control (C). Training groups cycled for 45 min at moderate intensity (progressing from the heart rate of the anaerobic threshold to 10% below the heart rate of the respiratory compensation point), while C stretched for 30 min. Interventions were conducted 3 times per week for 10 wk. Clinic and ambulatory BP and hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms were evaluated before and after the interventions. Clinic assessments were performed in the morning (7:00-9:00 AM) and evening (6:00-8:00 PM). Between-within ANOVA was used (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Only ET decreased clinic systolic BP differently from C and MT (morning assessment -5 ± 6 mm Hg and evening assessment -8 ± 7 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Only ET reduced 24 h and asleep diastolic BP differently from C and MT (-3 ± 5 and -3 ± 4 mm Hg, respectively, P < 0.05). Systemic vascular resistance decreased from C only in ET (P = 0.03). Vasomotor sympathetic modulation decreased (P = 0.001) and baroreflex sensitivity (P < 0.02) increased from C in both training groups with greater changes in ET than MT. CONCLUSIONS: In treated hypertensive men, aerobic training performed in the evening decreased clinic and ambulatory BP due to reductions in systemic vascular resistance and vasomotor sympathetic modulation. Aerobic training conducted at both times of day increases baroreflex sensitivity, but with greater after ET.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 58(1-2): 157-163, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinic postexercise hypotension (PEH) is different after aerobic exercise performed in the morning and in the evening. Thus, ambulatory PEH should also differ after exercises conducted at different times of day. However, because of the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), ambulatory PEH should be assessed considering a control condition. Thus, this study was designed to verify the effects of morning and evening exercises on postexercise ambulatory BP averages and circadian parameters by comparing responses obtained at each time of day after an exercise and a control session. METHODS: Thirteen prehypertensive men underwent four sessions (randomized order): two in the morning (9 am) and two in the evening (6:30 pm). At each time of day, a control (C) and an exercise (E: cycle ergometer 45 min, 50% VO2peak) sessions were performed. After the sessions, an ambulatory BP and heart rate (HR) monitoring was started for 24 h. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test were used to compare the E and the C sessions at each time of day. RESULTS: In the morning, 24 h, daytime and nighttime HR were higher after the E than the C session. In the evening, nighttime systolic BP (116±11 vs. 120±10 mmHg, P=0.04) and rate pressure product (7981±1294 vs. 8583±1523 mmHg.bpm, P=0.04), as well as MESOR (128±11 vs. 130±10 mmHg, P=0.03) were lower in the E than the C session. CONCLUSIONS: In prehypertensive men, morning exercise increased ambulatory HR, while evening exercise decreased nighttime BP and cardiac work, reducing the MESOR of systolic BP.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/diagnóstico , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ritmo Circadiano , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 37(5): 530-535, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776928

RESUMO

Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) present blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall and similar ambulatory blood pressure variability (ABPV) measured by standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) compared with healthy subjects. However, these classical indices of ABPV have limited validity in individuals with circadian blood pressure alterations. New indices, such as the average of daytime and night-time standard deviation weighted by the duration of the daytime and night-time intervals (SDdn ) and the average real variability (ARV), remove the influence of the daytime and the night-time periods on ABPV. This study assessed ABPV by SDdn and ARV in PD. Twenty-one patients with PD (11 men, 66 ± 2 years, stages 2-3 of modified Hoehn & Yahr) and 21 matched controls without Parkinson disease (9 men, 64 ± 1 years old) underwent blood pressure monitoring for 24 h. ABPV was analysed by 24 h, daytime and night-time SD and CV, and by the SDdn and ARV. Systolic/diastolic 24-h and night-time SD and CV were similar between the patients with PD and the controls. The patients with PD presented higher daytime systolic/diastolic CV and SD than the controls (10·4 ± 0·9/12·3 ± 0·8 versus 7·0 ± 0·3/9·9 ± 0·5%, P<0·05; 12·6 ± 1·0/9·1 ± 0·5 versus 8·6 ± 0·4/7·5 ± 0·3 mmHg, P<0·05, respectively) as well as higher systolic/diastolic SDdn (10·9 ± 0·8/8·2 ± 0·5 versus 8·2 ± 0·3/7·1 ± 0·2 mmHg, P<0·05, respectively) and ARV (8·8 ± 0·6/6·9 ± 0·3 versus 7·2 ± 0·2/6·0 ± 0·2 mmHg, P<0·05, respectively). In conclusion, patients with PD have higher ABPV than control subjects as assessed by SDd , CVd , SDdn and AVR.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Ritmo Circadiano , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Physiol ; 594(21): 6211-6223, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435799

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Recent evidence indicates that metaboreflex regulates heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR). An increased metaboreflex activity during the post-exercise period might help to explain the reduced HRR observed in hypertensive subjects. Using lower limb circulatory occlusion, the present study showed that metaboreflex activation during the post-exercise period delayed HRR in never-treated hypertensive men compared to normotensives. These findings may be relevant for understanding the physiological mechanisms associated with autonomic dysfunction in hypertensive men. ABSTRACT: Muscle metaboreflex influences heart rate (HR) regulation after aerobic exercise. Therefore, increased metaboreflex sensitivity may help to explain the delayed HR recovery (HRR) reported in hypertension. The present study assessed and compared the effect of metaboreflex activation after exercise on HRR, cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV) in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) men. Twenty-three never-treated HT and 25 NT men randomly underwent two-cycle ergometer exercise sessions (30 min, 70% V̇O2 peak ) followed by 5 min of inactive recovery performed with (occlusion) or without (control) leg circulatory occlusion (bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to a suprasystolic pressure). HRR was assessed via HR reduction after 30, 60 and 300 s of recovery (HRR30s, HRR60s and HRR300s), as well as by the analysis of short- and long-term time constants of HRR. cBRS was assessed by sequence technique and HRV by the root mean square residual and the root mean square of successive differences between adjacent RR intervals on subsequent 30 s segments. Data were analysed using two- and three-way ANOVA. HRR60s and cBRS were significant and similarly reduced in both groups in the occlusion compared to the control session (combined values: 20 ± 10 vs. 26 ± 9 beats min-1 and 2.1 ± 1.2 vs. 3.2 ± 2.4 ms mmHg-1 , respectively, P < 0.05). HRR300s and HRV were also reduced in the occlusion session, although these reductions were significantly greater in HT compared to NT (-16 ± 11 vs. -8 ± 15 beats min-1 for HRR300s, P < 0.05). The results support the role of metaboreflex in HRR and suggest that increased metaboreflex sensitivity may partially explain the delayed HRR observed in HT men.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Reflexo , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
14.
São Paulo; s.n; 2016. 132] p. tab, graf, ilus.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-870915

RESUMO

A Doença arterial periférica (DAP) é uma manifestação clínica da aterosclerose, quando esta afeta principalmente as artérias que irrigam os membros inferiores. O exercício aeróbico provoca nos membros afetados pela doença um ciclo de reperfusão-isquemia que desencadeia uma resposta sistêmica aguda caracterizada por aumento do estresse oxidativo, inflamação e disfunção endotelial. Assim, uma terapia antioxidante pode ser uma terapia alternativa para esses pacientes. Os microRNAs (miRNAs) foram recentemente reconhecidos como reguladores pós-transcricionais, e a identificação desses pode elucidar mecanismos gênicos adicionais pelos quais o exercício é atuante, levando a identificação de genes que são modulados, abrindo perspectivas de abordagens de terapia gênica que podem levar à reversão do quadro da doença arterial periférica. Objetivo: Verificar o efeito de uma sessão aguda de exercício aeróbico máxima com e sem uso do antioxidante Nacetilcisteína (NAC) sobre a expressão de microRNAs e marcadores inflamatórios e de estresse oxidativo circulantes em pacientes com DAP. Métodos: Foram recrutados pacientes com DAP estágio II do Ambulatório da Disciplina de Cirurgia Vascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Os pacientes foram submetidos a duas sessões experimentais após a suplementação de NAC ou Placebo. Foi analisado o perfil de expressão de microRNAs circulantes dos indivíduos em repouso e após o exercício máximo, e confirmado a expressão gênica dos miRNAs alterados após o exercício e de seus alvos; e dos níveis plasmáticos de endotelina-1 (ET-1), proteína quimiotática de monócitos-1 (MCP-1), molécula de adesão intercelular-1 (ICAM-1), molécula de adesão celular vascular-1 (VCAM-1), substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, 8- isoprostano e glutationa. Resultados: O tratamento com NAC não alterou o xvii tempo de caminhada, as respostas hemodinâmicas e cardiopulmonar dos...


Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, when it mainly affects the arteries supplying the lower limbs. Aerobic exercise causes the member affected by the disease cycle of reperfusion-ischemia triggers an acute systemic response characterized by increased oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Thus, an antioxidant therapy is an alternative therapy for these patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as posttranscriptional regulators, and identifying these may elucidate additional gene mechanisms by which the exercise is active, leading to identification of genes that are modulated, opening prospects of gene therapy approaches that can lead to picture reversal of peripheral arterial disease. Aim: To determine the effect of an acute bout of maximal aerobic exercise with and without the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of microRNAs and inflammatory markers and circulating oxidative stress in patients with PAD. Methods: We recruited patients with PAD stage II Clinic of Vascular Surgery of Hospital das Clinicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo. The patients underwent two experimental sessions after supplementation of NAC or placebo. the expression profile of circulating microRNAs of individuals at rest and after maximal exercise was analyzed and confirmed the gene expression of miRNAs changed after exercise and its targets; and plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) cell vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) , reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid, 8-isoprostane and glutathione. Results: Treatment with NAC did not change the walking time, and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic responses of patients with PAD. The rest blood flow in the leg of these patients was higher after the completion of the exercise and treatment with NAC did not change this...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Moduladores da Angiogênese , Antioxidantes , Exercício Físico , Inflamação , MicroRNAs , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Chronobiol Int ; 32(10): 1385-90, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26588261

RESUMO

Heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and variability (HRV) after exercise are non-invasive tools used to assess cardiac autonomic regulation and cardiovascular prognosis. Autonomic recovery is slower after evening than morning exercise in healthy individuals, but this influence is unknown in subjects with autonomic dysfunction, although it may affect prognostic evaluation. This study compared post-exercise HRR and HRV after maximal morning and evening exercise in pre-hypertensive men. Ten volunteers randomly underwent two maximal exercise tests conducted in the morning (8-10 a.m.) and evening (6-8 p.m.). HRR60s (HR reduction at 60 s of recovery - prognostic index), T30 (short-term time-constant of HRR - parasympathetic reactivation marker), rMSSD30s (square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent R-R intervals on subsequent 30 s segments - parasympathetic reactivation marker), and HRRτ (time constant of the first order exponential fitting of HRR - marker of sympathetic withdraw and parasympathetic reactivation) were measured. Paired t-test and two-way ANOVA were used. HRR60s and HRRτ were similar after exercise in the morning and evening (27 ± 7 vs. 29 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.111, and 79 ± 14 vs. 96 ± 29 s, p = 0.119, respectively). T30 was significantly greater after evening exercise (405 ± 215 vs. 295 ± 119 s, p = 0.002) and rMSSD30s was lower in the evening (main factor session, p = 0.009). In conclusion, in pre-hypertensive men, the prognostic index of HRR, HRR60s, is not affected by the time of day when exercise is conducted. However, post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, evaluated by T30 and rMSSD30s, is blunted after evening exercise.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0132458, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186444

RESUMO

Post-exercise hypotension (PEH), calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order): two conducted in the morning (7:30 am) and two in the evening (5 pm). At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (sitting rest) session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise)-(post-pre control)] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05). Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure) occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05), while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05). Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05) and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05). In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 24(1,Supl.A): 9-15, jan.-mar.2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-761815

RESUMO

A hipotensão pós-exercício foi extensivamente descrita em jovens. Entretanto, os parâmetros hemodinâmicos mudam com a idade e as respostas pós-exercício também podem variar. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a hipotensão pós-exercício resistido em sujeitos jovens e de meia idade. Método: Nove homens jovens (24 ± 1 anos) e oito de meia idade (42 ± 3 anos) participaram de duas sessões experimentais realizadas em ordem aleatória: controle (C: 40 minutos sentado em repouso) e exercício (E: seis exercícios, três séries, repetições até a fadiga moderada, em 50% de uma repetição máxima). Antes e 60 minutos após as intervenções, a pressão arterial clínica (PA) e frequência cardíaca (FC) foram medidas. Além disso, a PA e FC ambulatoriais foram mensuradas por 24 h após as sessões. O duplo produto (DP) foi calculado. Resultados: Os valores pré-intervenções foram semelhantes entre as sessões e os grupos. As respostas ao exercício também não diferiram entre os jovens e idosos. Assim, as PAs sistólica, diastólica e média diminuíram significante e similarmente pós-exercício nos dois grupos (valores combinados = -6,4 ± 1,6; -4,5 ± 1,8; -5,1 ± 1,5 mmHg, respectivamente, p ≤ 0,05) enquanto que a FC e o DP aumentaram (valores combinados = +11 ± 2 bpm e +803 ± 233 mmHg.bpm, respec¬tivamente, p ≤ 0,05). A PA e FC ambulatoriais pós-exercício foram semelhantes nas duas sessões e nos dois grupos. Conclusão: Uma única sessão de exercício resistido promove hipotensão pós-exercício semelhante em homens jovens e de meia-idade. A redução da PA se acompanha de aumento da FC e do trabalho cardíaco pós-exercício. Porém, estas respostas não se mantêm em condições ambulatoriais...


Post-resistance exercise hypotension has been extensively described in young subjects. However, hemodynamic parameters change with aging, and post-exercise responses may also vary. Thus, this study was designed to compare post-resistance exercise hypotension in young and middle-aged subjects. Method: Nine young (24 ± 1years) and eight middle-aged (42 ± 3years) healthy subjects underwent 2 experimental sessions conducted in a randomized order: control (C: 40 minutes of seated rest) and exercise (E: 6 exercises, 3 sets, repetitions until moderate fatigue, at 50% of 1-repetition maximum). Before and 60 minutes after the interventions, clinic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, ambulatory BP and HR were assessed for 24h after both sessions. Rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Results: Pre-interventions values were similar in both sessions and groups. Physiological responses to exercise were also similar between young and middle-aged subjects. Thus, clinic systolic, diastolic and mean BP decreased significantly and similarly after exercise in both groups (combined values = -6.4 ± 1.6, -4.5 ± 1.8, -5.1 ± 1.5 mmHg, respectively, p ≤ 0.05), while HR and RRP increased (combined values = +11 ± 2 bpm and +803 ± 233 mmHg. bpm, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). Ambulatory data were similar between sessions and groups. Conclusion: A single bout of resistance exercise promotes similar post-exercise hypotension in young and middle aged men. BP response is accompanied by an increase in HR and cardiac work. All these responses are not sustained under ambulatory conditions...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Protocolos/prevenção & controle
18.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 34(5): 327-39, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24237859

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction seems to be related to the genesis of several CVDs and is also linked to the increased risk of mortality in CVD patients. The quantification of heart rate decrement after exercise - known as heart rate recovery (HRR) - is a simple tool for assessing cardiac autonomic activity in healthy and CVD patients. Furthermore, since The Cleveland Clinic studies, HRR has also been used as a powerful index for predicting mortality. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has been interested in proposing methods and protocols to investigate HRR and understand its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge about HRR, including its potential primary and secondary physiological determinants, as well as its role in predicting mortality. Published data show that HRR can be modelled by an exponential curve, with a fast and a slow decay component. HRR may be influenced by population and exercise characteristics. The fast component mainly seems to be dictated by the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, probably promoted by the deactivation of central command and mechanoreflex inputs immediately after exercise cessation. On the other hand, the slow phase of HRR may be determined by cardiac sympathetic withdrawal, possibly via the deactivation of metaboreflex and thermoregulatory mechanisms. All these pathways seem to be impaired in CVD, helping to explain the slower HRR in such patients and the increased rate of mortality in individuals who present a slower HRR.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 23(3,supl.A): 21-25, jul.-set. 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-767462

RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a modulação autonômicacardíaca de atletas de jiu-jitsu, comparando-os com sedentáriose avaliando as alterações dessa modulação ao longo dasdiferentes fases de treinamento. Foram avaliados sete atletas esete indivíduos sedentários do sexo masculino (23 ± 4 e 24 ± 3anos, respectivamente). A frequência cardíaca (FC) e o sinalrespiratório foram coletados por 10 minutos na posição deitadaem três fases do treinamento dos atletas (preparatória, competitivae transitória) e num único momento nos sedentários.A modulação autonômica cardíaca foi avaliada pela análiseespectral da variabilidade da FC (VFC) utilizando-se o modeloautorregressivo. A comparação entre os grupos foi feitapelos testes t não pareado ou Mann-Whitney. A comparaçãoentre as fases de treinamento no grupo de atletas foi realizadapela ANOVA de um fator para amostras repetidas (p < 0,05).Os grupos apresentaram características físicas e funcionaissemelhantes, mas a força máxima foi significantemente maiornos atletas. Todos os índices de VFC foram semelhantes entreos atletas e os sedentários. Além disso, esses índices não sealteraram significantemente entre as fases preparatória, competitivae transitória do treinamento dos atletas. Em conclusão, osatletas de jiu-jitsu apresentam modulação autonômica cardíacasemelhante à de sedentários, e essa modulação não se alteranas diferentes fases de periodização do treinamento.


The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic modulationin jiu-jitsu athletes, comparing with sedentary individuals,and evaluating changes that may happen throughout the differentphases of training. Seven athletes and seven sedentary males (23± 4 e 24 ± 3 years, respectively) were evaluated. Heart rate (HR)and respiratory signal were collected for 10 min in the supineposition in the three phases of training (preparatory, competitiveand transient) in the athletes and at one moment in the sedentarysubjects. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated by thespectral analysis of HR variability (HRV) using the autoregressivemodel. Comparisons between groups were performed byunpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Comparisons among thetraining phases were performed by one-way ANOVA for repeatedmeasures (p < 0.05). Athletes and sedentary subjects presentedsimilar physical and cardiovascular characteristics, althoughmaximal strength was significantly higher in the athletes. All ofthe HRV indexes were similar between athletes and sedentarysubjects. In addition, HRV indexes did not change among thepreparatory, competitive and transition phases of training. Inconclusion, jiu-jitsu athletes have cardiac autonomic modulationsimilar to sedentary subjects and this modulation is not changedthroughout the different periodization phases of training.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais/classificação , Atletas/história , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Epidemiologia Experimental , Comportamento Sedentário/história , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 17(3): 212-217, maio-jun. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-597789

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Os efeitos dos esteroides anabolizantes (EA) sobre a massa muscular e força são controversos e dependentes do treinamento realizado e das fibras musculares recrutadas. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da associação de EA ao treinamento de força ou aeróbio sobre a hipertrofia e força muscular. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar (42) foram divididos em seis grupos: sedentário (SC, n = 7), sedentário anabolizante (SA, n = 7), treinado natação controle (TNC, n = 7), treinado natação anabolizante (TNA, n = 7), treinado força controle (TFC, n = 7) e treinado força anabolizante (TFA, n = 7). O EA foi administrado duas vezes por semana (10mg/kg/semana). Os protocolos de treinamento foram realizados durante 10 semanas, cinco sessões semanais. Foram avaliadas a hipertrofia dos músculos sóleo, plantar e gastrocnêmio (massa muscular corrigida pelo comprimento da tíbia), a proteína total muscular (Bradford) e a força muscular em patas traseiras (testes de resistência à inclinação). RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes na hipertrofia do músculo sóleo. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram, respectivamente, hipertrofia de 18 por cento e 31 por cento no músculo plantar comparado ao grupo SC. A hipertrofia foi 13 por cento maior no grupo TFA em relação ao grupo TFC. Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados no músculo gastrocnêmio. Os grupos TFC e TFA apresentaram significantes aumentos na quantidade total de proteína nos músculos plantares, sendo essa mais pronunciada no grupo TFA e positivamente correlaciona a hipertrofia muscular. Observamos aumento de força nas patas traseiras nos grupos TCF e TAF. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de EA ou sua associação ao treinamento aeróbio não aumenta a massa muscular e força. Porém, à associação ao treinamento de força leva a maior hipertrofia muscular em fibras glicolíticas. Portanto, o tipo de treinamento físico, recrutamento muscular e características das fibras musculares...


INTRODUCTION: The effects of the anabolic steroids (AS) on muscle mass and strength are controversial and dependent on the training protocol performed and the muscle fibers recruited. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the AS effects combined with strength training or aerobic exercise training on muscle hypertrophy and strength. METHODS: Wistar rats (42) were divided into six groups: sedentary control (SC, n = 7), steroid sedentary (SS, n = 7), swimming training control (STC, n = 7), swimming training steroid (STS, n = 7), strength training control (SRC, n = 7) and strength training steroid (SRS, n = 7). AS was administered twice a week (10mg/kg/week). The training protocols were performed for 10 weeks, 5 sessions per week. Soleus, gastrocnemius and plantar hypertrophy (muscle mass corrected for tibia length), total muscle protein (Bradford) and muscle strength in hind limb (resistance to twist) were assessed. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in soleus muscle hypertrophy. SRC and SRS groups showed hypertrophy of 18 percent and 31 percent in plantar muscles compared to the SC group. Hypertrophy was 13 percent higher in SRS than SRC group. Similar results were found in gastrocnemius muscle. SRC and SRS groups showed significant increases in the protein total amount in the plantar muscles, it was more pronounced in SRS group and positively correlated to muscle hypertrophy. The strength was increase in SRC and SRS groups. CONCLUSION: AS administration or its association to aerobic training does not increase muscle mass and strength. However, its association to strength training leads to muscle hypertrophy in glycolytic fibers. Therefore, the physical training protocol, muscle recruitment and muscle fibers characteristics, appear to have significant impact on anabolic responses induced by AS.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Exercício Físico , Força Muscular , Hipertrofia , Músculo Esquelético , Treinamento de Força , Resistência Física , Ratos Wistar , Resistência Física/fisiologia
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