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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

RESUMO

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Brasil/epidemiologia , Incidência , Modelos Estatísticos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257739, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355883

RESUMO

Abstract Under salt stress conditions, plant growth is reduced due to osmotic, nutritional and oxidative imbalance. However, salicylic acid acts in the mitigation of this abiotic stress by promoting an increase in growth, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis of osmoregulators and antioxidant enzymes. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of salicylic acid doses on the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings under salt stress. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, where the treatments were distributed in randomized blocks using a central composite matrix Box with five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water (CEw) (0.50; 1.08; 2.50; 3.92 and 4.50 dS m-1), associated with five doses of salicylic acid (SA) (0.00; 0.22; 0.75; 1.28 and 1.50 mM), with four repetitions and each plot composed of three plants. At 40 days after sowing, plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and total dry mass were determined. ECw and SA application influenced the growth and physiological changes of eggplant seedlings. Increasing the ECw reduced growth in the absence of SA. Membrane damage with the use of SA remained stable up to 3.9 dS m-1 of ECw. The relative water content independent of the CEw increased with 1.0 mM of SA. The use of SA at the concentration of 1.0 mM mitigated the deleterious effect of salinity on seedling growth up to 2.50 dS m-1 of ECw.


Resumo Em condições de estresse salino, o crescimento das plantas é reduzido, em virtude, do desequilíbrio osmótico, nutricional e oxidativo. Contudo, o ácido salicílico atua na mitigação desse estresse abiótico por promover incremento no crescimento, fotossíntese, metabolismo do nitrogênio, síntese de osmorreguladores e enzimas antioxidantes. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de doses de ácido salicílico sobre o crescimento e alterações fisiológicas de mudas de berinjela sob estresse salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, onde os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos ao acaso utilizando uma matriz composta central Box com cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,50; 1,08; 2,50; 3,92 e 4,50 dS m-1), associada a cinco doses de ácido salicílico (AS) (0,00; 0,22; 0,75; 1,28 e 1,50 mM), com quatro repetições e cada parcela composta por três plantas. Aos 40 dias após a semeadura, foram determinados a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas, área foliar, vazamento de eletrólito, teor relativo de água e massa seca total. A CEa e a aplicação de AS influenciaram no crescimento e nas alterações fisiológicas das mudas de berinjela. O aumento da CEa reduziu o crescimento na ausência de AS. O dano de membrana com o uso de AS manteve-se estável até 3,9 dS m-1 de CEa. O conteúdo relativo de água independentemente da CEa aumentou com 1 mM de SA. O uso de AS na concentração de 1 mM mitigou o efeito deletério da salinidade no crescimento das mudas até 2,50 dS m-1 de CEa.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 399, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36693889

RESUMO

Metabolic changes in immune cells contribute to both physiological and pathophysiological outcomes of immune reactions. Here, by comparing protein expression, transcriptome, and salivary metabolome profiles of uninfected and HIV+ individuals, we found perturbations of polyamine metabolism in the oral mucosa of HIV+ patients. Mechanistic studies using an in vitro human tonsil organoid infection model revealed that HIV infection of T cells also resulted in increased polyamine synthesis, which was dependent on the activities of caspase-1, IL-1ß, and ornithine decarboxylase-1. HIV-1 also led to a heightened expression of polyamine synthesis intermediates including ornithine decarboxylase-1 as well as an elevated dysfunctional regulatory T cell (TregDys)/T helper 17 (Th17) cell ratios. Blockade of caspase-1 and polyamine synthesis intermediates reversed the TregDys phenotype showing the direct role of polyamine pathway in altering T cell functions during HIV-1 infection. Lastly, oral mucosal TregDys/Th17 ratios and CD4 hyperactivation positively correlated with salivary putrescine levels, which were found to be elevated in the saliva of HIV+ patients. Thus, by revealing the role of aberrantly increased polyamine synthesis during HIV infection, our study unveils a mechanism by which chronic viral infections could drive distinct T cell effector programs and Treg dysfunction.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Caspases
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12351, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629524

RESUMO

In cycling, there is a body of evidence that supports that an all-out start strategy is superior to an even-pacing strategy, but it is unknown whether an all-out start strategy is superior to a self-paced strategy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three different pacing strategies on 4-km cycling time trial performance. After preliminary trials (familiarization trials and a baseline 4-km cycling time trial), in a randomized and counterbalanced order, twelve male cyclists (32.3±7.2 years old, maximum rate of O2 uptake (V̇O2peak) 4.3±0.4 L/min) completed: 1) a self-paced 4-km cycling time trial; 2) an all-out start (∼10 s), followed by maintenance of the average baseline trial power for the first km and self-paced cycling for the remaining trial (all-out+mean); and 3) an all-out start (∼10 s), followed by a power 5% above the average baseline trial power for the first km and self-paced cycling for the remaining trial (all-out+5%mean). Although there was a significant interaction between power and distance (P=0.001) with different power distribution profiles throughout the trial, there was no significant difference (P=0.99) between the three strategies for overall exercise performance (self-paced 379.8±13.9 s, all-out+mean 380.0±16.0 s, and all-out+5%mean 380.2±11.5 s). Oxygen uptake, rating of perceived effort, and heart rate were also similar across the pacing strategies. Different all-out start strategies did not confer additional benefits to performance compared to a self-paced strategy.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
5.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 117001, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565496

RESUMO

Ethanol production has increased over the years, and Brazil ranking second in the world using sugarcane as the main raw material. However, 10-15 L of vinasse are generated per liter of ethanol produced. Besides large volumes, this wastewater has high polluting potential due to its low pH and high concentrations of organic matter and nutrients. Given the high biodegradability of the organic matter, the treatment of this effluent by anaerobic digestion and membrane separation processes results in the generation of high value-added byproducts such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biohydrogen and biogas. Membrane bioreactors have been widely evaluated due to the high efficiency achieved in vinasse treatment. In recent years, high retention membrane bioreactors, in which high retention membranes (nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis and membrane distillation) are combined with biological processes, have gained increasing attention. This paper presents a critical review focused on high retention membrane bioreactors and the challenges associated with the proposed configurations. For nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR), the main drawback is the higher fouling propensity due to the hydraulic driving force. Nonetheless, the development of membranes with high permeability and anti-fouling properties is uprising. Regarding osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), special attention is needed for the selection of a proper draw solution, which desirably should be low cost, have high osmolality, reduce reverse salt flux, and can be easily reconcentrated. Membrane distillation bioreactor (MDBR) also exhibit some shortcomings, with emphasis on energy demand, that can be solved with the use of low-grade and residual heat, or renewable energies. Among the configurations, MDBR seems to be more advantageous for sugarcane vinasse treatment due to the lower energy consumption provided by the use of waste heat from the effluent, and due to the VFAs recovery, which has high added value.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Reatores Biológicos , Osmose , Biocombustíveis , Etanol , Purificação da Água/métodos
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 106(2): 974-989, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526464

RESUMO

The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of supplementing 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol, CAL) compared with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol, CHOL) at 1 or 3 mg/d in late gestation on production outcomes of dairy cows. One hundred thirty-three parous and 44 nulliparous pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment. Cows were blocked by parity and previous lactation milk yield (parous) or genetic merit (nulliparous) and assigned randomly to receive 1 or 3 mg/d of CAL or CHOL in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (CAL1, CAL3, CHOL1, and CHOL3). Treatments were provided to individual cows as a top-dress to the prepartum diet from 250 d in gestation until parturition. The prepartum diet had a dietary cation-anion difference of -128 mEq/kg of dry matter. Production and disease were evaluated for the first 42 d in milk, and reproduction was evaluated to 300 d in milk. Incidence of postpartum diseases did not differ among treatments. Feeding CAL compared with CHOL increased yields of colostrum and colostrum fat, protein, and total solids, resulting in an increased amount of net energy for lactation secreted as colostrum (CHOL = 7.0 vs. CAL = 9.0 ± 0.7 Mcal). An interaction between source and amount was observed for milk yield: CAL3 increased milk yield compared with CHOL3 (CHOL3 = 34.1 vs. CAL3 = 38.7 ± 1.4 kg/d) but milk yield did not differ between CAL1 and CHOL1 (CHOL1 = 36.9 vs. CAL1 = 36.4 ± 1.4 kg/d). Concentrations of serum calcidiol on day of calving and average serum Ca from d 2 to 11 postpartum were positively associated with milk yield in the first 42 d in milk. Interactions between source and amount of vitamin D were also observed for pregnancy after first AI: the percentage of cows receiving CHOL1 and CAL3 that became pregnant was smaller than that of cows receiving CHOL3 and CAL1. However, pregnancy per AI and pregnancy by 300 d in milk did not differ among treatments. Overall, CAL3 increased milk yield compared with CHOL3, whereas in cows fed 1 mg/d (CAL1 and CHOL1), the source of vitamin D generally had no effect. The effect of CAL3 may be explained in part by serum CAL concentrations and postpartum serum Ca, which were associated with milk yield.


Assuntos
Calcifediol , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto , Lactação , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Paridade , Vitaminas/metabolismo
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 106(2): 954-973, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543649

RESUMO

The objectives of the experiment were to determine the effects of supplementing 2 amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcidiol; CAL) compared with equal amounts of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; CHOL) on serum concentrations, absorptions, and retentions of Ca, Mg, and P in periparturient dairy cows. One hundred seventy-seven (133 parous and 44 nulliparous) pregnant Holstein cows were enrolled in the experiment. Cows were blocked by parity and previous lactation milk yield (parous) or genetic merit for energy-corrected milk yield (nulliparous) and assigned randomly to receive 1 or 3 mg/d of CAL or CHOL in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were provided to individual cows as a top-dress to the prepartum diet from 250 d gestation until parturition. The prepartum diet had a dietary cation-anion difference of -128 mEq/kg of dry matter. All cows were fed a common postpartum diet containing 46 µg of vitamin D3/kg of dry matter without further supplementation of treatments. Concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, Ca, Mg, and P in serum were measured pre- and postpartum, in addition to total-tract digestibility and urinary excretion of Ca, Mg, and P in the prepartum period. Feeding 3 mg compared with 1 mg of CAL increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (CAL1 = 94 vs. CAL3 = 173 ± 3 ng/mL). In comparison, the increment in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 from feeding 3 mg compared with 1 mg of CHOL was small (CHOL1 = 58 vs. CHOL3 = 64 ± 3 ng/mL). Feeding CAL increased prepartum concentration of P in serum compared with CHOL (CHOL = 1.87 vs. CAL = 2.01 ± 0.02 mM), regardless of the amount fed, but neither source nor amount affected prepartum Ca or Mg in serum. Feeding CAL increased serum Ca and P for the first 11 d postpartum compared with CHOL (CHOL = 2.12 vs. CAL = 2.16 ± 0.01 mM serum Ca; CHOL = 1.70 vs. CAL = 1.78 ± 0.02 mM serum P) but the amount of vitamin D did not affect postpartum concentrations of Ca, Mg, and P in serum. Feeding CAL increased prepartum apparent digestibility of Ca compared with CHOL (CHOL = 26.6 vs. CAL = 33.5 ± 2.8%) but treatments did not affect Ca retention prepartum. Neither source nor amount of vitamin D affected Mg and P apparent digestibility, but CAL decreased the concentration of P excreted in urine during the prepartum period (CHOL = 1.8 vs. CAL = 0.8 ± 0.3 g/d). Calcidiol tended to increase the amount of Ca secreted in colostrum (CHOL = 9.1 vs. CAL = 11.2 ± 0.9 g/d) and Ca excreted in urine postpartum (CHOL = 0.4 vs. CAL = 0.6 ± 0.1 g/d) compared with CHOL. Collectively, feeding CAL at 1 or 3 mg/d compared with CHOL in the last 24 d of gestation is an effective way to increase periparturient serum P concentration and postpartum serum Ca of dairy cows fed a prepartum diet with negative DCAD.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Vitamina D , Gravidez , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Magnésio , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fósforo , Dieta/veterinária , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta , Vitaminas , Lactação , Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto
8.
J Helminthol ; 96: e86, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454026

RESUMO

The giant African land snail, Achatina fulica, is an important invasive species in many countries, where it causes losses in biodiversity and agriculture, as well as impacting the health of both humans and animals, as the intermediate host of medically important nematodes. The present study is based on a comprehensive review of the literature on the nematodes that have been found in association with A. fulica, worldwide. We searched a number of different databases and used the findings to investigate the methods used to extract and identify the nematodes, their larval stages, and environment and collecting procedures of the infected molluscs. Between 1965 and 2021, 11 nematode species were recorded in association with A. fulica in 21 countries. Most of the studies recorded associations between A. fulica and Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which causes cerebral angiostrongyliasis in humans and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, which provokes pneumonia in felines. The nematodes were extracted primarily by artificial digestion with hydrochloric acid or pepsin, and identified based on their morphology or through experimental infection to obtain the adult. In most cases, the nematodes were at larval stage L3, and the infected A. fulica were collected from anthropogenic environments. The results demonstrate the importance of A. fulica as a host of nematodes of medical and veterinary importance, as well the contribution of anthropogenic environments to the occurrence of the parasites, and give information about the different methods used to collect and identify the nematodes found associated with this species.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Infecções por Strongylida , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Aves , Alimentos , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Larva , Caramujos
9.
Chempluschem ; : e202200362, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456470

RESUMO

The general tool of fluorescent PET (photoinduced electron transfer) sensors/switches - a molecular design principle with engineering features - is outlined, with the aid of frontier orbital energy diagrams. Fluorophores such as anthracene, 1,3-diaryl-Δ2 -pyrazolines and 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimides are employed within this system, alongside receptors such as amines, carboxylates, crown ethers and amino acids. This tool appealed to a multinational corporation for building a medical analyzer for electrolytes such as Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ and gases like CO2 , which became a commercially successful application. Finally, the tool was a springboard for chemistry to cross into computer science. The field of molecular logic can elucidate how molecules inside us handle information. Molecular examples of the simplest logic gates such as YES, NOT, OR, AND are described. A case of a human-level computation - visual edge detection - is also included.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microinvasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCmi) is an incipient stage of oral cancer. Through this systematic review, we aim to assess patterns of histopathological outcomes reported in OSCCmi cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online search in major databases was performed without period restriction, and 2,024 publications in English, Spanish and Portuguese were obtained. After screening and eligibility, 4 studies were selected. The risk of bias was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. A descriptive synthesis was conducted. RESULTS: All 4 publications included were retrospective, reporting a total of 116 OSCCmi patients, with a male predominance (1.6:1) and a mean age of 55.9 years. The main parameters considered for microinvasion were tumor thickness (TT) (range 4-10mm) and depth of invasion (DOI) (range 0,02-5mm). Definition, cut-off values, and assessment of microscopic features were not standardized. Other relevant measures such as perineural or lymphovascular invasion and pattern of invasive front were barely described, and cytological/architectural characteristics were not discussed. CONCLUSIONS: TT and DOI are currently the primary histopathological criteria used to define OSCCmi. Nonetheless, the outcomes of this systematic review showed the absence of standardized quantitative parameters to render the diagnosis of microinvasive OSCC. Therefore, additional studies aiming to standardize histopathological features to diagnose OSCCmi are paramount.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the barriers faced by Brazilian dentists to deliver bad news (DBN) about oral and oropharyngeal cancer diagnoses to patients by using a questionnaire based on the guidelines of the SPIKES protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study. The questionnaire contained 27 questions based on the SPIKES protocol, which were answered in the SurveyMonkey platform. RESULTS: A total of 186/249 dentists answered the questionnaire. The main specialties reported were 36.02% oral medicine, 21.5% oral pathology, and 9.13% oral and maxillofacial surgery. A total of 44.6% expressed concern about the patient's emotional reactions, and 46.24% of respondents had never participated in any specific training to communicate bad news. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of training and low confidence in dealing with patients' emotional reactions dentists were considered the greatest barriers to DBNs. Moreover, most dentists who participated in the survey believe that a protocol to guide the communication of bad news would be useful for clinical practice. For those protocols to be used by dentists, training is critical for these protocols to be incorporated by professionals.

12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 1058925, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568967

RESUMO

Communication between developing progenitor cells as well as differentiated neurons and glial cells in the nervous system is made through direct cell contacts and chemical signaling mediated by different molecules. Several of these substances are synthesized and released by developing cells and play roles since early stages of Central Nervous System development. The chicken retina is a very suitable model for neurochemical studies, including the study of regulation of signaling pathways during development. Among advantages of the model are its very well-known histogenesis, the presence of most neurotransmitter systems found in the brain and the possibility to make cultures of neurons and/or glial cells where many neurochemical functions develop in a similar way than in the intact embryonic tissue. In the chicken retina, some neurotransmitters or neuromodulators as dopamine, adenosine, and others are coupled to cyclic AMP production or adenylyl cyclase inhibition since early stages of development. Other substances as vitamin C and nitric oxide are linked to the major neurotransmitter glutamate and AKT metabolism. All these different systems regulate signaling pathways, including PKA, PKG, SRC, AKT and ERK, and the activation of the transcription factor CREB. Dopamine and adenosine stimulate cAMP accumulation in the chick embryo retina through activation of D1 and A2a receptors, respectively, but the onset of dopamine stimulation is much earlier than that of adenosine. However, adenosine can inhibit adenylyl cyclase and modulate dopamine-dependent cAMP increase since early developmental stages through A1 receptors. Dopamine stimulates different PKA as well as EPAC downstream pathways both in intact tissue and in culture as the CSK-SRC pathway modulating glutamate NMDA receptors as well as vitamin C release and CREB phosphorylation. By the other hand, glutamate modulates nitric oxide production and AKT activation in cultured retinal cells and this pathway controls neuronal survival in retina. Glutamate and adenosine stimulate the release of vitamin C and this vitamin regulates the transport of glutamate, activation of NMDA receptors and AKT phosphorylation in cultured retinal cells. In the present review we will focus on these reciprocal interactions between neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and different signaling pathways during retinal development.

13.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2022 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534358

RESUMO

Emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases represent one of the main threats to people worldwide. To properly understand and prevent zoonoses is fundamental to study their epidemiology and the possibility of spillover events, especially for commercially intensive domestic animals and humans. Here, we studied 210 wild birds from the "Ipucas" region, which consists of fragments of the Amazon Forest interspersed with fragments of the "Cerrado" that is subject to seasonal flooding and 75 domestic birds from neighboring poultry farming. Then, we molecularly diagnosed Salmonella and Chlamydia from wild birds and poultry. Among the wild birds, four were diagnosed with Chlamydia psittaci and 23 with Salmonella spp., while we detected 15 poultry infected by Salmonella spp. and no poultry with C. psittaci. We highlighted the common infections of wild and domestic birds in an anthropologically modified environment and potential spillover of Salmonella pathogens among wild and livestock birds. Those infections can harm the health of native and domestic species.

14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12375, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515351

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Dicer, Drosha, and Exportin-5 in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with adenomyosis. Twenty-two paired ectopic and eutopic endometrium from women with adenomyosis and 10 eutopic endometrium samples from control women undergoing hysterectomy were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were cut and stained for immunohistochemistry. The percentage of epithelial cells positively marked was identified digitally after an automated slide scanning process. Mann-Whitney test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for independent and paired groups, respectively. A lower expression of Drosha was observed in the eutopic endometrium of women with adenomyosis than in the eutopic endometrium of women without the disease (69.9±3.4% vs 85.2±2.9%, respectively) (P=0.016; 95%CI: 3.4 to 27.4%). We also detected lower Drosha expression in the ectopic endometrium of women with adenomyosis than in the eutopic endometrium of the same women (59.6±3.2% vs 69.9±3.4%, respectively) (P=0.004; 95%CI: 2.3 to 16.7%). Additionally, we observed a correlation between Drosha expression in the ectopic and paired eutopic endometrium (P=0.034, rho=0.454). No significant difference in Dicer or Exportin expression was observed. Predominant pattern of cytoplasmic staining for the anti-Drosha antibody and both a nuclear and cytoplasmic pattern for the anti-Exportin antibody were observed. Drosha expression was significantly lower in the endometrium of women with adenomyosis compared to the eutopic endometrium of asymptomatic women without the disease. Furthermore, its expression was lower in the ectopic endometrium but correlated to the paired eutopic endometrium.


Assuntos
Adenomiose , Endometriose , Feminino , Humanos , Adenomiose/metabolismo , Endométrio/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Histerectomia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Endometriose/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo
15.
Physiol Res ; 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36545875

RESUMO

Asthma poses an increased risk for cardiovascular disorders, suggesting that allergy, which is an underlying process in asthma, causes atypical functioning of organs other than lungs. In a previous study in a guinea pig asthma model, we concluded that allergic sensitization increased aorta contractile responses to 5-HT. To further characterize these responses, here we explored the role of the 5-HT2 receptors family. We found that TCB-2 (5-HT2A agonist) and WAY161503 (5-HT2C agonist) induced aorta contractions resembling those elicited by 5-HT but less intense (~43% and ~25%, respectively). In these experiments, aortas from sensitized guinea pigs showed increased contractions to TCB-2, but not to WAY161503. In turn, MDL 100907 (5-HT2A antagonist) and RS-102221 (5-HT2C antagonist) caused a notably and a mild reduction of the 5-HT-induced contractions, respectively, with no differences seen between sensitized and non-sensitized tissues. BW723C86 (5-HT2B agonist) did not induce contractile responses and RS-127445 (5-HT2B antagonist) did not modify the contractile responses to 5-HT. In non-sensitized aortas, the pattern of protein expression of receptors was 5HT2B>5-HT2A=5-HT2C, which did not change in sensitized animals. In conclusion, we found that allergic sensitization increased the aorta contractile responses to 5-HT, partly mediated by enhanced responses of 5-HT2A receptors, which was unrelated to changes in the expression of these receptors.

16.
Clin Rehabil ; : 2692155221146086, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate extracorporeal shock wave therapy effect on knee osteoarthritis compared to a sham or kinesiotherapy by a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: The search was performed in: Cochrane Library, PubMed, PEDro, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS, and Scielo. REVIEW METHODS: We performed the online search until October, 2022. The following terms were used (Osteoarthritis) AND ("knee joint") AND ("Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy"). Eligibility criteria: (1) randomized clinical trials; (2) effects comparison of shockwave therapy to a sham or kinesiotherapy in individuals with knee osteoarthritis; (3) pain and physical function as outcome variables. Risk of bias assessed using the PEDro scale. PROSPERO registration (CRD42021235597). RESULTS: We identified 4217 studies, and 12 were included in the qualitative synthesis and the meta-analysis, totaling 403 individuals submitted to the intervention and 331 control individuals. Compared to sham, shockwave was favored in short-term for the function outcome (SMD = -1.93; 95%CI: [-2.77; -1.09]; I² = 83%; P < 0.01). For the pain outcome, the shockwave was favored in the short (MD = -2.05; 95%CI: [-2.59; -1.51]; I² = 84%; P < 0.01), medium (MD = -3.46; 95%CI: [-4.03; -2.89]; I² = 0%; P < 0.01) and long-term (MD = -2.01; 95%CI: [-3.36; -0.65]; I² = 98%; P < 0.01). The association with kinesiotherapy was favored in the short term for the function outcome (SMD = -1.88; 95%CI: [-2.98; -0.78]; I² = 94%; P < 0.01) and favored for the pain outcome in the short (MD = -1.44; 95%CI: [-1.81; -1.07]; I² = 37%; P = 0.14), medium (MD = -1,31; 95%CI: [-1.76; -0,85]; I² = 0%; P = 0.41), and long terms (MD = -1.63; 95%CI: [-1.73; -1.52]; I² = 0%; P = 0.43). CONCLUSION: Shockwave therapy may improve functionality in patients with knee osteoarthritis in the short term and pain in all follow-up moments, compared with sham. When associated to kinesiotherapy, it may improve function in the short term and pain in all follow-up time points, although improvement in pain may not be clinically significant.

17.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383804

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the muscle function, architecture, and composition of long-distance master runners, and verify the association between age and these variables. Additionally, different clusters of runners were compared based on age and training variables. Forty male runners (≥50 years) reported their training routine and had their muscle function evaluated through maximum knee extensor isometric peak torque (PT) assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. The cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL), muscle thickness (MT), and echo intensity (EI) were evaluated through ultrasound (muscle architecture and composition). The participants were 58.7±6.2 years old and had been training for 18.4±10.3 years, 4 sessions/week with 298.8±164.7 min/week of training. The absolute torque was 226.92±63.44 N·m, and the specific torque (PT/CSA) was 7.29±3.78 N·m/cm2. Regarding muscle architecture, the phase angle was 17.34±4°, the fascicle angle 6.78±1.04 cm, muscle thickness 2.93±0.56 cm, and the cross-sectional area 21.24±5.88 cm2. Concerning muscle composition, the master runners showed echo intensity values of 62.05±11.68 AU. The analysis demonstrated a weak and negative association between age and some muscle architecture variables (CSA and MT) and muscle function (PT). No association was verified between age and muscle composition (EI). Age partially explained CSA, MT, and muscle function changes (13, 11, and 14%, respectively). Participants' high level of physical training might have contributed to the low association between these variables and the lack of association with muscle composition.


Assuntos
Joelho , Músculo Esquelético , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Torque , Articulação do Joelho , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps
18.
Chem Sci ; 13(36): 10856-10867, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320709

RESUMO

Shape-switchable cyclophane hosts allow the controlled capture and release of reactive polypyridineRu(ii) complexes in water. This gives rise to a network of host-guest binding, acid-base reactions in ground and excited states, and chemical redox interconversions. In the case of (2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole)Ru(ii) complexes, several molecular logic gate arrays of varying complexity emerge as a result. Cyclophane-induced 'off-on' switching of luminescence in neutral solution is found to originate from two features of these aromatic hosts: enhancement of radiative decay by the polarizable host and the suppression of nonradiative decay involving deprotonation by reducing the water content within the deep host cavity. These are examples of nanometric coordination chemistry/physics being controlled by inclusion in an open box. The aromatic units of the macrocycle are also responsible for the shape-switching mechanism of wall collapse/erection.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e265069, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327399

RESUMO

Salt stress caused by excess salts present in irrigation water, is one of the biggest barriers in agricultural production, especially in semi-arid regions. Thus, the use of substances, such as salicylic acid, that minimize the deleterious effects of salinity on plants can be an alternative to ensure satisfactory production. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different methods of application of salicylic acid on the growth, production and water use efficiency of cherry tomato plants under salt stress. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, using an Entisol soil with a sandy loam texture. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2×4 factorial arrangement, corresponding to two levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water - ECw (0.6 and 2.6 dS m-1) and four methods of application of salicylic acid (Control - without application of SA; via spraying; via irrigation and via spraying and irrigation), with five replicates and one plant per plot. The salicylic acid concentration used in the different methods was 1.0 mM. Application of salicylic acid via foliar spraying increased the growth, production and water use efficiency of cherry tomato plants. The salt stress induced by the electrical conductivity of 2.6 dS m-1 was attenuated by the foliar application of salicylic acid. The use of water of 2.6 dS m-1 associated with the application of salicylic acid via irrigation water further intensified the adverse effects of salinity on cherry tomato plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Água
20.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318449

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Aging is associated with changes in glucose homeostasis related to both decreased insulin secretion and/or impaired insulin action, contributing to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the elderly population. Additionally, studies are showing that chronically high levels of circulating insulin can also lead to insulin resistance. In contrast, physical exercise has been a strategy used to improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. However, the molecular alterations resulting from the effects of physical exercise in the liver on age-related hyperinsulinemia conditions are not yet fully established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 7 days of aerobic exercise on hepatic metabolism in aged hyperinsulinemic rats (i.e., Wistar and F344) and in Slc2a4+/- mice (hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic mice). RESULTS: Both aged models showed alterations in insulin and glucose tolerance, which were associated with essential changes in hepatic fat metabolism (lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation). In contrast, 7 days of physical exercise was efficient in improving whole-body glucose and insulin sensitivity, and hepatic metabolism. The Slc2a4+/- mice presented significant metabolic impairments (insulin resistance and hepatic fat accumulation) that were improved by short-term exercise training. In this scenario, high circulating insulin may be an important contributor to age-related insulin resistance and hepatic disarrangements in some specific conditions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data demonstrated that short-term aerobic exercise was able to control mechanisms related to hepatic fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity in aged rodents. These effects could contribute to late-life metabolic health and prevent the development/progression of age-related T2D.

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