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1.
Obes Surg ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Weight loss due to gastric bypass (GBP) surgery improves clinical outcomes and may be a cost-effective intervention. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of GBP compared to clinical treatment in severely obese individuals with and without diabetes in the perspective of the Brazilian public health system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov model was developed to compare costs and outcomes of gastric bypass in an open approach to clinical treatment. Health states were living with diabetes, remission of diabetes, non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction, and death. We also included the occurrence of complications related to surgery and plastic surgery after the gastric bypass surgery. The direct costs were obtained from primary data collection performed in three public reference centers for obesity treatment. Utility values also derived from this cohort, while transition probabilities came from the international literature. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate uncertainties. The model considered a 10-year time horizon and a 5% discount rate. RESULTS: Over 10 years, GBP increased quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and costs compared to clinical treatment, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Int$1820.17/QALY and Int$1937.73/QALY in individuals with and without diabetes, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that utility values and direct costs of treatments were the parameters that affected the most the ICERs. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that GBP is a cost-effective intervention for severely obese individuals in the Brazilian public health system perspective, with a better result in individuals with diabetes.

2.
Int J Public Health ; 64(6): 965-974, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct healthcare costs of spinal disorders in Brazil over 2016. METHODS: This is a prevalence-based cost-of-illness study with a top-down approach from the perspective of the public healthcare system. All international Classification of Diseases codes related to spinal disorders were included. The following costs were obtained: (1) hospitalization; medical professional service costs; intensive care unit costs; companion daily stay; (2) outpatient (services/procedures). Data were analyzed descriptively and costs presented in US$. RESULTS: The healthcare system spent US$ 71.4 million, and inpatient care represented 58%. The number of inpatient days was 250,426, and there were 36,654 hospital admissions (dorsalgia and disk disorders representing 70% of the costs). More than 114,000 magnetic resonance scans and 107,000 computerized tomography scans were adopted. Men had more inpatient days (138,215) than women (112,211). Overall, the inpatient/outpatient cost ratio was twice as high for men. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the direct costs of spinal disorders in Brazil in 2016 were considerable. We also found a substantial amount of financial resources spent on diagnostic imaging. This is relevant as the routine use of diagnostic imaging for back pain is discouraged in international guidelines.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 581, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inadequate management of solid waste impacts populations' health and quality of life, and disproportionately affects developing countries. This study aims to describe a protocol for epidemiological diagnosis, the purpose being to estimate the prevalence of chronic and communicable and non communicable diseases in waste pickers, and the occupational and environmental risk factors to which these are exposed. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, based on survey design in an area of extreme social vulnerability - the largest garbage dump in Latin America. Using a multidimensional research protocol, divided in three stages: 1- The identification of the subjects, and the scheduling of tests; 2- Situational diagnosis through interviews, anthropometric evaluation, measuring blood pressure, collecting hair and nail samples to detect exposure to heavy metals and undertaking laboratory tests; 3- The return of the waste pickers to receive the test results, followed by referral to the health team and to report occupational accidents. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-five waste pickers undertook tests and interviews. The majority were women (67.0%), with 36-45 years old (45.7%), and 96.0% had children. In total, 27.3% of the participants did not attend to any school and 47.7% were educated only up to primary level. The majority of waste pickers (68.70%) reported accidents and most of them (89.69%) were related to sharp objects. The mean time working in this open dump was 15 years. According the anthropometric measure, 32.6% were overweight and 21.1% were obese. The most common reported diseases were: osteomuscular disorders (78.7%); arboviruses (28.6%); episodic diarrhea (24.9%); hypertension (24.2%); bronchitis (14.3%); intestinal worms (12.6%) and diabetes (10.1%). According to the blood tests, the values outside the reference limits were: Uric acid (23.89%); creatinine (54.06%); GGT range (16.04%); SGOT - Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (5.29%); SGPT - serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (35.52%). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to evaluate multiple risks and diseases in the majority of waste pickers working in the largest garbage dump of a continent. These findings highlight the importance to address urgently the environmental, social and health impacts related to the management of solid waste in developmental countries to protect these workers and their families.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos de Alimentos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Resíduos Sólidos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco
4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(1): 66-76, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is a rare disease characterized by the arylsulfatase B enzyme deficiency, which is responsible for different clinical manifestations. The treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous administration of galsulfase. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of the enzyme replacement therapy with galsulfase for the mucopolysaccharidosis VI treatment. METHOD: Systematic review of observational studies. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, and Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease were reviewed. The selection of studies, data mining, and methodological quality assessment were independently conducted by two authors. RESULTS: Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were cohorts, one was longitudinal study, one was cross-sectional, one was a case-control, eight were case series, and five were case reports. A total of 362 participants with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI were evaluated, and 14 different outcomes related to the treatment effect were identified. Seven outcomes showed positive results, characterized by the patient survival, quality of life, respiratory function, joint mobility, physical resistance, reduction of urinary glycosaminoglycans, and growth. The hearing function and the cognitive development were stable after the treatment. Other outcomes related to the cardiac function, visual acuity, sleep apnea, and the size of the liver and spleen presented inconclusive outcomes. Concerning safety, light adverse reactions of hypersensitivity were reported. CONCLUSION: This review provided a broader panoramic view of the outcomes related to mucopolysaccharidosis type VI. Regardless of the inherent limitations of observational studies, the outcomes indicate that the enzyme replacement therapy has a positive effect on most of the outcomes associated to the disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) has been used for decades in different countries to reduce hospitalization rates, with favorable clinical and economic outcomes. This study assesses the cost-utility of OPAT compared to inpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (IPAT) from the perspective of a public university hospital and the Brazilian National Health System (Unified Health System -SUS). METHODS: Prospective study with adult patients undergoing OPAT at an infusion center, compared to IPAT. Clinical outcomes and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were assessed, as well as a micro-costing. Cost-utility analysis from the hospital and SUS perspectives were conducted by means of a decision tree, within a 30-day horizon time. RESULTS: Forty cases of OPAT (1112 days) were included and monitored, with a favorable outcome in 97.50%. OPAT compared to IPAT generated overall savings of 31.86% from the hospital perspective and 26.53% from the SUS perspective. The intervention reduced costs, with an incremental cost-utility ratio of -44,395.68/QALY for the hospital and -48,466.70/QALY for the SUS, with better cost-utility for treatment times greater than 14 days. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the model. CONCLUSION: Our economic assessment demonstrated that, in the Brazilian context, OPAT is a cost-saving strategy both for hospitals and for the SUS.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0203992, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273345

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease, with a high economic impact on health systems. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) attributable to diabetes, stratified by sex, race/skin color, and age, from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system between 2010 and 2016. METHODS: Population attributable risk (PAR) was calculated from the Brazilian prevalence of diabetes and the relative risk (or odds ratio) of persons with diabetes developing CKD and ESKD as compared to non-diabetic subjects. The variables of interest were sex, race/skin color, and age. A top-down approach was used to measure the direct costs of the disease reimbursed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, using data from outpatient and inpatient records. RESULTS: The cost of CKD and ESKD attributable to diabetes in the period 2010-2016 was US$1.2 billion (US$180 million per year) and trending upward. Female sex, age 65-75, and black race/skin color contributed substantially to the costs of CKD and ESKD (US$475 million, US$63 million, and US$25 million respectively). The clinical procedures accounting for the greatest share of disease-attributable costs are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. CONCLUSION: Diabetes accounted for 22% of the costs of CKD and ESKD. Female sex, age 65-75 years, and black race/skin color were the variables which contributed most to disease-related expenditure. The economic burden of CKD may increase gradually in the coming years, with serious implications for the financial sustainability of the Brazilian public health system.

7.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136255

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mucopolysaccharidosis VI is a rare disease characterized by the arylsulfatase B enzyme deficiency, which is responsible for different clinical manifestations. The treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous administration of galsulfase. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of the enzyme replacement therapy with galsulfase for the mucopolysaccharidosis VI treatment. METHOD: Systematic review of observational studies. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, and Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease were reviewed. The selection of studies, data mining, and methodological quality assessment were independently conducted by two authors. RESULTS: Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were cohorts, one was longitudinal study, one was cross-sectional, one was a case-control, eight were case series, and five were case reports. A total of 362 participants with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI were evaluated, and 14 different outcomes related to the treatment effect were identified. Seven outcomes showed positive results, characterized by the patient survival, quality of life, respiratory function, joint mobility, physical resistance, reduction of urinary glycosaminoglycans, and growth. The hearing function and the cognitive development were stable after the treatment. Other outcomes related to the cardiac function, visual acuity, sleep apnea, and the size of the liver and spleen presented inconclusive outcomes. Concerning safety, light adverse reactions of hypersensitivity were reported. CONCLUSION: This review provided a broader panoramic view of the outcomes related to mucopolysaccharidosis type VI. Regardless of the inherent limitations of observational studies, the outcomes indicate that the enzyme replacement therapy has a positive effect on most of the outcomes associated to the disease.

8.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 51, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid response in health technology assessment is a synthesis of the best available evidence prepared in a timely manner to meet specific demands. We build a consensus among Brazilian specialists in health technology assessment to propose guidelines for the development of rapid response. METHODS: Based on a systematic review that proposed eight methodological steps to conduct rapid response, we applied a modified Delphi technique (without open questions in the first round) to reach consensus among Brazilian experts in health technology assessment. Twenty participants were invited to judge the feasibility of each methodological step in a five-point Likert scale. Consensus was reached if the step had 70% positive approval or interquartile range ≤ 1. RESULTS: The achievement of consensus was reached in the second round. Between the first and the second round, we scrutinized all points reported by the experts. The Delphi panel reached consensus of eight steps: definition of the structured question of rapid response (with a restricted scope); definition of the eligibility criteria for study types (preferably systematic reviews); search strategy (language and data limits) and sources of information (minimum two); selection of studies (independently by two responders); critical appraisal of the included studies and the risk of bias for the outcomes of interest; data extraction from the included articles; summary of evidence; and preparation of the report. CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines for rapid response in health technology assessment may help governments to make better decisions in a short period of time (35 days). The adoption of methodological processes should improve both the quality and consistency of health technology assessments of rapid decisions in the Brazilian setting.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34972

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To evaluate the Programa Mais Médicos (More Doctors Program; PMM) in Brazil by estimating the proportional increase in the number of doctors in participating municipalities and the program costs, stratified by cost component and funding source. Methods. Official data from the 2013 edition of Demografia Médica no Brasil (Medical Demography in Brazil) was used to estimate the number of doctors prior to PMM. The number of doctors at the end of the fourth PMM recruiting cycle (July 2014) was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Cost components were identified and estimated based on PMM legislation and guidelines. The participating municipalities were chosen based on four criteria, all related to vulnerability. Results. The PMM provided an additional 14 462 physicians to highly vulnerable, remote areas in 3 785 municipalities (68% of the total) and 34 Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts. There was a greater increase of physicians in the poorest regions (North and Northeast). The estimated annual cost of US$ 1.1 billion covered medical provision, continuing education, and supervision/mentoring. Funding was largely centralized at the federal level (92.6%). Conclusion. The cost of PMM is considered relatively moderate in comparison to its potential benefits for population health. The greater increase of doctors for the poorest and most vulnerable met the target of correcting imbalances in health worker distribution. The PMM experience in Brazil can contribute to the debate on reducing physician shortages.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar el Programa “Mais Médicos” en el Brasil mediante el cálculo del aumento proporcional del número de médicos en los municipios participantes y los costos del programa, con estratificación por componente del costo y fuente de financiamiento. Métodos. Se utilizaron datos oficiales de la edición del 2013 de Demografia médica no Brasil [demografía médica en el Brasil] para calcular el número de médicos antes del Programa “Mais Medicos”. El número de médicos al final del cuarto ciclo de reclutamiento del programa (julio del 2014) se obtuvo del Ministerio de Salud. Se determinaron y calcularon los componentes de costos sobre la base de la legislación y las directrices del programa. Se eligieron los municipios participantes según cuatro criterios, todos relacionados con la vulnerabilidad. Resultados. Mediante el Programa “Mais Médicos” se destinaron 14 462 médicos más a zonas sumamente vulnerables y remotas en 3 785 municipios (68% del total) y 34 distritos sanitarios indígenas especiales. El aumento del número de médicos fue mayor en las zonas más pobres (al Norte y Nordeste). El costo anual estimado de US$ 1 100 millones incluyó la dotación de médicos, la educación continua y la supervisión y tutoría. El financiamiento estuvo principalmente centralizado en el nivel federal (92,6%). Conclusiones. Se considera que el costo del Programa “Mais Médicos” es relativamente moderado en relación con los posibles beneficios para la salud de la población. Con el mayor aumento de la dotación de médicos en las poblaciones más pobres y vulnerables se cumplió el objetivo de corregir los desequilibrios en la distribución del personal de salud. La experiencia de este programa en el Brasil puede contribuir al debate sobre cómo paliar la escasez de médicos.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar o Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil estimando o aumento proporcional do número de médicos nos municípios participantes e os custos do programa, estratificado pelo componente de custo e fonte de financiamento. Métodos. Os dados oficiais da edição de Demografia médica no Brasil de 2013 foram usados para estimar o número de médicos anterior ao PMM. O número de médicos ao final do quarto ciclo de recrutamento do PMM (julho de 2014) foi fornecido pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os componentes de custo foram identificados e calculados de acordo com a legislação e as diretrizes do PMM. Os municípios participantes foram selecionados segundo quatro critérios relacionados à vulnerabilidade. Resultados. O PMM proveu um adicional de 14.462 médicos para áreas remotas bastante vulneráveis em 3.785 municípios (68% do total) e 34 distritos sanitários especiais indígenas. Houve aumento maior do número de médicos nas regiões mais pobres (Norte e Nordeste). O custo anual estimado de US$ 1,1 bilhão cobriu provisões médicas, educação continuada e supervisão/mentoria. O financiamento foi em grande parte centralizado ao nível federal (92,6%). Conclusão. Considera-se que o custo do PMM seja relativamente moderado em relação aos benefícios em potencial à saúde da população. O aumento maior no número de médicos para atender a população mais pobres e vulnerável alcançou a meta de corrigir a má distribuição de profissionais da saúde. A experiência do PMM no Brasil pode subsidiar o debate visando reduzir a escassez de médicos.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Economia da Saúde , Brasil , Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Economia da Saúde , Brasil , Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Economia da Saúde
11.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34887

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To analyze economic evaluations of interventions related to tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics/screening, treatment, and prevention in homeless people. Methods. A systematic review was conducted. The eligibility criteria were original studies reporting economic evaluation results. The search was not restricted by language or year. A critical appraisal approach was used. Results. A total of 142 studies were identified, including five research articles (three full economic evaluations and two partial) that were selected for the final review. Most of the studies were conducted in the United States, adopted a public health perspective, and analyzed active TB. Interventions related to diagnostics/screening (the use of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and mobile screening units), treatment (incentives for continuing treatment, and housing programs), and prevention (with the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine) were identified. Conclusions. No high-quality data were found on cost-effectiveness of interventions on TB diagnostics/screening, treatment, or prevention in homeless people. However, active searching for cases via mobile screening, and financial incentives, could help increase treatment adherence, and the use of IGRA helps boost detection. TB in homeless people is neglected worldwide, especially in developing countries, where this disease tends to afflict more people made vulnerable by their precarious living conditions. Public funding mechanisms should be created to develop cross-sectoral actions targeting homeless people, as the complex dynamics of this group tend to hamper prevention and diagnosis of TB and the completion of TB treatment.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Analizar la evaluación económica de intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico y tamizaje, el tratamiento y la prevención de la tuberculosis en las personas sin hogar. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática en la cual se usó como criterio de selección estudios originales en los que se presentaran los resultados de una evaluación económica. No se restringió la búsqueda por idioma ni por año. Se usó el enfoque de la evaluación crítica. Resultados. Se encontraron en total 142 estudios, entre los cuales había cinco artículos de investigación (tres evaluaciones económicas completas y dos parciales) que se seleccionaron para la revisión final. En la mayoría de los estudios, realizados en los Estados Unidos, se adoptó una perspectiva de salud pública y se analizó la tuberculosis activa. Se encontraron intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico y tamizaje (el uso de la prueba de liberación de interferón gamma —IGRA, por su sigla en inglés— y los equipos móviles de tamizaje), el tratamiento (incentivos para continuar el tratamiento y programas de viviendas) y la prevención (el uso de la vacuna BCG). Conclusiones. No se encontraron datos de calidad alta sobre la costo-efectividad de las intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico o tamizaje, el tratamiento o la prevención de la tuberculosis en personas sin hogar. Sin embargo, la búsqueda activa de casos mediante el uso de equipos móviles para el tamizaje, así como los incentivos financieros, podrían ayudar a aumentar la adhesión al tratamiento; además, el uso de la prueba IGRA ayuda a lograr una mayor detección. La tuberculosis en las personas sin hogar se subestima en todo el mundo, especialmente en los países en desarrollo donde esta enfermedad tiende a afectar a más personas que pasan a ser vulnerables por la precariedad de sus condiciones de vida. Deben crearse mecanismos de financiamiento con fondos públicos para llevar adelante medidas intersectoriales dirigidas a las personas sin hogar, puesto que la compleja dinámica de este grupo tiende a obstaculizar tanto la prevención y el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis como la finalización del tratamiento antituberculoso.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Examinar as análises econômicas de intervenções relacionadas à prevenção, detecção precoce/diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose (TB) em pessoas sem-teto. Métodos. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. Os critérios para inclusão foram estudo original contendo resultados de análise econômica. A busca não foi restrita por idioma ou ano. Foi usada uma abordagem de análise crítica. Resultados. Foram identificados ao todo 142 estudos, dentre eles cinco artigos de pesquisa (três análises econômicas completas e duas parciais) que foram selecionados para a revisão final. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada nos Estados Unidos, partindo de uma perspectiva de saúde pública e com análise de TB ativa. Foram identificadas intervenções relacionadas à detecção precoce/diagnóstico (ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama [IGRA] e unidades móveis para prevenção), tratamento (incentivos para o tratamento continuado e programas de moradia) e prevenção (vacinação com o bacilo de Calmette-Guérin [BCG]). Conclusões. Não foram encontrados dados de alta qualidade sobre o custo-efetividade das intervenções de detecção precoce/diagnóstico, tratamento ou prevenção de TB em pessoas sem-teto. Porém, a busca ativa de casos por meio da triagem em unidades móveis e incentivos financeiros poderiam ajudar a melhorar a adesão ao tratamento e o uso do IGRA intensifica a detecção de infecção. A TB em pessoas sem-teto é uma doença negligenciada em todo o mundo, principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento onde ela costuma afligir um número maior de pessoas por sua vulnerabilidade devido às condições de vida precárias. Mecanismos públicos de financiamento devem ser criados para desenvolver ações intersetoriais voltadas aos sem-teto, porque a dinâmica complexa deste grupo dificulta a prevenção, o diagnóstico e a conclusão do tratamento de TB.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Tuberculose , Análise Custo-Benefício , Revisão , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Análise Custo-Benefício , Revisão , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Tuberculose , Análise Custo-Benefício , Revisão
12.
Saúde debate ; 42(116): 296-306, jan.-mar. 2018. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962643

RESUMO

RESUMO A Política Informada por Evidência (PIE) surgiu para identificar as melhores estratégias disponíveis, nos aproximando do processo de tomada de decisão em políticas públicas. Contudo, para que ocorra, depende do acesso ao conhecimento, que deverá ser utilizado de forma transparente e sistemática. Assim, tem-se por objetivo apresentar como valer-se da PIE, mostrando os passos necessários para utilizá-la no processo de tomada de decisão em saúde pública. Foi realizada revisão de literatura em duas bases, sendo selecionados nove estudos, após leitura completa do texto. O artigo foi dividido em três grandes blocos, cada um contendo as principais perguntas a serem respondidas durante a elaboração de uma síntese de evidência.


ABSTRACT The Evidence-informed Policy (EIP) emerged to identify the best strategies available, bringing us closer to the decision-making process in public policy. However, for this to occur, it depends on access to knowledge, which should be used in a transparent and systematic way. Thus, the goal is to present how to use the EIP, showing the steps necessary to use it in the decision-making process in public health. Literature review was carried out in two databases, being selected nine studies, after full text reading. The article was divided into three large blocks, each containing the main questions to be answered during the elaboration of a synthesis of evidence.

13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 422018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-883779

RESUMO

Objective. To evaluate the Programa Mais Médicos (More Doctors Program; PMM) in Brazil by estimating the proportional increase in the number of doctors in participating municipalities and the program costs, stratified by cost component and funding source. Methods. Official data from the 2013 edition of Demografia Médica no Brasil (Medical Demography in Brazil) was used to estimate the number of doctors prior to PMM. The number of doctors at the end of the fourth PMM recruiting cycle (July 2014) was obtained from the Ministry of Health. Cost components were identified and estimated based on PMM legislation and guidelines. The participating municipalities were chosen based on four criteria, all related to vulnerability. Results. The PMM provided an additional 14 462 physicians to highly vulnerable, remote areas in 3 785 municipalities (68% of the total) and 34 Special Indigenous Sanitary Districts. There was a greater increase of physicians in the poorest regions (North and Northeast). The estimated annual cost of US$ 1.1 billion covered medical provision, continuing education, and supervision/mentoring. Funding was largely centralized at the federal level (92.6%). Conclusion. The cost of PMM is considered relatively moderate in comparison to its potential benefits for population health. The greater increase of doctors for the poorest and most vulnerable met the target of correcting imbalances in health worker distribution. The PMM experience in Brazil can contribute to the debate on reducing physician shortages.(AU)


Objetivo. Evaluar el Programa "Mais Médicos" en el Brasil mediante el cálculo del aumento proporcional del número de médicos en los municipios participantes y los costos del programa, con estratificación por componente del costo y fuente de financiamiento. Métodos. Se utilizaron datos oficiales de la edición del 2013 de Demografia médica no Brasil [demografía médica en el Brasil] para calcular el número de médicos antes del Programa "Mais Medicos". El número de médicos al final del cuarto ciclo de reclutamiento del programa (julio del 2014) se obtuvo del Ministerio de Salud. Se determinaron y calcularon los componentes de costos sobre la base de la legislación y las directrices del programa. Se eligieron los municipios participantes según cuatro criterios, todos relacionados con la vulnerabilidad. Resultados. Mediante el Programa "Mais Médicos" se destinaron 14 462 médicos más a zonas sumamente vulnerables y remotas en 3 785 municipios (68% del total) y 34 distritos sanitarios indígenas especiales. El aumento del número de médicos fue mayor en las zonas más pobres (al Norte y Nordeste). El costo anual estimado de US$ 1 100 millones incluyó la dotación de médicos, la educación continua y la supervisión y tutoría. El financiamiento estuvo principalmente centralizado en el nivel federal (92,6%). Conclusiones. Se considera que el costo del Programa "Mais Médicos" es relativamente moderado en relación con los posibles beneficios para la salud de la población. Con el mayor aumento de la dotación de médicos en las poblaciones más pobres y vulnerables se cumplió el objetivo de corregir los desequilibrios en la distribución del personal de salud. La experiencia de este programa en el Brasil puede contribuir al debate sobre cómo paliar la escasez de médicos.(AU)


Objetivo. Avaliar o Programa Mais Médicos (PMM) no Brasil estimando o aumento proporcional do número de médicos nos municípios participantes e os custos do programa, estratificado pelo componente de custo e fonte de financiamento. Métodos. Os dados oficiais da edição de Demografia médica no Brasil de 2013 foram usados para estimar o número de médicos anterior ao PMM. O número de médicos ao final do quarto ciclo de recrutamento do PMM (julho de 2014) foi fornecido pelo Ministério da Saúde. Os componentes de custo foram identificados e calculados de acordo com a legislação e as diretrizes do PMM. Os municípios participantes foram selecionados segundo quatro critérios relacionados à vulnerabilidade. Resultados. O PMM proveu um adicional de 14.462 médicos para áreas remotas bastante vulneráveis em 3.785 municípios (68% do total) e 34 distritos sanitários especiais indígenas. Houve aumento maior do número de médicos nas regiões mais pobres (Norte e Nordeste). O custo anual estimado de US$ 1,1 bilhão cobriu provisões médicas, educação continuada e supervisão/mentoria. O financiamento foi em grande parte centralizado ao nível federal (92,6%). Conclusão. Considera-se que o custo do PMM seja relativamente moderado em rela- ção aos benefícios em potencial à saúde da população. O aumento maior no número de médicos para atender a população mais pobres e vulnerável alcançou a meta de corrigir a má distribuição de profissionais da saúde. A experiência do PMM no Brasil pode subsidiar o debate visando reduzir a escassez de médicos.(AU)


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Economia da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Brasil , Distribuição de Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e40, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961817

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze economic evaluations of interventions related to tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics/screening, treatment, and prevention in homeless people. Methods A systematic review was conducted. The eligibility criteria were original studies reporting economic evaluation results. The search was not restricted by language or year. A critical appraisal approach was used. Results A total of 142 studies were identified, including five research articles (three full economic evaluations and two partial) that were selected for the final review. Most of the studies were conducted in the United States, adopted a public health perspective, and analyzed active TB. Interventions related to diagnostics/screening (the use of interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and mobile screening units), treatment (incentives for continuing treatment, and housing programs), and prevention (with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine) were identified. Conclusions No high-quality data were found on cost-effectiveness of interventions on TB diagnostics/screening, treatment, or prevention in homeless people. However, active searching for cases via mobile screening, and financial incentives, could help increase treatment adherence, and the use of IGRA helps boost detection. TB in homeless people is neglected worldwide, especially in developing countries, where this disease tends to afflict more people made vulnerable by their precarious living conditions. Public funding mechanisms should be created to develop cross-sectoral actions targeting homeless people, as the complex dynamics of this group tend to hamper prevention and diagnosis of TB and the completion of TB treatment.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la evaluación económica de intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico y tamizaje, el tratamiento y la prevención de la tuberculosis en las personas sin hogar. Métodos Se realizó una revisión sistemática en la cual se usó como criterio de selección estudios originales en los que se presentaran los resultados de una evaluación económica. No se restringió la búsqueda por idioma ni por año. Se usó el enfoque de la evaluación crítica. Resultados Se encontraron en total 142 estudios, entre los cuales había cinco artículos de investigación (tres evaluaciones económicas completas y dos parciales) que se seleccionaron para la revisión final. En la mayoría de los estudios, realizados en los Estados Unidos, se adoptó una perspectiva de salud pública y se analizó la tuberculosis activa. Se encontraron intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico y tamizaje (el uso de la prueba de liberación de interferón gamma —IGRA, por su sigla en inglés— y los equipos móviles de tamizaje), el tratamiento (incentivos para continuar el tratamiento y programas de viviendas) y la prevención (el uso de la vacuna BCG). Conclusiones No se encontraron datos de calidad alta sobre la costo-efectividad de las intervenciones relacionadas con el diagnóstico o tamizaje, el tratamiento o la prevención de la tuberculosis en personas sin hogar. Sin embargo, la búsqueda activa de casos mediante el uso de equipos móviles para el tamizaje, así como los incentivos financieros, podrían ayudar a aumentar la adhesión al tratamiento; además, el uso de la prueba IGRA ayuda a lograr una mayor detección. La tuberculosis en las personas sin hogar se subestima en todo el mundo, especialmente en los países en desarrollo donde esta enfermedad tiende a afectar a más personas que pasan a ser vulnerables por la precariedad de sus condiciones de vida. Deben crearse mecanismos de financiamiento con fondos públicos para llevar adelante medidas intersectoriales dirigidas a las personas sin hogar, puesto que la compleja dinámica de este grupo tiende a obstaculizar tanto la prevención y el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis como la finalización del tratamiento antituberculoso.


RESUMO Objetivo Examinar as análises econômicas de intervenções relacionadas à prevenção, detecção precoce/diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose (TB) em pessoas sem-teto. Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática. Os critérios para inclusão foram estudo original contendo resultados de análise econômica. A busca não foi restrita por idioma ou ano. Foi usada uma abordagem de análise crítica. Resultados Foram identificados ao todo 142 estudos, dentre eles cinco artigos de pesquisa (três análises econômicas completas e duas parciais) que foram selecionados para a revisão final. A maioria dos estudos foi realizada nos Estados Unidos, partindo de uma perspectiva de saúde pública e com análise de TB ativa. Foram identificadas intervenções relacionadas à detecção precoce/diagnóstico (ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama [IGRA] e unidades móveis para prevenção), tratamento (incentivos para o tratamento continuado e programas de moradia) e prevenção (vacinação com o bacilo de Calmette-Guérin [BCG]). Conclusões Não foram encontrados dados de alta qualidade sobre o custo-efetividade das intervenções de detecção precoce/diagnóstico, tratamento ou prevenção de TB em pessoas sem-teto. Porém, a busca ativa de casos por meio da triagem em unidades móveis e incentivos financeiros poderiam ajudar a melhorar a adesão ao tratamento e o uso do IGRA intensifica a detecção de infecção. A TB em pessoas sem-teto é uma doença negligenciada em todo o mundo, principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento onde ela costuma afligir um número maior de pessoas por sua vulnerabilidade devido às condições de vida precárias. Mecanismos públicos de financiamento devem ser criados para desenvolver ações intersetoriais voltadas aos sem-teto, porque a dinâmica complexa deste grupo dificulta a prevenção, o diagnóstico e a conclusão do tratamento de TB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Análise Custo-Benefício/organização & administração
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(2): e000242, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225926

RESUMO

Background: Hospitals account for the major share of health expenditure. Primary healthcare may improve efficiency at the hospital level by reducing avoidable admissions. We examined whether rapid expansion of primary healthcare in the context of Brazil's Family Health Strategy (FHS) was associated with a reduction in avoidable hospitalisations. Methods: We constructed panel data for 5506 municipalities over 2000-2014. Our primary outcome was the rate of avoidable hospitalisations, defined with reference to the official list of ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC). The exposure variable was FHS coverage. We used first-difference models at the municipality level, controlling for municipality characteristics and confounding trends. We ran similar models for each of the 19 diseases in the list of ACSCs. Findings: FHS coverage expanded from 14% to 64% of the population between 2000 and 2014. Over the same period, the rate of avoidable hospitalisations fell from 17 to 10 per 1000 population. Results from the econometric analysis show that the FHS at full coverage was associated with an increase of 0.6 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.9; p<0.001) in the rate of avoidable hospital admissions. Expansion of the FHS was associated with an increase of 866 (95% CI 762 to 970; p<0.001) in the rate of primary care consultations. The FHS was not significantly associated with a reduction in hospitalisations for any of the 19 conditions. Conclusions: While high-quality primary healthcare can deliver considerable health benefits to the population, it may not always be effective in addressing inefficiencies at the hospital level due to avoidable admissions.

17.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 17(4): 355-375, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776441

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) consists of providing antimicrobial therapy by parenteral infusion without hospitalization. A systematic review was performed to compare OPAT and hospitalization as health care modalities from an economic perspective. Areas covered: We identified 1455 articles using 13 electronic databases and manual searches. Two independent reviewers identified 35 studies conducted between 1978 and 2016. We observed high heterogeneity in the following: countries, infection site, OPAT strategies and outcomes analyzed. Of these, 88% had a retrospective observational design and one was a randomized trial. With respect to economic analyses, 71% of the studies considered the cost-consequences, 11% cost minimization, 6% cost-benefit, 6% cost-utility analyses and 6% cost effectiveness. Considering all 35 studies, the general OPAT cost saving was 57.19% (from -13.03% to 95.47%). Taking into consideration only high-quality studies (6 comparative studies), the cost saving declined by 16.54% (from -13.03% to 46.86%). Expert commentary: Although most studies demonstrate that OPAT is cost-effective, the magnitude of this effect is compromised by poor methodological quality and heterogeneity. Economic assessments of the issue are needed using more rigorous methodologies that include a broad range of perspectives to identify the real magnitude of economic savings in different settings and OPAT modalities.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecção/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Infecção/economia , Infusões Parenterais , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Obes Surg ; 27(12): 3273-3280, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major global epidemic and a burden to society and health systems. This study aimed to estimate and compare the anual costs of clinical and surgical treatment of severe obesity from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System. METHODS: An observational and cross-sectional study was performed in three reference centers. Data collection on health resources utilization and productivity loss was carried out through an online questionnaire. Participants were divided in clinical (waiting list for a bariatric surgery) and surgical groups (open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and then allocated by the time of surgery (up to 1 year; 1-2 years; 2-3 years; and >3 years). Costs of visits, medications, exams, and surgeries were obtained from government sources. Data on non-medical costs, such as transportation, special diets, and caregivers, were also colleted. Productivity loss was estimated using self-reported income. Costs in local currency (Real) were converted to international dollars (Int$ 2015). RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients, 140 in surgical group and 134 in clinical group were included. In first postoperative year, the surgical group had higher costs than clinical group (Int$6005.47 [5000.18-8262.36] versus 2148.14 [1412.2-3506.8]; p = 0.0002); however, from the second year, the costs decreased progressively. In the same way, indirect costs decreased significantly after surgery (259.08 [163.63-662.72] versus 368.17 [163.62-687.27]; p = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Total costs were higher in the surgical group in the first 2 years after surgery. However, from the third year on, the costs were lower than in the clinical group.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/economia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica/economia , Obesidade Mórbida/economia , Obesidade Mórbida/terapia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Dietoterapia/economia , Dietoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/economia , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia , Programas de Redução de Peso/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(4): 1131-1140, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444040

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the perception of managers of the Councils of Municipal Health Secretariats (COSEMS) and their contributions to the health regionalization process. We conducted thorough interviews with presidents of COSEMS of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Ceará, Tocantins and Minas Gerais. Data were analyzed with Iramuteq software, which generated a dendrogram with three themes: The first thematic axis: the prominent role of COSEMS in the regional governance process, which includes class 1 - COSEMS' leadership in the process of regionalization, and class 3 - The strategic experience of the regional agreement process. The second thematic axis includes the challenges to the provision of health care in the regions, consisting of class 2, which shows how to meet community needs, and class 4, which shows the local support carried out by COSEMS' teams. The third thematic axis consists of class 5, which describes the operational aspects of the provision of health care in the region. COSEMS play an important role in the regionalization process, especially because they have an organic performance and leadership. Its organic performance in these areas has ensured its legitimacy and leadership. It is a daily construction that ensures the advancement of collaborative governance in health regions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Regionalização/organização & administração , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Liderança , Regionalização/legislação & jurisprudência
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