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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

RESUMO

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Áreas Alagadas , Invertebrados , Estações do Ano , Aves
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e250280, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932625

RESUMO

Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Assuntos
Invertebrados , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Estações do Ano
3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(8): 166155, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932524

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common and aggressive form of primary brain tumor, in which the presence of an inflammatory environment, composed mainly by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), is related to its progression and development of chemoresistance. Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system and their expression in both tumor and immune-associated cells may impact the cell communication in the tumor microenvironment (TME), further modeling cancer growth and response to therapy. Here, we investigated the participation of TLR4-mediated signaling as a mechanism of induced-immune escape in GB. Initially, bioinformatics analysis of public datasets revealed that TLR4 expression is lower in GB tumors when compared to astrocytomas (AST), and in a subset of TAMs. Further, we confirmed that TLR4 expression is downregulated in chemoresistant GB, as well as in macrophages co-cultured with GB cells. Additionally, TLR4 function is impaired in those cells even following stimulation with LPS, an agonist of TLR4. Finally, experiments performed in a cohort of clinical primary and metastatic brain tumors indicated that the immunostaining of TLR4 and CD45 are inversely proportional, and confirmed the low TLR4 expression in GBs. Interestingly, the cytoplasmic/nuclear pattern of TLR4 staining in cancer tissues suggests additional roles of this receptor in carcinogenesis. Overall, our data suggest the downregulation of TLR4 expression and activity as a strategy for GB-associated immune escape. Additional studies are necessary to better understand TLR4 signaling in TME in order to improve the benefits of immunotherapy based on TLR signaling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Idoso , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1143-1148, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038631

RESUMO

Objetivou-se neste estudo padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detecção de Microsporum canis em amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos. Foram selecionadas 48 amostras previamente identificadas por meio de cultura. Destas, 23 foram positivas para dermatófitos no cultivo. Padronizou-se a PCR a partir de primers desenhados para o alvo M. canis. Sessenta e um por cento (14/23) das amostras positivas para dermatófitos foram identificadas como M. canis em cultura. Desse total, 71,4% (10/14) apresentaram um fragmento de 218pb compatível com o esperado para a espécie fúngica alvo dessa reação. Observou-se uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e especificidade de 100% na PCR, além de uma boa concordância entre essas técnicas de diagnóstico (Kappa: 0,78; P<0,0001). O protocolo utilizado neste estudo apresentou alta especificidade na detecção de M. canis diretamente de amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos, viabilizando um diagnóstico mais rápido e específico, podendo esse protocolo ser empregado como um método confirmatório para agilizar a detecção de M. canis.(AU)


The aim of this study was to standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction protocol (PCR) for the detection of Microsporum canis in fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats. 48 samples previously identified by culture were selected. Of these, 23 were positive for dermatophytes in culture. PCR was standardized from drawn primers whose target is M. canis. A total of 61% (14/23) of the dermatophyte positive samples were identified as M. canis in culture. Of this total, 71.4% (10/14) presented a fragment of 218bp compatible with that expected for the fungal species target of the reaction. A sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 100% in the PCR were observed, in addition to a good agreement between the techniques (Kappa: 0.78; P<0.0001). The protocol used in this study showed high specificity in the detection of M. canis directly from fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats, making possible a faster and more specific diagnosis. This protocol could be used as a confirmatory method, speeding the detection of M. canis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Pelo Animal/microbiologia , Microsporum , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(7): 5890-5901, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680654

RESUMO

Feed intake assessment is a valuable tool for herd management decisions. The use of markers, either internal or external, is currently the most used technique for estimating feed intake in production animals. The experiment used 10 multiparous Holstein cows fed a corn silage-based diet, with 55:45 forage-to-concentrate ratio, the average fecal recovery (FR) of TiO2 was higher than FR of Cr2O3, and both FR were more than unity. With internal markers, acetyl bromide lignin and cutin FR were lower than unity, and average FR for indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF) and indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF) was 1.5. The FR was unaffected by the fecal sampling procedure and appears to be an intrinsic property of each molecule and how it interacts with digesta. Of the 2 external markers, only Cr2O3 produced accurate fecal output (FO) estimates and the same happened to dry matter digestibility (DMD) when iNDF and iADF were used. Estimates for DMD and FO were affected by sampling procedure; 72-h bulk [sub-sample from total feces collection (TFC)] sampling consistently produced accurate results. The grab (sub-samples taken at specific times during the day) sampling procedures were accurate when using either of the indigestible fibers (iNDF or iADF) to estimate DMD. However, grab sampling procedures can only be recommended when concomitant TFC is performed on at least one animal per treatment to determine FR. Under these conditions, Cr2O3 is a suitable marker for estimating FO, and iNDF and iADF are adequate for estimating DMD. Moreover, the Cr2O3+iADF marker pair produces accurate dry matter intake estimates and deserves further attention in ruminant nutrition studies. The method of dosing the external markers is extremely important and greatly affects and determines results. Whichever the method, it must allow the animals to display normal feeding behavior and not affect performance. The grab sampling procedures can replace TFC (once FR is established), which may open new possibilities for pasture-based or collectively housed animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biomarcadores/análise , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Zea mays , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Rúmen , Silagem
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 32-40, Feb. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888843

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the density and distribution of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in beaches in the estuarine region of the semiarid in Rio Grande do Norte State, Barra and Pernambuquinho (04°56.978'S and 37°08.961'W and 04°56.792'S and 37°09.375'W, respectively). Samples were collected monthly during 37 months using five transects (300 m long and 400 m apart) laid perpendicularly to the beach line toward the sea. Seven collection points, 50 m apart, were set in each transect, and shellfish and sediment samples were collected. Temperature and salinity were measured in each transect. The results showed a temperature variation of average values ​​of 3 °C; the greatest variation (33.2 °C) was observed in May of 2009. The lowest average salinity values were observed between April and June of 2009 (5, 8.7, and 7.8, respectively). This fact was due to an atypical rainfall in the region, which resulted in a large freshwater inflow into the estuary; the average salinity values ​​were about 40 in the remaining months. The highest precipitation values were observed in April/09, April/10, and April/11; the highest precipitation occurred in April/09 (316.3 mm). The lower average densities of A. brasiliana were observed in April and May/09 when compared to the other months; the lowest value was observed in April/09 (26 ind/m2). The highest densities occurred between November/10 and July/11, with values ​​ranging from 70 to 322 ind/m2. The highest inflow of young individuals (lengths from 2 to 5 mm) was observed between April and June of 2010 and on September/10 while the highest frequency of adults (from 20 to 25 mm) occurred between December of 2010 and April of 2011. Hence, the results of this study show that in the months with the greatest rainfall, salinity and the average density of A. brasiliana showed the lowest values.


Resumo O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a densidade e distribuição do bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana em praias de uma região estuarina do semiárido do Rio Grande do N (Barra - 04°56,978'S, 37°08,961'O e Pernambuquinho - 04°56,792'S, 37°09,375'O). As coletas foram realizadas durante 37 meses (abril/09 a abril/12). Mensamente foram dispostos cinco transectos (300 m de comprimento e distanciando 400 m entre si, perpendicularmente à linha da praia em direção ao mar. Em cada transecto foram definidos sete pontos de coletas com distância de 50 m entre si e coletadas amostras de moluscos e sedimento. Em cada transecto aferiu-se a temperatura e salinidade da água. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma variação dos valores médios de temperatura de 3°C, sendo o mês de maio/09 ocorreu o maior valor dessa variável (33,2 °C). Quanto aos valores médios de salinidade, o período de abril a junho/09 apresentou-se os menores valores médio da salinidade (5, 8,7 e 7,8, respectivamente), tal fato ocorreu, devido a um período de chuvas atípicas na região, que resultou em um grande aporte de água doce no estuário, nos demais meses os valores médios da salinidade foram cerca de 40. Ao analisar a precipitação observou-se, que os maiores valores ocorreram nos meses de abril/09, abril/10 e abril/11, sendo que o maior valor da precipitação ocorreu no mês de abril/09 (316,3 mm). As densidades médias de A. brasiliana nos meses de abril e maio/09 foram menores quando comparadas as densidades médias dos demais meses, sendo que o menor valor foi observado no mês de abril/09 (26 ind/m2). As maiores densidades ocorreram no período de novembro/2010 a julho/2011, com valores variando de 70 a 322 ind/m2. No período de abril a junho de 2010 e no mês de setembro/10 foi observada uma maior entrada de indivíduos jovens (comprimentos entre 2 a 5 mm), enquanto que durante o período de dezembro/2010 a abril/2011 ocorreu uma maior frequência de indivíduos adultos (entre 20 a 25 mm). Assim verificou-se com o presente estudo que, nos meses que ocorreram maior precipitação, salinidade e densidade média de A. brasiliana foi menor.


Assuntos
Animais , Bivalves/fisiologia , Estuários , Temperatura , Brasil , Densidade Demográfica , Salinidade , Água Doce
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(1): 18-24, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888841

RESUMO

Abstract Changes at the landscape scale associated with expansion in agricultural land use and changes in agricultural practices are common causes of alteration in patterns of abundance and composition of avian communities. Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata - Des Murs, 1847) is among the most common species in the Neotropics, considered both as game and pest in some countries. Here we characterized the regional and seasonal patterns of Eared Doves abundance in Southwestern Brazil and examined the relationship between landscape features and these abundance patterns. We counted Eared Doves using the point count system along routes in summer and winter and recorded land use at two scales. We used linear regressions to model the effect of landscape matrix and land use at local scale with Doves abundance in two seasons. At the landscape scale, in winter, the abundance was greater in routes crossing landscapes dominated by plantations. In summer, it was lower in routes with large tracts of forests and mixed farming. While in winter, at the local scale, the Doves abundance was greater in routes with higher frequency of maize plantations, in summer higher abundances were observed in routes with higher frequency of sugar cane and soybean plantations. Agricultural settings, which include both sustained production of food in the form of grains as well as and large stretches of habitat suitable for reproduction, favor large population of Eared Doves.


Resumo Mudanças em escala de paisagem associadas à expansão das áreas destinadas à agricultura e às mudanças nas práticas agrícolas são consideradas importantes causas de alterações nos padrões de composição das comunidades de aves. A pomba-de-bando (Zenaida auriculata - Des Murs, 1847) é uma espécie comum na região Neotropical, sendo considerada tanto um recurso cinegético quanto uma peste agrícola em alguns países. Neste trabalho nós caracterizamos os padrões regionais e sazonais de distribuição populacional de pombas-de-bando em áreas agrícolas do sudoeste do Brasil e examinamos a relação entre características da paisagem e padrões de abundância de pombas. Coletamos os dados em transecções com pontos de contagem, alocados em estradas vicinais, percorridas no verão e no inverno. Utilizamos dados sobre as características da paisagem em duas escalas. Através de análises de regressões lineares modelamos o efeito da paisagem e do uso da terra na abundância de pombas nas duas estações. Na escala da paisagem, no inverno, a abundância foi maior em áreas com predomínio de agricultura. No verão a abundância foi menor em áreas com grandes extensões de florestas e agropecuária. Em relação ao uso do solo, no inverno a abundância de pombas foi maior em regiões com maior frequência de plantações de milho, enquanto no verão, a maior abundância esteve associada à maior frequência de cana-de-açúcar e soja. As paisagens agrícolas que apresentaram tanto produção de alimentos sob a forma de grãos quanto grandes extensões de habitat para a reprodução, como a cana-de-açúcar, favoreceram a ocorrência grandes populações de pombas-de-bando no sudoeste do Brasil.


Assuntos
Animais , Columbidae , Estações do Ano , Brasil , Ecossistema
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(16): 1952-1955, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323379

RESUMO

Metabolomic profiles were explored to understand environmental and taxonomic influences on the metabolism of two congeneric zoanthids, Palythoa caribaeorum and P. variabilis, collected across distinct geographical ranges. Integrated mass spectrometry data suggested the major influence of geographical location on chemical divergence when compared to species differentiation.


Assuntos
Antozoários/química , Antozoários/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Animais , Brasil , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Biol Lett ; 14(12): 20180703, 2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958251

RESUMO

For the first time to our knowledge, we demonstrate that whole angiosperm individuals can survive gut passage through birds, and that this occurs in the field. Floating plants of the genus Wolffia are the smallest of all flowering plants. Fresh droppings of white-faced whistling duck Dendrocygna viduata ( n = 49) and coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba ( n = 22) were collected from Brazilian wetlands. Intact Wolffia columbiana were recovered from 16% of D. viduata and 32% of Coscoroba samples (total = 164 plantlets). The viability of plants was tested, and asexual reproduction was confirmed. Wolffia columbiana is an expanding alien in Europe. Avian endozoochory of asexual angiosperm propagules may be an important, overlooked dispersal means for aquatic plants, and may contribute to the invasive character of alien species.


Assuntos
Araceae/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Brasil , Fezes , Espécies Introduzidas , Reprodução Assexuada
10.
Braz J Biol ; 78(1): 18-24, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28562787

RESUMO

Changes at the landscape scale associated with expansion in agricultural land use and changes in agricultural practices are common causes of alteration in patterns of abundance and composition of avian communities. Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata - Des Murs, 1847) is among the most common species in the Neotropics, considered both as game and pest in some countries. Here we characterized the regional and seasonal patterns of Eared Doves abundance in Southwestern Brazil and examined the relationship between landscape features and these abundance patterns. We counted Eared Doves using the point count system along routes in summer and winter and recorded land use at two scales. We used linear regressions to model the effect of landscape matrix and land use at local scale with Doves abundance in two seasons. At the landscape scale, in winter, the abundance was greater in routes crossing landscapes dominated by plantations. In summer, it was lower in routes with large tracts of forests and mixed farming. While in winter, at the local scale, the Doves abundance was greater in routes with higher frequency of maize plantations, in summer higher abundances were observed in routes with higher frequency of sugar cane and soybean plantations. Agricultural settings, which include both sustained production of food in the form of grains as well as and large stretches of habitat suitable for reproduction, favor large population of Eared Doves.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano
11.
Braz J Biol ; 78(1): 32-40, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678977

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the density and distribution of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana in beaches in the estuarine region of the semiarid in Rio Grande do Norte State, Barra and Pernambuquinho (04°56.978'S and 37°08.961'W and 04°56.792'S and 37°09.375'W, respectively). Samples were collected monthly during 37 months using five transects (300 m long and 400 m apart) laid perpendicularly to the beach line toward the sea. Seven collection points, 50 m apart, were set in each transect, and shellfish and sediment samples were collected. Temperature and salinity were measured in each transect. The results showed a temperature variation of average values ​​of 3 °C; the greatest variation (33.2 °C) was observed in May of 2009. The lowest average salinity values were observed between April and June of 2009 (5, 8.7, and 7.8, respectively). This fact was due to an atypical rainfall in the region, which resulted in a large freshwater inflow into the estuary; the average salinity values ​​were about 40 in the remaining months. The highest precipitation values were observed in April/09, April/10, and April/11; the highest precipitation occurred in April/09 (316.3 mm). The lower average densities of A. brasiliana were observed in April and May/09 when compared to the other months; the lowest value was observed in April/09 (26 ind/m2). The highest densities occurred between November/10 and July/11, with values ​​ranging from 70 to 322 ind/m2. The highest inflow of young individuals (lengths from 2 to 5 mm) was observed between April and June of 2010 and on September/10 while the highest frequency of adults (from 20 to 25 mm) occurred between December of 2010 and April of 2011. Hence, the results of this study show that in the months with the greatest rainfall, salinity and the average density of A. brasiliana showed the lowest values.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Estuários , Animais , Brasil , Água Doce , Densidade Demográfica , Salinidade , Temperatura
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1887-1898, nov.-dez. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970649

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar a viabilidade zootécnica e econômica na criação de camarão com três diferentes estratégias de manejo e densidades distintas, sendo 92, 14 e 8 cam.m-2 para os tratamentos M1, M2 e M3, respectivamente, com tempo máximo de cultivo de 79 dias. As sobrevivências foram reduzidas em todos os tratamentos, provavelmente influenciadas pela doença da mancha branca e a elevada salinidade da água dos viveiros de criação, o que causou redução na produção e elevou o fator de conversão alimentar aparente - FCAA em M1 e M2. Os índices de rentabilidade e lucratividade foram significativamente inferiores no tratamento M1 quando comparado com o M2 e o M3. O cultivo com população inicial elevada (M1) ocasionou prejuízos econômicos e zootécnicos devido aos elevados FCAAs, à biomassa individual reduzida e aos elevados custos operacionais totais - COT, tornando inviável esse tratamento. As taxas internas de retorno para M2 e M3 foram atrativas, gerando lucro e saldo positivo para o valor presente líquido. O monocultivo de camarão com pequenas populações e submetido à mancha branca (M2 e M3), conseguiu garantir o retorno do capital investido. Esse retorno somente ocorreu em razão dos preços elevados praticados em 2016, caso contrário, preços menores por quilo de camarão inviabilizariam economicamente a atividade.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the zootechnical and economic viability of shrimp farming with three different management strategies and different densities, 92, 14 and 8 shrimp.m-2 for treatments M1, M2 and M3, respectively, with a maximum cultivation time of 79 days. Survival was reduced in all treatments, probably influenced by the disease of the White Spot and the high salinity of the water of the nurseries, causing reduction in the production and raising the Apparent Food Conversion Factor-FCAA in M1 and M2. The Profitability and Profitability Indices were significantly lower in the M1 treatment when compared to M2 and M3. The cultivation with high initial population (M1) caused economic and zootechnical losses due to high FCAAs, reduced individual biomass and high total operational costs-TOC, making this treatment unfeasible. The internal rates of return for M2 and M3 were attractive, generating profit and a positive balance for the net present value. Monoculture of shrimp with small populations and submitted to Mancha Branca (M2 and M3), managed to guarantee the return of invested capital. This return only occurred due to the high prices practiced in 2016, otherwise, lower prices per kilo of shrimp would make the activity economically unfeasible.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Penaeidae , Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável/análise , Aquicultura/economia
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(2): 234-239, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-888755

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the feeding preference of the invasive mollusk Melaniudes tuberculata between the aquatic macrophytes Egeria densa and Chara indica. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental units (glass aquariums) each of which contained three liters of water and three compartments. Fragments of E. densa and C. indica were placed in separate compartments within each unit; the third compartment, which did not contain macrophytes, was used as the control. Twenty Melanoides tuberculata individuals were placed in each unit and monitored hourly over the course of 24 hours for preferential movements. Physical and chemical water variables were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Habitat complexity was determined through collected macrophyte fragments and determined using the Fractop program. After 24 hours, the highest average number of individuals was observed in the treatment with Chara indica (ten individuals), which differed significantly from the treatment with E. densa (four individuals) and the control treatment (two individuals). The number of individuals between the E. densa and control treatment were similar. M. tuberculata showed a clear feeding preference for C. indica.


Resumo O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a preferência do molusco invasor M. tuberculata pelas macrófitas aquáticas Egeria densa e Chara indica. Doze unidades experimentais (aquários de vidro), com dimensões de 30×15×15 cm, subdivida em três compartimentos foram utilizadas. Em cada unidade experimental foram adicionados três litros de água, sendo que em dois compartimentos foram adicionados aleatoriamente fragmentos de E. densa e C. indica e um compartimento ficou sem planta (controle). Na parte central do aquário foram adicionados os moluscos equidistantes dos três compartimentos. O experimento teve duração de 24 horas, sendo vistoriado e contabilizado o número de organismos presentes em cada compartimento a cada hora. As variáveis ambientais foram medidas no inicio e fim do experimento. Fragmentos de macrófitas foram coletados para determinação da complexidade do habitat através do programa Fractop. Após 24 horas, os resultados mostraram um maior valor médio de indivíduos no tratamento que possuía Chara indica (dez indivíduos), que diferiu significativamente do tratamento com E. densa (quatro indivíduos) e do tratamento controle (dois indivíduos). Os tratamentos com E. densa e o controle foram semelhantes entre si evidenciando, uma possível preferência do molusco por a C. indica.


Assuntos
Animais , Caramujos/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Espécies Introduzidas
14.
Braz J Biol ; 77(2): 234-239, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28300942

RESUMO

This study evaluated the feeding preference of the invasive mollusk Melaniudes tuberculata between the aquatic macrophytes Egeria densa and Chara indica. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental units (glass aquariums) each of which contained three liters of water and three compartments. Fragments of E. densa and C. indica were placed in separate compartments within each unit; the third compartment, which did not contain macrophytes, was used as the control. Twenty Melanoides tuberculata individuals were placed in each unit and monitored hourly over the course of 24 hours for preferential movements. Physical and chemical water variables were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Habitat complexity was determined through collected macrophyte fragments and determined using the Fractop program. After 24 hours, the highest average number of individuals was observed in the treatment with Chara indica (ten individuals), which differed significantly from the treatment with E. densa (four individuals) and the control treatment (two individuals). The number of individuals between the E. densa and control treatment were similar. M. tuberculata showed a clear feeding preference for C. indica.


Assuntos
Chara , Cadeia Alimentar , Hydrocharitaceae , Caramujos/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Chara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espécies Introduzidas
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(11): 8880-8884, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27544859

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance.


Assuntos
Leite/metabolismo , Zea mays , Ração Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Lactação , Metaboloma , Rúmen/metabolismo
17.
Nature ; 531(7595): 466-70, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26982729

RESUMO

Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus 'more microbes, fewer viruses'.


Assuntos
Antozoários/virologia , Ecossistema , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Vírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/patogenicidade , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Genes Virais/genética , Lisogenia , Modelos Biológicos , Virulência/genética , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
18.
Braz J Biol ; 75(4): 914-22, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26675907

RESUMO

This study evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution and density of the bivalve Donax striatus, at beaches close to the Apodi/Mossoró River estuary, through, six semiannual sampling campaigns were performed between April/2009 and October/2011. The sampled area was delimited by 20 transects that were laid perpendicular to the beach line and extended over 300 m in the intertidal zone. Seven sampling points were established in each transect, organisms and sediment were collected, and water temperature and salinity were recorded. The highest D. striatus average density (103 individuals.m-2) was observed in April/2009 and the lowest (18 individuals.m-2) in October/2010. The highest D. striatus densities occurred in beaches further from the estuarine region as demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.67 and p = 0.0007). The D. striatus densities presented significant negative correlations with the percentages of organic matter in the water. This species demonstrated an aggregated distribution in the studied area.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Bivalves/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Estuários , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 914-922, Nov. 2015. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-768215

RESUMO

Abstract This study evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution and density of the bivalve Donax striatus, at beaches close to the Apodi/Mossoró River estuary, through, six semiannual sampling campaigns were performed between April/2009 and October/2011. The sampled area was delimited by 20 transects that were laid perpendicular to the beach line and extended over 300 m in the intertidal zone. Seven sampling points were established in each transect, organisms and sediment were collected, and water temperature and salinity were recorded. The highest D. striatus average density (103 individuals.m–2) was observed in April/2009 and the lowest (18 individuals.m–2) in October/2010. The highest D. striatus densities occurred in beaches further from the estuarine region as demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.67 and p = 0.0007). The D. striatus densities presented significant negative correlations with the percentages of organic matter in the water. This species demonstrated an aggregated distribution in the studied area.


Resumo O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a distribuição (espacial e temporal) e a densidade do bivalve Donax striatus em praias próximas ao estuário do Rio Apodi/Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte (RN), através de seis coletas semestrais (abril/2009 a outubro/2011). Foram dispostos 20 transectos perpendiculares à linha da praia, com 300 m de comprimento na zona intertidal. Em cada transecto foram estabelecidos sete pontos de amostragem e obtidas amostras de organismos e sedimento, foram determinadas a temperatura e salinidade da água. Com os resultados obtidos foi em abril/2009 a maior densidade média de D. striatus (103 indivíduos/m2) e em outubro/2010 a menor densidade (18 indivíduos/m2). As maiores densidades de D. striatus ocorreram em praias afastadas da região estuarina, com correlação significativa e positiva (r2=0,67 e p=0,0007). As densidades de D. striatus apresentaram correlações significativas e negativas com a matéria orgânica. Pôde-se constatar ainda que esta espécie apresentou uma distribuição agregada.


Assuntos
Animais , Distribuição Animal , Bivalves/fisiologia , Brasil , Meio Ambiente , Estuários , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano
20.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(5): 1415-1420, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-764434

RESUMO

It is generally believed that increasing feeding frequency has immediate benefits, including reduced nutrient leaching and increased shrimp growth. In this context, the aim this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding frequency in growth performance of Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Juveniles of Farfantepenaeus paulensis were grown for 30 days in pen enclosures, at a stocking density of 5 shrimp/m2. The shrimp were fed on feeding trays at a rate of 8% of their biomass per day, with treatments of one, two, three and four times per day, with four replicates each. The results showed no differences (5% probability) in biomass gain of F. paulensis when feed was offered two, three or four times per day. However, it was observed that the once a day frequency had a negative influence on weight gain for this species of shrimp. We conclude that the supply of food with 35% crude protein twice a day is sufficient for the growth of F paulensis. Feeding frequency of three or four times can provide increased spending in the cultivation of juveniles of this species.


Acredita-se que uma frequência maior de alimentação traz benefícios imediatos, incluindo a redução da lixiviação de nutrientes e o aumento do crescimento do camarão. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes frequências de oferta de alimento sobre o crescimento de Farfantepenaeus paulensis. Juvenis de Farfantepenaeus paulensis foram criados por 30 dias em tanques-rede, na densidade de estocagem de cinco camarões/m 2. Os camarões foram alimentados em comedouros com 8% da sua biomassa/dia, ofertados em parcelamentos de uma, duas, três e quatro vezes ao dia, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças (5% de probabilidade) no ganho de biomassa de F. paulensis quando a frequência alimentar foi de duas, três ou quatro vezes ao dia. No entanto, os dados indicam que a frequência alimentar de uma vez ao dia interferiu negativamente no ganho de peso dessa espécie. Conclui-se que o fornecimento de ração com 35% de proteína bruta duas vezes ao dia é suficiente para o crescimento de F paulensis. O fornecimento de alimento três ou quatro vezes ao dia poderia acarretar maiores gastos no manejo de juvenis dessa espécie.


Assuntos
Animais , Ração Animal , Artemia , Comportamento Alimentar , Aquicultura , Aumento de Peso
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