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1.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72(1): 47-54, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy is a common cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression is increased in peripheral nerve samples from diabetes patients, suggesting a role for CXCR4 in PDN. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of Phα1ß, ω-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100 in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced PDN in rodents and naïve model of rats with the activation of the CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signal. METHODS: Diabetic neuropathy was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of STZ in Wistar rats. Naïve rats were intrathecally injected with SDF-1 to test the CXCR4/SDF-1 signal. The effects of Phα1ß intrathecal (it), ω-conotoxin MVIIA intrathecal (it), and AMD3100 intraperitoneal (ip) on rat hypersensitivity, IL-6, and the intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i content of diabetic synaptosomes were studied. RESULTS: The drugs reduced the hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. SDF-1 (1.0 µg/it) administration in naïve rats induced hypersensitivity. Phα1ß (100 pmol/it) or AMD3100 (2.5 µg/ip) reduced this hypersensitivity after 2 h treatments, while ω-conotoxin MVIIA did not have an effect. IL-6 and [Ca2+]i content increased in the spinal cord synaptosomes in diabetic rats. The drug treatments reduced IL-6 and the calcium influx in diabetic synaptosomes. CONCLUSIONS: Phα1ß, ω-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100, after 2 h of treatment of STZ-induced PDN, reduced hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. In naïve rats with CXCR4/SDF-1 activation, the induced hypersensitivity decreased after 2 h treatments with Phα1ß or AMD-3100, while ω-conotoxin MVIIA did not affect. The inhibitory effects of Phα1ß on PDN may involve voltage-dependent calcium channels.

2.
Lancet HIV ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir is being considered in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa instead of efavirenz for people initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of superior tolerability and a lower risk of resistance emergence. WHO requested updated modelling results for its 2019 Antiretroviral Guidelines update, which was restricted to the choice of dolutegravir or efavirenz in new ART initiators. In response to this request, we modelled the risks and benefits of alternative policies for initial first-line ART regimens. METHODS: We updated an existing individual-based model of HIV transmission and progression in adults to consider information on the risk of neural tube defects in women taking dolutegravir at time of conception, as well as the effects of dolutegravir on weight gain. The model accounted for drug resistance in determining viral suppression, with consequences for clinical outcomes and mother-to-child transmission. We sampled distributions of parameters to create various epidemic setting scenarios, which reflected the diversity of epidemic and programmatic situations in sub-Saharan Africa. For each setting scenario, we considered the situation in 2018 and compared ART initiation policies of an efavirenz-based regimen in women intending pregnancy, and a dolutegravir-based regimen in others, and a dolutegravir-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy. We considered predicted outcomes over a 20-year period from 2019 to 2039, used a 3% discount rate, and a cost-effectiveness threshold of US$500 per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. FINDINGS: Considering updated information on risks and benefits, a policy of ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen rather than an efavirenz-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy, is predicted to bring population health benefits (10 990 DALYs averted per year) and to be cost-saving (by $2·9 million per year), leading to a reduction in the overall population burden of disease of 16 735 net DALYs per year for a country with an adult population size of 10 million. The policy involving ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen in women intending pregnancy was cost-effective in 87% of our setting scenarios and this finding was robust in various sensitivity analyses, including around the potential negative effects of weight gain. INTERPRETATION: In the context of a range of modelled setting scenarios in sub-Saharan Africa, we found that a policy of ART initiation with a dolutegravir-based regimen, including in women intending pregnancy, was predicted to bring population health benefits and be cost-effective, supporting WHO's strong recommendation for dolutegravir as a preferred drug for ART initiators. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 19, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium leprae and Toxoplasma gondii infections are both neglected tropical diseases highly prevalent in Brazil. Infection with certain parasite species can significantly alter susceptibility to other important pathogens, and/or influence the development of pathology. Here we investigated the possible influence of M. leprae/T. gondii co-parasitism on the manifestation of leprosy and its clinical forms. METHODS: Participants (n = 291) were recruited in Campos dos Goytacazes city, Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil, from August 2015 to December 2019 and clinically diagnosed for leprosy. Participants were selected based on the presence (patients) or absence (healthy controls) of the leprosy disease. Contacts of patients were also recruited for this study. Serum samples from patients (n = 199) with leprosy, contacts (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 52) were investigated for levels of IgM and IgG anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) by ELISA. Additionally, IgG antibody against soluble Toxoplasma antigen (STAg) was measured in sera samples from leprosy patients, contacts and healthy controls for Toxoplasma gondii serology by ELISA. Anti-PGL-1 IgG and IgM levels were compared using one-way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis or Mann-Whitney, while Spearman test was used to correlate levels of IgG anti-STAg and IgM/IgG anti-PGL-1 from seropositive and seronegative individuals for T. gondii infection. The risk of T. gondii infection for leprosy disease was assessed using Fisher's test. RESULTS: Levels of IgM anti-PGL-1 antibodies were significantly higher in multibacillary (MB) patients compared to paucibacillary (PB) patients (P = 0.0068). Higher IgM and IgG levels anti-PGL-1 were detected in patients with the lepromatous forms. The serologic prevalence for T. gondii infection was 74.9%. We detected increased anti-STAg antibody levels in leprosy patients (79.4%), reaching 88.8% within those with lepromatous form of this disease. The leprosy risk increase in T. gondii seropositive individuals was two-fold (odds ratio [OR] = 2.055; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]: 1.18-3.51) higher than those seronegative, and considering the lepromatous leprosy risk this increase was even dramatic (OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.76-9.69) in T. gondii seropositive individuals. Moreover the leprosy risk in T. gondii seropositive individuals was weakly correlated to the levels of IgG anti-STAg and IgM/IgG anti-PGL-1. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that T. gondii infection may exert immunomodulatory properties that influence to the susceptibility of leprosy, mainly on its more severe clinical form. A better understanding of parasite immunomodulation can ultimately contribute to the development of medical applications.

4.
J Trauma Nurs ; 27(1): 58-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895321

RESUMO

Violence is a growing public health problem worldwide. Nurses increasingly must perform forensic procedures with the responsibility to collect, document, preserve, and store evidence that may be used in the investigation of a violent crime. However, few nurses receive education in forensic evidence collection as part of their training. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between nurses' knowledge and performance of forensic evidence procedures. This is a descriptive survey study of nurses working in a prehospital emergency care service in Aracaju, Brazil. A 32-question survey related to forensic evidence knowledge and procedures was completed by 128 nurses. Descriptive statistics and Kendall's Tau-b were used to describe the sample and evaluate correlations. Results revealed an overall linear relationship between knowledge and performance of forensic evidence procedures (r = .69). The strongest correlation was between knowledge and documentation (r = .71). Weaker correlations were demonstrated between knowledge and evidence collection (r = .47), evidence preservation (r = .47), and overall evidence procedure execution (r = .53). Forensic nursing knowledge is related to forensic evidence procedure performance. Although the study showed that nurses agreed forensic evidence procedures are important for criminal investigations, most reported they were unprepared to carry out these procedures. The need for additional training and adherence to established institutional protocols are identified as contributing factors.

5.
Curr Med Chem ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965937

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity has tripled in recent decades and is now considered an alarming public health problem. In recent years, a group of endocrine disruptors, known as obesogens, have been directly linked to the obesity epidemic. Its etiology is generally associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a high-fat diet and genetic predisposition, but environmental factors, such as obesogens, have also been reported as contributors for this pathology. In brief, obesogens are exogenous chemical compounds that alter metabolic processes and/or energy balance and appetite, thus predisposing to weight gain. Although this theory is still recent, the number of compounds with suspected obesogenic activity has steadily increased over the years, though much more remain a matter of debate. Technical-grade chlordane is an organochlorine pesticide widely present in the environment, albeit at low concentrations. Highly lipophilic, this compound can be metabolized by humans and animals into more toxic and stable compounds that are stored in fat tissue and consequently pose a danger to the human body, including the physiology of adipose tissue, which plays an important role in weight regulation. In addition, technical-grade chlordane is classified as a persistent organic pollutant, a group of chemicals whose epidemiological studies are associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity. Herein, we discuss the emerging roles of obesogens as threats to public health. We particularly discuss the relevance of chlordane persistence in the environment and how its effects on human and animal health provide evidence for its role as an endocrine disruptor with possible obesogenic activity.

6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMO

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(2): 133-142, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941865

RESUMO

Bullfrog oil (BFO) is a natural product from the adipose tissue of the amphibian Rana catesbeiana Shaw, a bio-product rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, which claims anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and the anti-inflammatory activity of BFO using in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus, the in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT assay. Additionally, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was performed by the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in Wistar rats, followed by histological analysis. Moreover, the BFO effect on inflammatory pathways was investigated by in vitro evaluation of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and type-6 interleukin (IL-6) and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF) levels. In vivo experiments showed that BFO administered by intragastric route produced a significant anti-inflammatory effect, which was as substantial as indomethacin, the positive control. Histopathological analysis confirmed these results, showing the absence of the edema and minimal signs of inflammation in the paws of rats treated with BFO. The MTT results showed that BFO at all tested concentrations had no toxic effect against a macrophage cell line, not affecting the cell viability. In addition, after 48 hours of treatment, the BFO itself and its blend with Cetiol®-V (1:1v/v) at 200 µg.mL-1 were able to reduce the NO synthesis, and the IL-6 and TNF levels up to 35 ± 2%, 40 ± 6%, and 12 ± 3%, respectively. Therefore, these results provide unprecedented scientific evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of BFO, suggesting its potential as a new candidate for the development of pharmaceutical products with anti-inflammatory activity.

10.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 146: 125-132, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816391

RESUMO

A serious problem of the treatment of eye diseases is the very short residence time of the drug. The majority of the drug is cleared within few seconds due to the poor capability of the eye to accommodate additional liquids. We developed a new ocular drug delivery system, which is applied in dry form and forms immediately a gel after administration. The system is based on gellan gum/pullulan electrospun nanofibers. The rheological behavior of the spinning solution was investigated followed by further characterization of the in situ formed gel. Three-dimensional X-ray imaging with nanometric resolution (nano-CT) and electron scanning microscopy were used for a detailed characterization of the diameter and alignment of the fibers. A high porosity (87.5 ± 0.5%) and pore interconnectivity (99%) was found. To ensure a good fit to the eye anatomy, the prepared fibers were shaped into curved geometries. Additionally, a new innovative moistening chamber for the in vitro determination of the ocular residence time in porcine eyes was developed which mimics the tear turnover. A clear prolongation of the fluorescein residence time compared to conventional eye drops was achieved with the application of the curved nanofiber in situ gelling mat. In summary, the developed in situ gelling system with adapted geometry is a promising alternative system for ocular drug delivery.

11.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 63: 104673, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704469

RESUMO

Environmental contaminants are a daily presence in human routine. Multiple studies highlight the obesogenic activity of some chemicals. Moreover, these compounds have been suggested as a cause of male subfertility and/or infertility. Technical-grade chlordane (TGC) is classified as an endocrine-disruptor chemical, while its classification as obesogen is controversial. Herein, we studied the influence of TGC on Sertoli cells (SCs) metabolism. Rat Sertoli cells (rSCs) were cultured without and in the presence of increasing concentrations (1, 10 and 1000 nM) of TGC. The viability, proliferation, metabolic activity and the metabolic profile of rSCs was assessed. Expression of key glycolysis-related enzymes, transporters and biomarkers of oxidative damage were also evaluated. Our results show that exposure to higher concentrations of TGC decreases SCs proliferation and viability, which was accompanied by increased glucose consumption associated with an upregulation of Glut3 levels. As a result, pyruvate/lactate production were enhanced thus increasing the glycolytic flux in cells exposed to 1000 nM TGC, although lactate dehydrogenase expression and activity did not increase. Notably, biomarkers associated with oxidative damage remained unchanged after exposure to TGC. This is the first report showing that TGC alters glucose rSCs metabolism and the nutritional support of spermatogenesis with consequences for male fertility.

12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 109975, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787382

RESUMO

Coal plants represent one of the main sources of environmental pollution due to the combustion process of this mineral and the consequent release of gases and particles which, in significant quantities, can lead to a potential risk to health and the environment. The susceptibility of individuals to the genotoxic effects of coal mining can be modulated by genetic variations in the xenobiotic detoxification and DNA repair processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate if xenobiotic metabolism polymorphism, base excision repair polymorphisms and non-homologous end joining repair polymorphism, could modify individual susceptibility to genomic instability and epigenetic alterations induced in workers by occupational exposure to coal. In this study, polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the polymorphic sites. The sample population comprising 70 coal mine workers and 71 workers non-exposed to coal. Our results demonstrated the effect of individual genotypes on different biomarkers evaluated. Significant decrease in % of global DNA methylation were observed in CYP1A1 Val/- exposed individuals compared to CYP1A1 Ile/Ile individuals. Coal workers who carried the XRCC4 Ile/Ile genotype showed decrease NBUD frequencies, while the XRCC4 Thr/- genotype was associated with decrease in Buccal micronucleus cells for the group not exposed. No influence of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1 Ile105Val, hOGG1 Ser326Cys, XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphisms was observed. Thus, the current study reinforces the importance of considering the effect of metabolizing and repair variant genotypes on the individual susceptibility to incorporate DNA damage, as these processes act in a coordinated manner to determine the final response to coal exposure.

13.
J Leukoc Biol ; 107(1): 69-83, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478251

RESUMO

Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is an environmental fungus and a human pathogen. Neutrophils are critical effector cells during the fungal infections, and neutropenia is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released by neutrophils in response to A. fumigatus and inhibit the conidial germination. In this work, we observed that the receptors TLR2, TLR4, and Dectin-1 were dispensable for the A. fumigatus induced NET release. In contrast CD11b/CD18 was critical for the NET release in response to A. fumigatus conidia, and this required the CD11b I-domain-mediated recognition, whereas the blockade of the CD11b lectin domain did not affect the A. fumigatus induced NET release. A. fumigatus induced NET release relied on the activity of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Src family kinase(s), and class IA PI3 kinase δ. Although A. fumigatus promoted histone citrullination, this process was dispensable for the NET release in response to A. fumigatus conidia. The A. fumigatus induced NET release required the reactive oxygen species generation by the NOX2 complex, in a downstream pathway requiring CD11b/CD18, Src kinase family activity, Syk and PI3K class IA δ. Our findings thus reveal the signaling pathways involved in the formation of NETs in response to A. fumigatus.

14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 379-385, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392555

RESUMO

In northeastern Brazil, with has a predominantly dry climate, farmers seek alternative sources of income and livelihood by the rearing pigs. The gastrointestinal parasites that affect these animals represent an obstacle in the production and can cause significant economic loss. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in swine herds in the Sousa microregion, Paraíba state, northeastern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, and the sampling was designed to determine the prevalence of endoparasite-positive farms and pigs. We randomly selected 51 farms and 187 pigs. Fecal samples were collected from each animal, and eggs per gram and oocysts per gram feces were recorded. The data collected in the epidemiological questionnaires were used to determine the possible risk factors associated with endoparasite-positive animal status. The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and Coccidia in the pigs was 79.5% (149/187). Coccidia were the most prevalent parasite found, with 56.6% (106/187) of the pigs testing positive, followed by nematodes 22.9% (43/187). Strongylidae was the most common nematodes found (67.5%, 29/43), followed by Trichuris sp. (30.2%, 13/43) and Ascaris sp. (2.3%, 1/43). In 29 coprocultures, Strongylidae was identified: Oesophagostomum (82.2%, 25/29), Strongyloides (62.0%, 18/29), and Hyostrongylus (27.5%, 8/29). Mixed nematode and coccidial infection were observed in 72.4% (21/29) of the samples. Relevant risk factors were related to the type of management adopted by family farmers. Changes in management measures could improve the health profile of farms.

15.
Pharmacol Rep ; 72: 47–54, 2020.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib17410

RESUMO

Background Diabetic neuropathy is a common cause of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) expression is increased in peripheral nerve samples from diabetes patients, suggesting a role for CXCR4 in PDN. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of Pha1ß, ?-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100 in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced PDN in rodents and naïve model of rats with the activation of the CXCR4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signal. Methods Diabetic neuropathy was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of STZ in Wistar rats. Naïve rats were intrathecally injected with SDF-1 to test the CXCR4/SDF-1 signal. The effects of Pha1ß intrathecal (it), ?-conotoxin MVIIA intrathecal (it), and AMD3100 intraperitoneal (ip) on rat hypersensitivity, IL-6, and the intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i content of diabetic synaptosomes were studied. Results The drugs reduced the hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. SDF-1 (1.0 µg/it) administration in naïve rats induced hypersensitivity. Pha1ß (100 pmol/it) or AMD3100 (2.5 µg/ip) reduced this hypersensitivity after 2 h treatments, while ?-conotoxin MVIIA did not have an effect. IL-6 and [Ca2+]i content increased in the spinal cord synaptosomes in diabetic rats. The drug treatments reduced IL-6 and the calcium influx in diabetic synaptosomes. Conclusions Pha1ß, ?-conotoxin MVIIA, and AMD3100, after 2 h of treatment of STZ-induced PDN, reduced hypersensitivity in diabetic rats. In naïve rats with CXCR4/SDF-1 activation, the induced hypersensitivity decreased after 2 h treatments with Pha1ß or AMD-3100, while ?-conotoxin MVIIA did not affect. The inhibitory effects of Pha1ß on PDN may involve voltage-dependent calcium channels

16.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1048348

RESUMO

Objetivo: elaborar um bundle de cuidados para a prevenção e o controle das infecções hospitalares em unidade de emergência, com base no conhecimento e prática dos profissionais de saúde e nas evidências científicas disponíveis na literatura. Método: pesquisa convergente assistencial, realizada em um serviço de emergência adulto de um hospital geral universitário localizado em uma capital do Sul do Brasil com aplicação de um Survey para 52 trabalhadores da equipe multiprofissional e posterior discussão em grupos "Aqui e Agora". Foi aprovado pelo CEPSH/UFSC com CAAE: 56390616.0.0000.0121. Resultados: emergiram três aspectos mais significativos que compuseram o bundle de cuidados: higienização das mãos; uso de equipamentos de proteção individual; e assepsia de materiais e equipamentos. Conclusão: a utilização do bundle permite informar, orientar, melhorar hábitos e relembrar a equipe de saúde sobre a necessidade de aderir a atitudes que tornem o cuidado realizado mais qualificado e seguro, tanto para o paciente, quanto para o profissional


Objective: develop a care bundle in order to help preventing and controlling hospital infections in emergency care units, based on the knowledge and practice of health professionals, as well as on scientific evidences available in the literature. Method: The study was carried out through the application of a survey comprising 52 health professionals working in the multi-professional team of the aforementioned hospital. The data from the survey were discussed in "Here-and-Now" groups. It was approved by CEPSH / UFSC with CAAE: 56390616.0.0000.0121. Results: the three most significant aspects composing the care bundle were selected based on data derived from the survey, from the groups and from the literature, namely: hand hygiene; use of personal protection equipment; and asepsis of materials and equipment. Conclusion: using the bundle allows inform, guide, as well as to improve habits and remind health teams about the need to adhere to measures able to make the health care practice more qualified and safer for both the patients and the professionals


Objetivo: elaborar un bundle de cuidados para la prevención y el control de las infecciones hospitalarias en unidad de emergencia, con base en el conocimiento y práctica de los profesionales de salud y en las evidencias científicas disponibles en la literatura. Método: se realizó con aplicación de un Survey de que participaron 52 trabajadores del equipo multiprofesional. Los datos de Survey fueron discutidos posteriormente en grupos "Aquí y Ahora". Fue aprobado por el CEPSH / UFSC con CAAE: 56390616.0.0.0000.0121. Resultados: en base a los datos de Survey, de los grupos y de la literatura se seleccionaron los tres aspectos más significativos que compusieron el bundle de cuidados: higienización de las manos; uso de equipos de protección individual; y asepsia de materiales y equipos. Conclusión: la utilización del bundle permite informar, orientar, mejorar hábitos y recordar el equipo de salud sobre la necesidad de adherir a actitudes que hagan del cuidado realizado más calificado y seguro, tanto para el paciente, como para el profesional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Grupos Focais , Segurança do Paciente , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente
17.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 111: 104553, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843592

RESUMO

New effective compounds to treat tuberculosis are urgently needed. IQG-607 is an orally active anti-tuberculosis drug candidate, with promising preliminary safety profile and anti-mycobacterial activity in both in vitro and in vivo models of tuberculosis infection. Here, we evaluated the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of IQG-607, and its interactions with CYP450 isoforms. Moreover, we describe for the first time a combination study of IQG-607 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice. Importantly, IQG-607 had additive effects when combined with the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs rifampin and pyrazinamide in mice. IQG-607 presented weak to moderate inhibitory potential against CYP450 isoforms 3A4, 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2E1. The Salmonella mutagenicity test revealed that IQG-607 induced base pair substitution mutations in the strains TA100 and TA1535. However, in the presence of human metabolic S9 fraction, no mutagenic effect was detected in any strain. Additionally, IQG-607 did not increase micronucleus frequencies in mice, at any dose tested, 25, 100, or 250 mg/kg. The favorable activity in combination with first-line drugs and mild to moderate toxic events described in this study suggest that IQG-607 represents a candidate for clinical development.

18.
Neuropharmacology ; 162: 107826, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647972

RESUMO

Capsaicin, an agonist of TRPV1, evokes intracellular [Ca2+] transients and glutamate release from perfused trigeminal ganglion. The spider toxin PnTx3-5, native or recombinant is more potent than the selective TRPV1 blocker SB-366791 with IC50 of 47 ±â€¯0.18 nM, 45 ±â€¯1.18 nM and 390 ±â€¯5.1 nM in the same experimental conditions. PnTx3-5 is thus more potent than the selective TRPV1 blocker SB-366791. PnTx3-5 (40 nM) and SB-366791 (3 µM) also inhibited the capsaicin-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ in HEK293 cells transfected with TRPV1 by 75 ±â€¯16% and 84 ±â€¯3.2%, respectively. In HEK293 cells transfected with TRPA1, cinnamaldehyde (30 µM) generated an increase in intracellular Ca2+ that was blocked by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (10 µM, 89% inhibition), but not by PnTx3-5 (40 nM), indicating selectivity of the toxin for TRPV1. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on HEK293 cells transfected with TRPV1, capsaicin (10 µM) generated inward currents that were blocked by SB-366791 and by both native and recombinant PnTx3-5 by 47 ±â€¯1.4%; 54 ±â€¯7.8% and 56 ±â€¯9.0%, respectively. Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the rat left vibrissa induced nociceptive behavior that was blocked by pre-injection with either SB-366791 (3 nmol/site i.d., 83.3 ±â€¯7.2% inhibition) or PnTx3-5 (100 fmol/site, 89 ±â€¯8.4% inhibition). We conclude that both native and recombinant PnTx3-5 are potent TRPV1 receptor antagonists with antinociceptive action on pain behavior evoked by capsaicin.

19.
J Physiother ; 66(1): 19-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843426

RESUMO

QUESTIONS: In patients with a collection of fluid in the pleural space, do mobilisation and respiratory techniques: shorten the drainage period and length of hospital stay; improve respiratory function and oxygenation; and prevent pulmonary complications? Does the addition of positive airway pressure to this regimen further improve the effects? DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with three intervention arms, concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinded assessment. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifty-six inpatients with a fluid collection in the pleural space and with chest drainage in situ. INTERVENTION: Participants received usual care and were randomly assigned to: a control group that also received sham positive airway pressure (4 cmH2O) only (Con); an experimental group that received incentive spirometry, airway clearance, mobilisation and the same sham positive pressure (Exp1); or an experimental group that received the Exp1 regimen except that the positive airway pressure was 15 cmH2O (Exp2). Treatments were provided three times per day for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: Days of chest tube drainage, length of hospital stay, pulmonary complications and adverse events were recorded until hospital discharge. Costs in each group were estimated. RESULTS: The Exp2 group had shorter duration of chest tube drainage and length of hospital stay compared with the Exp1 and Con groups. In addition, the Exp2 group had less antibiotic use (18% versus 43% versus 55%) and pneumonia incidence (0% versus 16% versus 20%) compared with the Exp1 and Con groups (all p < 0.01). The groups had similar rates of adverse events (10% versus 2% versus 6%, p > 0.05). Total treatment costs were lower in the Exp2 group than in the Exp1 and Con groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a fluid collection in the pleural space, the addition of positive pressure to mobilisation and respiratory techniques decreased the duration of thoracic drainage, length of hospital stay, pulmonary complications, antibiotic use and treatment costs. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.govNCT02246946.

20.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104549, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541844

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate different periods of exposure to clarified human saliva for the ability to protect enamel against erosive tooth wear. METHODS: For this purpose, sixty specimens (4 × 4 × 1.5 mm) were prepared from third human molars. For all groups, the period before abrasion was performed by remineralisation with human saliva (except in G1). The specimens were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the different remineralisation times of exposure to clarified human saliva: no exposure to saliva (G1) and 30 min (G2), 60 min (G3), 90 min (G4), 120 min (G5), and 240 min (G6) of exposure to human saliva. A 5-day cycling was performed with 5 min of erosion (1% citric acid; pH 2.3), 4x/day. After the first and last erosive episodes, the abrasion challenge was performed with slurry of fluoride toothpaste (1450 ppm F-, as sodium monofluorophosphate) plus human saliva (1:3), with an electric toothbrush (15 s, with a total of 120 s of slurry immersion). Surface loss (SL) was determined using an optical profilometer (n = 10) and for qualitative analysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was performed (n = 3). The SL data were statistically analysed by one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected among the groups for SL (p > 0.05), and ESEM showed similar aspects of eroded enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The period of in vitro exposure to clarified human saliva was not able to protect against enamel erosion.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Saliva/química , Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Cremes Dentais
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