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1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(1): 115325, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556650

RESUMO

Although multidrug therapy is considered an effective treatment for leprosy, antimicrobial resistance is a serious concern. We performed a systematic review of studies on the diagnostic accuracy and screening of tests for antimicrobial resistance in leprosy. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020177958). In April 2020, we searched for studies in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo, and LILACS databases. A random effects regression model was used for the meta-analysis. We included 129 studies. Molecular tests for dapsone resistance had a sensitivity of 78.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 65.6-87.9) and a specificity of 97.0% (95% CI = 94.0-98.6). Molecular tests for rifampicin resistance had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% (95% CI = 80.0-93.9) and 97.3% (95% CI = 94.3-98.8), respectively. Molecular tests for ofloxacin resistance had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.9% (95% CI = 60.1-92.3) and 96.1% (95% CI = 90.2-98.5), respectively. In recent decades, no increase in the resistance proportion was detected. However, the growing number of resistant cases is still a clinical concern.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112107, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550001

RESUMO

The 2019-2020 Brazil oil spill disaster affected several ecosystems and species-rich areas. The shallow-water reefs of Paiva beach are among the best-preserved coastal environments in the State of Pernambuco (NE Brazil), but were severely affected by oil arrival at the end of 2019. The reefs are densely covered by macroalgae as important biogenic substrates for benthic fauna. Based on that, herein, we provide a baseline assessment of the immediate impacts of the oil spill on the structure of epifaunal communities associated with the algae Jania capillacea and Penicillus capitatus. The benthic communities in both algae simplified (reduction of species richness and abundance) soon after oil arrival, while opportunistic taxa increased. After two months, the macrofaunal communities restructured to almost pre-disaster levels. However, polychaeta diversity remained low. Despite the apparently fast recovery of reef macrobenthos, a more detailed, long-term monitoring is necessary to evaluate the chronic effects.

3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 111935, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578128

RESUMO

During the welding activities many compounds are released, several of these cause oxidative stress and inflammation and some are considered carcinogenic, in fact the International Agency for Research on Cancer established that welding fumes are carcinogenic to humans. The aim of the present study was to analyze the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of exposure to welding fumes and to determine concentrations of metals in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers. We included 98 welders and 100 non-exposed individuals. Our results show significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), nuclear buds (NBUD) and necrotic cells (NECR) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay, as well as in the telomere length (TL) of the exposed individuals with respect to the non-exposed group. In the analysis of the concentrations of inorganic elements using PIXE method, were found higher concentrations of Cr, Fe and Cu in the urine, and Cr, Fe, Mg, Al, S, and Mn in the blood in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. A significant correlation was observed between MN and age and between NPB and years of exposure. Additionally, we found a significant correlation for TL in relation to MN, NPB, age and years of exposure in the exposed group. Interestingly, a significant correlation between MN and the increase in the concentration of Mg, S, Fe and Cu in blood samples of the exposed group, and between MN and Cr, Fe, Ni and Cu in urine. Thus, our findings may be associated with oxidative and inflammatory damage processes generated by the components contained in welding fumes, suggesting a high occupational risk in welding workers.

4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 120: 111776, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545906

RESUMO

A biomineralization processes is disclosed for engineering nanomaterials that support bone repair. The material was fabricated through a hot press process using electrospun poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix covered with hybrid composites of carbon nanotubes/graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). Various scaffolds were devised [nHA/PLA, PLA/GNR, and PLA/nHA/GNR (1 and 3%)] and their structure and morphology characterized through Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic force microscope (AFM). Moreover, thorough biocompatibility and toxicity studies were performed. Here, in vivo studies on toxicity and cytotoxicity were conducted in aqueous dispersions of the biomaterials at concentrations of 30, 60, and 120 µg/mL using the Allium cepa test. Further toxicity studies were performed through hemolysis toxicity tests and genotoxicity tests evaluating the damage index and damage frequencies of DNAs through comet assays with samples of the animals' peripheral blood, marrow, and liver. Additionally, the regenerative activity of the scaffolds was analyzed by measuring the cortical tibiae of rats oophorectomized implanted with the biomaterials. Biochemical analyzes [glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), urea, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were also performed on blood samples. The results suggested a toxicity and cytotoxicity level for the GNR biomaterials at a concentration of 60 and 120 µg/mL, but non-toxicity and cytotoxicity for the 30 µg/mL concentration. The scaffolds obtained at a concentration of 0.3 mg/cm2 were not toxic in the hemolysis test and demonstrated no cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in the blood, marrow, and liver analyzes of the animals, corroborating data from the biochemical markers of GPT, GOT, and urea. Tissue regeneration was performed in all groups and was more pronounced in the group containing the combination of nHA/GNR (3%), which is consistent with the data obtained for the calcium, serum phosphorus, and ALP concentrations. Consequently, the study indicates that the engineered nanobiomaterial is a promising candidate for bone tissue repair and regenerative applications. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The scientific contribution of this study is the engineering of a synthetic hybrid biomaterial, in nanoscale by a pressing and heating process. A biodegradable polymeric matrix was covered on both sides with a carbonated hybrid bioceramic/graphene nanoribbons (GNR), which has hydrophilic characteristics, with chemical elements stoichiometrically similar to bone mineral composition. The nanomaterial displayed promising bone regeneration ability, which is the first example to be used in an osteoporotic animal model. Moreover, detailed biocompatibility and toxicity studies were performed on the nanomaterials and their compositions, which is of great interest for the scientific community.

5.
Mutat Res ; 861-862: 503297, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551106

RESUMO

Excess fluoride in water can produce changes in tooth enamel mineralization and lead to diseases such as dental or skeletal fluorosis. The present study aimed to assess the genotoxic effects, oxidative stress, and osteoblastic mineralization induced by fluorosilicic acid (FA) in murine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). BM-MSCs were isolated from the femurs and tibias of rats and cultured under standard conditions. Cells exposure occurred for 3, 7, 14, and 21 days to different concentrations of FA (0.6-9.6 mg/L). Cytotoxicity was observed in 14 and 21 days of exposure for all concentrations of FA (cell proliferation below 60%), and for 3 and 7 days, in which the proliferation was above 80%. Alkaline comet assay results demonstrated significant increased damage at concentrations of 0.3-2.4 mg/L, and the micronucleus test showed increased rates for micronucleus (1.2-2.4 mg/L) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) (0.3-2.4 mg/L) (P < 0.05/Dunnett's test). An alkaline comet assay modified by repair endonuclease (FPG) was used to detect oxidized nucleobases, which occurred at 0.6 mg/L. The oxidative stress was evaluated by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and antioxidant activity (TAC). Only lipid peroxidation was increased at concentrations of 0.6 mg/L and 1.2 mg/L (P < 0.001/Tukey's test). The osteogenesis process determined the level of extracellular matrix mineralization. The mean concentration of Alizarin red increased significantly in 14 days at the 0.6 mg/L concentration group (P < 0.05/Tukey's test) compared to the control group, and a significant difference between the groups regarding the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed. Unlike other studies, our results indicated that FA in BM-MSCs at concentrations used in drinking water induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and acceleration of bone mineralization.

6.
Food Res Int ; 139: 109951, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509504

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest that the type of dietary fatty acid may modulate the intestinal bacterial ecosystem. However, this effect is still inconclusive. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intake of vegetable oils rich in different types of fatty acids, associated with energy-restricted normofat diets, on the composition of intestinal microbiota and permeability, on LPS concentrations, and fecal short chain fatty acids and pH. This was a 9 consecutive weeks (±5 days), randomized, parallel, double-blind clinical trial. Overweight women received daily breakfast containing 25 mL of one of the test oils: soybean oil (n = 17), extra virgin olive oil (n = 19) or coconut oil (n = 16). Blood, fecal and urine samples were collected on the first and last day of the experiment for the analysis of the variables of interest. The consumption of the three oils did not affect the diversity and relative abundance of intestinal bacteria. We observed an increase in bacterial richness estimated by the Chao 1 index, and a reduction in the concentration of isovaleric fatty acid in the group that ingested soybean oil. Paracellular and transcellular permeability increased after the ingestion of extra virgin olive oil and coconut oil. However, LPS concentrations remained unchanged. The intake of different types of fatty acids associated with the energy-restricted normofat diet modestly affected the intestinal microbiota and permeability, without resulting in metabolic endotoxemia in overweight women.

7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492574

RESUMO

Rutin is an important flavonoid consumed in the daily diet. It is also known as vitamin P and has been extensively investigated due to its pharmacological properties. On the other hand, neuronal death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity is present in several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. The neuroprotective properties of rutin have been under investigation, although its mechanism of action is still poorly understood. We hypothesized that the mechanisms of neuroprotection of rutin are associated with the increase in glutamate metabolism in astrocytes. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of rutin with a focus on the modulation of glutamate detoxification. We used brain organotypic cultures from post-natal Wistar rats (P7-P9) treated with rutin to evaluate neural cell protection and levels of proteins involved in the glutamate metabolism. Moreover, we used cerebral cortex slices from adult Wistar rats to evaluate glutamate uptake. We showed that rutin inhibited the cell death and loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) induced by glutamate that was associated with an increase in glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) in brain organotypic cultures from post-natal Wistar rats. Additionally, it was observed that rutin increased the glutamate uptake in cerebral cortex slices from adult Wistar rats. We conclude that rutin is a neuroprotective agent that prevents glutamate excitotoxicity and thereof suggest that this effect involves the regulation of astrocytic metabolism.

8.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435828

RESUMO

Sida planicaulis is a weed thought to have originated in Brazil, where it is present in abundant quantities, but also this plant is also found in south-central Florida, Indian Ocean Islands, and the Pacific Islands. Sida planicaulis produces neurotoxicity that adversely affects livestock breeding with heavy animal losses and consequent negative impact on Brazil's economy. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical profile, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of ethanolic extracts of S. planicaulis collected in winter (leaf extract) and summer (leaf extract and leaf + flower extract) using an in vitro model of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and apolar compounds. Rutin, quercetin, and swainsonine were detected by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. Phosphorus, potassium, iron, and zinc were the inorganic elements found. Extracts produced cytotoxicity at all concentrations tested (7-4,000 µg/ml) as evidenced by the colorimetric assay [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl) -2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT)]. Based upon the alkaline comet assay extracts were found to induce genotoxicity at concentrations ranging from 0.437 to 7 µg/ml. DNA damage produced by extracts was affirmed using a modified comet assay with the enzymes Endo III and FPG in a concentration dependent manner. Further, enzyme-modified comet assay showed both oxidized purines and pyrimidines, and consequently oxidative stress was related to genomic instability and cell death. Data suggest that low concentrations of ethanolic extracts of S. planicaulis (different seasons) induced increased DNA damage related to oxidative stress and chemical composition.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507495

RESUMO

This study evaluated the bioproduction of 1,3-propanediol by Lactobacillus diolivorans in the medium based on agro-industrial residues and vegetal biomass substituting the MRS medium components. It was performed on a set of acid treatments and batch fermentations assays with crude glycerol (TCG) from biodiesel production, corn steep liquor (CSL), and cactus cladode hydrolyzate (CCH). Firstly, it was carried out on batch fermentation with different pure glycerol concentrations in MRS medium which was carried out, and the best condition achieved 4.66 g/L and 0.61 g/g of 1,3-PDO production and yield, respectively. Then, the TCG was evaluated, and a discrete increase of 1,3-PDO was observed. The replacement of the MRS medium nutrients by CLS was assessed, at different concentrations, for bacteria growth, and 5% of CLS reproduced the same biomass formation compared to the bacteria growth in MRS medium. It was also added cactus cladode hydrolyzate as the only sugar source, which showed a 1,3-PDO production close to the medium with pure glucose. Finally, a B-complex vitamin was added to the batch fermentation medium composed of TCG, CLS, and CCH, replacing all the costly MRS components. In this medium, the production of 1,3-propanediol was 6.57 g/L with a yield of 0.75 g/g. It means an increment of 29% and 19%, respectively, compared to MRS medium. Therefore, the combination of treated crude glycerol, corn steep liquor, and cactus cladode hydrolyzate has excellent potential for 1,3-PDO production by L. diolivorans.

11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111919, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360723

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in bile and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated in Brazilian mojarra Eugerres brasilianus along four estuaries in northeastern Brazil. Bile PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene were lowest at Formoso River Estuarine System (FRES), an area with low population density focused on tourism. Fish sampled in Suape Estuarine Complex (SEC), where a growing industrial port complex is established indicated higher naphthalene and pyrene concentrations compared with FRES. Fish sampled in highly urbanized and populated Bacia do Pina Estuarine Complex (BPEC) and Barra de Jangada Estuarine System (BJES) indicated an increase in all PAHs compared to FRES. Activities of phase 1 Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, phase 2 glutathione-S-transferase and antioxidant defense catalase were induced up to 20, 2 and 2-fold in BJES and BPEC compared to FRES. This study confirms E. brasilianus as an important sentinel species, providing baseline information for these tropical estuaries with different degrees of anthropogenic pressure.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111076, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341054

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used in the treatment of cancer, however, it is associated with the occurrence of adverse reactions that limits its clinical use. In this context, the encapsulation of DOX in micelles responsive to pH variations has shown to be a strategy for tumor delivery of the drug, with the potential to increase therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the toxic effects. In addition, radiolabeling nanoparticles with a radioactive isotope is of great use in preclinical studies, since it allows the in vivo monitoring of the nanostructure through the acquisition of quantitative images. Therefore, this study aimed to develop, characterize, and evaluate the antitumor activity of a pH-sensitive micelle composed of DSPE-PEG2000, oleic acid, and DOX. The micelles had a diameter of 13 nm, zeta potential near to neutrality, and high encapsulation percentage. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) was 1.4 × 10-5 mol L-1. The pH-sensitivity was confirmed in vitro through a drug release assay. Cytotoxicity studies confirmed that the encapsulation of DOX into the micelles did not impair the drug cytotoxic activity. Moreover, the incorporation of DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA into the micelles allowed it radiolabeling with the technetium-99 m in high yield and stability, permitting its use to monitor antitumor therapy. In this sense, the pH-sensitive micelles were able to inhibit tumor growth significantly when compared to non-pH-sensitive micelles and the free drug. in vivo toxicity evaluation in the zebrafish model revealed significantly lower toxicity of pH-sensitive micelles compared to the free drug. These results indicate that the developed formulation presents itself as a promising alternative to potentiate the treatment of tumors.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 110952, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348307

RESUMO

pH-sensitive liposomes are interesting carriers for drug-delivery, undertaking rapid bilayer destabilization in response to pH changes, allied to tumor accumulation, a desirable behavior in the treatment of cancer cells. Previously, we have shown that pH-sensitive liposomes accumulate in tumor tissues of mice, in which an acidic environment accelerates drug delivery. Ultimately, these formulations can be internalized by tumor cells and take the endosome-lysosomal route. However, the mechanism of doxorubicin release and intracellular traffic of pH-sensitive liposomes remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the intracellular release of doxorubicin from pH-sensitive liposomes, we followed HeLa cells viability, internalization, intracellular trafficking, and doxorubicin's intracellular delivery mechanisms from pH-sensitive (SpHL-DOX) and non-pH-sensitive (nSpHL-DOX) formulations. We found that SpHL-DOX has faster internalization kinetics and intracellular release of doxorubicin, followed by strong nuclear accumulation compared to nSpHL-DOX. The increased nuclear accumulation led to the activation of cleaved caspase-3, which efficiently induced apoptosis. Remarkably, we found that chloroquine and E64d enhanced the cytotoxicity of SpHL-DOX. This knowledge is paramount to improve the efficiency of pH-sensitive liposomes or to be used as a rational strategy for developing new formulations to be applied in vivo.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1133871

RESUMO

Fatalism refers to the attitude of treating negative situations as inherent to destiny or as outcome of divine will. Considering the fatalism consequences impact in the transformative action and having elected Martin-Baró as theoretical reference, the present article reviewed the nuances of fatalism in the narratives of industrial workers, who reported on the repercussions of work accidents on their lives. From the data of a previous qualitative investigation, conducted through open and in-depth interviews, three interviews were selected whose narratives represented different facets of fatalism. The information accessed was analyzed and categorized, at which time the elements of the experiences that ensured the maintenance of fatalism and the movements of consciousness that, also from experience, challenged conformism and indicated a potential rupture with fatalism were highlighted.


O fatalismo refere-se à atitude de tratar situações negativas como inerentes ao destino ou como produtos da vontade divina. Considerando suas consequências para a ação transformadora e tendo Martin-Baró como referencial teórico, no presente artigo foram analisadas as nuances do fatalismo nas narrativas de trabalhadores industriais que relataram as repercussões em suas vidas, dos acidentes de trabalho que sofreram. Do acervo de uma pesquisa qualitativa anterior, realizada por meio de entrevistas abertas e em profundidade, foram selecionadas três entrevistas cujas narrativas representavam diferentes facetas do fatalismo. As informações acessadas foram analisadas e categorizadas, momento no qual foram destacados os elementos das vivências que garantiam a manutenção do fatalismo e os movimentos da consciência que, também a partir da experiência, desafiavam o conformismo e indicavam uma potencial ruptura com o fatalismo.


Assuntos
Psicologia Social , Riscos Ocupacionais , Acidentes de Trabalho
15.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128291, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297233

RESUMO

Approximately 20% industrial water pollution comes from textile dyeing process, with Azo dyes being a major problem in this scenario and requiring new forms of efficient treatment. Effluent treatments using the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) are justified by the potential of application in the dyed effluent treatments once they can change the Azo dye chemical structure. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and mutagenic capacity of a synthetic effluent containing Amido Black 10B (AB10B) azo dye before treatment with AOP, named Gross Synthetic Effluent (GSE), and after the AOP, named Treated Synthetic Effluent (TSE). Daphnia magna and Allium cepa tests were used to evaluate acute toxicity effects and chromosomal mutagenesis, respectively. The Salmonella/microsome assay was performed to evaluate gene mutations. In silico assays were also performed aiming to identify the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of the degradation byproducts of AB10B. There was 100% immobility to D. magna after 24 h and 48 h of treatments with TSE, showing EC50 values around 5%, whereas GSE did not show acute toxicity. However, GSE induced chromosomal mutations in A. cepa test. Both GSE and TSE were not able to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium strains. These effects can be associated with two byproducts generated with the cleavage of the azo bonds of AB10B, 4-nitroaniline and -2-7-triamino-8-hydroxy-3-6-naphthalinedisulfate (TAHNDS). In conclusion, AOP is an efficient method to reduce the mutagenicity of synthetic effluent containing AB10B and additional methods should be applied aiming to reduce the toxicity.


Assuntos
Mutagênicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Corantes/toxicidade , Daphnia , Mutagênese , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Mutagênicos/análise , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Indústria Têxtil , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110864, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254426

RESUMO

Paclitaxel (PTX) has a great clinical significance as an antitumor drug, although several side effects are strongly dose-limiting. In this way, we prepared a PTX-loaded 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] polymeric micelles (PM/PTX) in an attempt to improve safety and effectiveness of conventional PTX formulation (CrEL/EtOH/PTX). In this study, we evaluated from both formulations: stability after dilution, hemocompatibility, cellular uptake, acute toxicity in healthy mice, antitumor activity, and toxicity after multiple-dose treatment. PM/PTX appeared to be more stable than CrEL/EtOH/PTX after dilution. PM/PTX did not exhibit hemolytic activity (values <1%), even at high concentrations. In vitro cellular uptake study indicated that polymeric micelles were able to deliver more PTX (5.8 %) than CrEL/EtOH (2.7 %) to 4T1 cells. In the acute toxicity evaluation in healthy mice, CrEL/EtOH/PTX (single dose of 20 mg/kg) induced peripheral neuropathy, which was not observed in PM/PTX group. Similar results were observed after tumor-bearing mice received a multiple-dose regimen (seven doses of 10 mg/kg). Worth mentioning, we also evaluated vehicles, and CrEL/EtOH alone was not capable of inducing neuropathic pain. Besides, PM/PTX exhibited a higher antitumor activity with an inhibition ratio approximately 1.5-fold higher than CrEL/EtOH/PTX group. This study suggested that PM/PTX is safer than CrEL/EtOH/PTX, and was able to improve the antitumor effectiveness in a 4T1 breast cancer model.

17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(48): 1807-1811, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270609

RESUMO

By June 2020, Marshallese and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons in Benton and Washington counties of Arkansas had received a disproportionately high number of diagnoses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite representing approximately 19% of these counties' populations (1), Marshallese and Hispanic persons accounted for 64% of COVID-19 cases and 57% of COVID-19-associated deaths. Analyses of surveillance data, focus group discussions, and key-informant interviews were conducted to identify challenges and propose strategies for interrupting transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Challenges included limited native-language health messaging, high household occupancy, high employment rate in the poultry processing industry, mistrust of the medical system, and changing COVID-19 guidance. Reducing the COVID-19 incidence among communities that suffer disproportionately from COVID-19 requires strengthening the coordination of public health, health care, and community stakeholders to provide culturally and linguistically tailored public health education, community-based prevention activities, case management, care navigation, and service linkage.

18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0009015, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370305

RESUMO

Trypanosoma rangeli is a non-pathogenic protozoan parasite that infects mammals, including humans, in Chagas disease-endemic areas of South and Central America. The parasite is transmitted to a mammalian host when an infected triatomine injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into the host's skin during a bloodmeal. Infected mammals behave as parasite reservoirs for several months and despite intensive research, some major aspects of T. rangeli-vertebrate interactions are still poorly understood. In particular, many questions still remain unanswered, e.g. parasite survival and development inside vertebrates, as no parasite multiplication sites have yet been identified. The present study used an insect bite transmission strategy to investigate whether the vector inoculation spot in the skin behave as a parasite-replication site. Histological data from the skin identified extracellular parasites in the dermis and hypodermis of infected mice in the first 24 hours post-infection, as well as the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in a period of up to 7 days. However, qPCR analyses demonstrated that T. rangeli is eliminated from the skin after 7 days of infection despite being still consistently found on circulating blood and secondary lymphoid tissues for up to 30 days post-infection. Interestingly, significant numbers of parasites were found in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected mice during different periods of infection and steady basal numbers of flagellates are maintained in the host's bloodstream, which might behave as a transmission source to insect vectors. The presence of parasites in the spleen was confirmed by fluorescent photomicrography of free and cell-associated T. rangeli forms. Altogether our results suggest that this organ could possibly behave as a T. rangeli maintenance hotspot in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia , Trypanosoma rangeli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , América Central/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Camundongos , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Sepse/parasitologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 41(3): 61-64, set./dez. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1121762

RESUMO

A displasia cemento-óssea florida (DCOF) é uma condição não neoplásica, esclerosante limitada aos ossos maxilares, relacionada ao osso do processo alveolar e, na maioria dos casos envolvendo bilateralmente a mandíbula. É uma condição rara que se apresenta nos maxilares, de forma autolimitante, evoluindo de um estágio osteolítico para osteoblástico, com prevalência pelo gênero feminino, de meia idade a idosas, melanoderma. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho é relatar o caso clínico de uma paciente portadora de displasia cemento-óssea florida apresentando osteomielite local após exodontia.Paciente de 57 anos de idade, melanoderma, compareceu ao ambulatório do Hospital Manoel Victorino (Salvador, BA) do serviço de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Bucomaxilofacial, referindo histórico de exodontia do dente 47 há aproximadamente 02 anos, sem cicatrização local e presença de supuração e odor fétido. Ao exame intrabucal notou- se a presença fístula na região do dente 47 com secreção purulenta espontânea e presença de tecido necrótico. Ao exame de imagem (radiografia panorâmica), foi observado presença de lesões radiopacas multifocais das áreas posteriores mandibulares. Foi submetida a cirurgia, sob anestesia geral, para curetagem de sequestro ósseo e fechamento primário do defeito por primeira intenção e acompanhamento. O objetivo do trabalho foi relatar um caso clínico de um sequestro ósseo mandibular em uma paciente com displasia cemento- óssea florida(AU)


Flowery cementum-bone dysplasia (DCOF) is a non-neoplastic, sclerosing condition limited to maxillary bones, related to the alveolar process bone and, in most cases, bilaterally involving the mandible. When infected can lead to suppuration and kidnapping, resulting in a picture of osteomyelitis. It is a rare condition that occurs in the jaws, in a selflimiting way, evolving from an osteolytic stage to osteoblastic, with prevalence by the female gender, from middle age to the elderly, melanoderma. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to report a diagnosed case of florid cemento-ousseous dysplasia, presenting local osteomyelitis after a extraction. Patient 57 years old, melanoderma, attended the outpatient clinic of the Hospital Manoel Victorino (Salvador, BA) of the Bucomaxillofacial surgery and traumatology department, referring to a history of the right mandible exodontia for approximately 2 years, without local scarring and presence of odor and suppuration fetid The intraoral examination revealed the presence of a fistula in the region distal to the tooth 47 with spontaneous purulent secretion and necrotic tissue. At the imaging examination (panoramic radiography), the presence of multifocal radiopaque lesions of the mandibular posterior areas was observed. She underwent surgery under general anesthesia for curettage of bone sequestration and primary closure of the defect by first intention and follow-up. The objective of this study was to report a clinical case of a mandibular bone sequestration in a patient with florid cementoosseous dysplasia(AU)


Assuntos
Cementoma , Cementoma/cirurgia , Osteomielite , Cirurgia Bucal , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Cementoma/diagnóstico , Fístula Bucal , Displasia Fibrosa Óssea
20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 173672, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190801

RESUMO

Agents that modulate the activity of high-voltage gated calcium channels (HVCCs) exhibit experimentally and clinically significant effect by relieving visceral pain. Among these agents, the toxins Phα1ß and ω-conotoxin MVIIA effectively reduce chronic pain in rodent models. The molecular mechanisms underlying the chronic pain associated with acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Hypercalcemia is a risk factor; the role of cytosolic calcium is considered to be a modulator of pancreatitis. Blockade of Ca2+ signals may be useful as a prophylactic treatment of pancreatitis. We explored the pathophysiological roles of three peptide toxins: Phα1ß and its recombinant form CTK 01512-2-blockers of TRPA1 receptor and HVCCs and ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a specific blocker of N-type calcium channels in cerulein-induced AP. Cerulein injection elicits AP in rats, evidenced by an increase in hyperalgesic pain, inflammatory infiltration, amylase and lipase secretion, and reactive oxygen species, TNF-α, and p65 NF-κB levels. These effects of cerulein-induced AP were abolished by Phα1ß and its recombinant form CTK 01512-2, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA had no effect on the induced increase in pancreatic enzyme secretion. Our results demonstrate that Phα1ß and CTK 01512-2 toxins-antagonists of HVCCs and TRPA1 receptor presented an effective response profile, in the control of nociception and inflammatory process in the AP model in rats, without causing changes in spontaneous locomotion of the rats.

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