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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253598, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355857

RESUMO

Abstract Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees are widely distributed throughout the Cerrado ecosystem. The fruits of C. brasiliense trees are used by humans for food and as the main income source in many communities. C. brasiliense conservation is seriously threatened due to habitat loss caused by the land-use change. Sucking insects constitute an important ecological driver that potentially impact C. brasiliense survival in degraded environments. In addition, insects sampling methodologies for application in studies related to the conservation of C. brasiliense are poorly developed. In this study, sucking insects (Hemiptera) and their predators were recorded in three vertical strata of Caryocar brasiliense canopies. The distribution of sucking species showed vertical stratification along the canopy structure of C. brasiliense. The basal part of the canopy had the highest numbers of sucking insects Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and their predators Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), spiders (Araneae), and Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Predators' distribution follows the resource availability and preferred C. brasiliense tree parts with a higher abundance of prey.


Resumo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) é amplamente distribuído por todo o ecossistema de cerrado. Os frutos de C. brasiliense são utilizados na alimentação humana e constitui uma importante fonte de renda para muitas comunidades. A perda de habitat provocada pelas mudanças de uso da terra coloca em risco a conservação de C. brasiliense. Insetos sugadores constituem um importante fator ecológico que, potencialmente, afeta o fitness de C. brasiliense em ambientes degradados. Além disso, as metodologias de amostragem de insetos para aplicação em estudos relacionados à conservação de C. brasiliense são pouco desenvolvidas. Neste estudo, o número de insetos sugadores (Hemiptera) e seus predadores foram avaliados em três estratos verticais do dossel de C. brasiliense. A distribuição das espécies sugadoras apresentou estratificação vertical ao longo da estrutura do dossel. O estrato basal do dossel apresentou o maior número de insetos sugadores Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) e Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), e seus predadores Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), aranhas (Araneae) e Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Os predadores distribuíram-se de acordo com a disponibilidade de recursos, ocorrendo em maior número nas partes do dossel com maior abundância de suas presas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Afídeos , Malpighiales , Árvores , Ecossistema , Insetos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e261227, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976355

RESUMO

The nutrient stress hypothesis predicts that galling insects prevail on host plants growing in habitats with soils of low nutritional quality. Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) is host to four different leaf-galling insects. These insects have the potential to cause a reduction in the production of C. brasiliense fruits, an important source of income for many communities in Brazil. We studied the effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on the abundance, species richness, and diversity of galling insects and their natural enemies on C. brasiliense trees growing under three different soil conditions. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that in nutritionally poor (e.g., lower phosphorus content) and worse physical textures (e.g., sandy) soils, host plants support higher species richness and diversity of galling insects. However, the abundance of Eurytoma sp. (the most common gall in C. brasiliense), was correlated with a higher phosphorus concentration in the soil (better nutritional condition). The percentage of galled leaflets and the area of leaflets occupied by Eurytoma sp galls were higher in the more fertile soil. In this soil, there was greater abundance, species richness, and diversity of parasitoids of Eurytoma sp. (e.g., Sycophila sp.) and predators (e.g., Zelus armillatus). Our data indicate the importance of habitat quality in the composition of the galling insect community and the impact of soil properties in mediating the distribution of these insects in C. brasiliense.


Assuntos
Malpighiales , Árvores , Animais , Biodiversidade , Insetos , Fósforo , Plantas , Solo
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e260721, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674588

RESUMO

Forest restoration is mainly based on plant-soil relationships and plant species with economic potential, but those between insects and other arthropods are also important to this reestablishment. The objective was to evaluate, during 24 months, the relationships between tending ants, Hemiptera phytophagous, predators and their distribution pattern (aggregated, random or uniform). The arthropods were sampled, stored and identified and their relationships and distribution patterns calculated with the BioDiversity-Pro software. The number of tending ants and phytophagous Hemiptera, Brachymyrmex sp. and Aethalion reticulatum, Cephalotes and Aleyrodidae were positively correlated. Tending ants were negatively correlated with Sternorrhyncha predators on A. auriculiformis saplings. The distribution of arthropods was aggregated, except for Teudis sp. and Cephalocoema sp., with a random pattern. The herbivores Stereoma anchoralis, Aethalion reticulatum and Tetragonisca angustula and the predators Brachymyrmex sp. and Dolichopodidae were the most abundant arthropods. The relationships between the arthropods studied on A. auriculiformis indicate that this plant, even introduced, is suitable for programs to recover degraded areas in the savannah.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Artrópodes , Fabaceae , Hemípteros , Aranhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Insetos , Plantas
5.
Animal ; : 100551, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688653

RESUMO

The difficulty in selecting cattle for higher feed and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is an important factor contributing to poor growth and reproductive performance in dry-tropics rangelands. Therefore, the objectives were to examine the cattle variation in retaining nitrogen in a protein-deficient diet and the natural abundance of stable isotopes in body tissues as a practical alternative for the detection of more efficient cattle. In experiment 1, feed efficiency parameters were determined in 89 Brahman steers fed a protein-limiting diet for 70 days, followed by 7 days in metabolism crates for total collection of urine and faeces and calculation of nitrogen retention and NUE. The diet-animal fractionation of nitrogen isotopes (Δ15N) was quantified in tail hair and plasma proteins using isotope-ratio MS. There was a large variation in growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen losses among steers. Quantifying Δ15N in tail hair (Δ15Ntail hair) resulted in stronger correlations with feed efficiency and nitrogen metabolism parameters than when quantified in plasma proteins. Δ15Ntail hair was positively correlated with nitrogen losses in urine (r = 0.31, P < 0.01) and faeces (r = 0.25, P = 0.04), leading to a negative correlation with NUE (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). The group of steers with lower Δ15Ntail hair had greater feed efficiency, lower nitrogen losses, and greater NUE. In experiment 2, for evaluation of isotope fraction as a predictor of reproductive performance, 630 Brahman-crossed cows were classified for reproductive performance for 2 years. From this group, 25 cows with poor reproductive performance and 25 cows with good reproductive performance were selected. Tail hair representing 7 months of growth were segmented and analysed for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope enrichment. Reproductive performance was not associated with diet selection, as there was no difference in tail hair δ13C between groups. However, more productive cows had lower (P < 0.05) tail hair δ15N during the dry season, indicating differences in N metabolism and possibly lower N losses. In addition, cows with better reproductive performance and, therefore, greater nutrient demands, had similar body condition scores and a tendency (P = 0.09) for higher live weight at the end of the trial. In conclusion, the findings of the present study confirm that nitrogen isotope fractionation in tail hair can be used as a predictor of nitrogen losses, NUE, and reproductive performance of Brahman cattle on low-protein diets.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257975, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588516

RESUMO

Galling insects are abundant in nature, found in many ecosystems globally, with species attacking plants of economic importance. We studied the effects of free-feeding organisms on the abundance of galling insects on Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) trees in the Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna). Percentage of defoliation and the number of phytophagous mites or number of phytophagous Hemiptera correlated negatively with percentage of galled leaves and the parasitoid Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) adults, respectively. Percentage of galled leaves and the numbers of Eurytoma sp. adults and phytophagous mites correlated positively with spiders. Numbers of mites and Hemiptera phytophagous correlated positively with those of lady beetles and Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), respectively. The number of Ablerus magistretti Blanchard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) adults correlated negatively with Sycophila sp. The number of Agistemus sp. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) correlated, negatively and positively, with those of lady beetles and phytophagous mites, respectively. Free-feeding herbivores affected the presence of galling insects (Hymenoptera) on C. brasiliense trees, competing for food and space. The same was observed between two parasitoids of Eurytoma sp. galling insect, which can reduce the natural biological control of this pest.


Assuntos
Besouros , Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Malpighiales , Ácaros , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Insetos , Plantas , Árvores
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253598, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043835

RESUMO

Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae) trees are widely distributed throughout the Cerrado ecosystem. The fruits of C. brasiliense trees are used by humans for food and as the main income source in many communities. C. brasiliense conservation is seriously threatened due to habitat loss caused by the land-use change. Sucking insects constitute an important ecological driver that potentially impact C. brasiliense survival in degraded environments. In addition, insects sampling methodologies for application in studies related to the conservation of C. brasiliense are poorly developed. In this study, sucking insects (Hemiptera) and their predators were recorded in three vertical strata of Caryocar brasiliense canopies. The distribution of sucking species showed vertical stratification along the canopy structure of C. brasiliense. The basal part of the canopy had the highest numbers of sucking insects Aphis gossypii (Glover 1877) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn. 1889) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and their predators Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), spiders (Araneae), and Zelus armillatus (Lep. & Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Predators' distribution follows the resource availability and preferred C. brasiliense tree parts with a higher abundance of prey.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Malpighiales , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Insetos , Árvores
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431904

RESUMO

Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Artrópodes , Animais , Abelhas , Insetos , Folhas de Planta
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(3): 204-206, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652492

RESUMO

Currently, we are experiencing a true pandemic of a communicable disease by the virus SARS-CoV-2 holding the whole world firmly in its grasp. Amazingly and unfortunately, this virus uses a metabolic and endocrine pathway via ACE2 to enter our cells causing damage and disease. Our international research training programme funded by the German Research Foundation has a clear mission to train the best students wherever they may come from to learn to tackle the enormous challenges of diabetes and its complications for our society. A modern training programme in diabetes and metabolism does not only involve a thorough understanding of classical physiology, biology and clinical diabetology but has to bring together an interdisciplinary team. With the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic, this prestigious and unique metabolic training programme is facing new challenges but also new opportunities. The consortium of the training programme has recognized early on the need for a guidance and for practical recommendations to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic for the community of patients with metabolic disease, obesity and diabetes. This involves the optimal management from surgical obesity programmes to medications and insulin replacement. We also established a global registry analyzing the dimension and role of metabolic disease including new onset diabetes potentially triggered by the virus. We have involved experts of infectious disease and virology to our faculty with this metabolic training programme to offer the full breadth and scope of expertise needed to meet these scientific challenges. We have all learned that this pandemic does not respect or heed any national borders and that we have to work together as a global community. We believe that this transCampus metabolic training programme provides a prime example how an international team of established experts in the field of metabolism can work together with students from all over the world to address a new pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Educação Médica Continuada , Obesidade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia
10.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e10766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624732

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide, especially in Brazil, currently one of the leading countries in number of infections and deaths. The beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil is uncertain due to the low number of tests done in the country. The excess number of deaths can suggest the beginning of the pandemic in this context. In this article, we used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to investigate possible excesses in the number of deaths processed by the São Paulo Autopsy Service according to different causes of deaths: all-cause, cardiovascular, and pulmonary causes. We calculated the expected number of deaths using data from 2019 to 2020 (n=17,011), and investigated different seasonal patterns using harmonic dynamic regression with Fourier terms with residuals modeled by an ARIMA method. We did not find any abnormalities in the predicted number of deaths and the real values in the first months of 2020. We found an increase in the number of deaths only by March 20, 2020, right after the first COVID-19 confirmed case in the city of São Paulo, which occurred on March 16, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Autopsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10766, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153540

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide, especially in Brazil, currently one of the leading countries in number of infections and deaths. The beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil is uncertain due to the low number of tests done in the country. The excess number of deaths can suggest the beginning of the pandemic in this context. In this article, we used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to investigate possible excesses in the number of deaths processed by the São Paulo Autopsy Service according to different causes of deaths: all-cause, cardiovascular, and pulmonary causes. We calculated the expected number of deaths using data from 2019 to 2020 (n=17,011), and investigated different seasonal patterns using harmonic dynamic regression with Fourier terms with residuals modeled by an ARIMA method. We did not find any abnormalities in the predicted number of deaths and the real values in the first months of 2020. We found an increase in the number of deaths only by March 20, 2020, right after the first COVID-19 confirmed case in the city of São Paulo, which occurred on March 16, 2020.


Assuntos
Humanos , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Autopsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Parasitology ; 147(13): 1552-1558, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741387

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/mortalidade , Doenças Endêmicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(12): 2890-2897, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) is a rare clinical subtype of pemphigus with the presence of urticarial plaques, severe pruritus, rare acantholysis and eosinophilic spongiosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IL-31 and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the pathogenesis of PH. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with PH and three groups: pemphigus foliaceus (PF = 14), pemphigus vulgaris (PV = 15) and healthy controls (HC = 20) were selected for this study. The groups were analysed by immunohistochemistry utilizing IL-31, IL-31RA, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α antibodies. Serum levels of IL-4, IL-13, TNF, CXCL8, CCL5 and CCL2 were evaluated by cytometric bead array. RESULTS: Analysis of IL-31 family of PH patients revealed the following findings: (i) Enhanced in situ expression of IL-31 in PH samples, compared to PF and to PV (epidermis); (ii) Cutaneous IL-31RA expression in PH samples was higher than in PF, PV and HC groups (epidermis and dermis); (iii) PF patients that evolved to PH showed significant increased IL-31RA epidermal expression during the PH phase. Profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α) in PH patients' skin exhibited: (i) Enhanced IL-4 expression, when compared to patients with PF (epidermis and dermis) and with PV (epidermis); (ii) Augmented IL-17 expression than PF and PV patients (epidermis); (iii) Augmented expression of TNF-α when compared to PF at the epidermal level. Evaluation of circulating cytokines and chemokines showed higher levels of CXCL8 and CCL2 in PH sera compared to HC group. CONCLUSIONS: IL-31 and IL-31RA, cytokines related to pruritus, and pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCL8 and CCL2) seem to exert a role in the pathogenesis of PH. These findings support future studies to clarify the role of IL-31 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for patients with PH.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Pênfigo , Acantólise , Quimiocina CCL2 , Citocinas , Humanos , Interleucina-13
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 135306, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926406

RESUMO

Copper is an essential element to all living organisms. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic substances may cause contamination at a large scale. Altered levels of Cu2+ may result in harmful effects and can be associated with memory and cognitive dysfunction. Studying simple, genetically tractable organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, can reveal important data on the neural basis of conditioning. D. melanogaster is an important alternative experimental model to assess the toxic response to metals. In the present study, the effects of copper on flies' development and in learning and memory retention in male and female adult flies were investigated. We paired an odorant to pain perception and observed the aversion behavior over time. Exposure of D. melanogaster eggs to Cu2+ increased mortality of larvae, pupae, and adults and decreased memory retention in adults. Moreover, male flies demonstrated to be more susceptible to Cu2+ toxicity than females. The results therefore, reinforce the importance of controlling the anthropogenic heavy-metals soil contamination given their hazardous effects to living organisms.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Cobre , Feminino , Larva , Aprendizagem , Masculino
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2771-2788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900823

RESUMO

The chemical reactions of dry-disposed ash dump, ingressed oxygen, carbon dioxide, and infiltrating rainwater affect mineralogical transformation, redistribution, and migration of chemical species. Composite samples of weathered coal fly ash taken at various depths and fresh coal fly ash were examined using organic petrographic, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence techniques, and successive extraction procedures. Results obtained show relative enrichment of glass, Al-Fe-oxides, calcite, and tridymite in the weathered CFA, but the fresh CFA is enriched in mullite, inertinite, maghemite, and ettringite. The enrichment of the weathered CFA in amorphous glass suggests higher reactivity when compared to fresh CFA. The evident depletion of soluble oxides in the weathered CFA is attributed to flushing of the soluble salts by percolating rainwater. Comparative enrichment of examined elements in water-soluble, exchangeable, reducible, and residual fractions of the weathered CFA is partly due to the slow release of adsorbed chemical species from the alumina-silicate matrix and diffusion from the deeper sections of the particles of coal fly ash. Sodium and potassium show enrichment in the oxidisable fraction of fresh CFA. The estimated mobility factor indicates mobility for Ca, Mg, Na, Se, Mo, and Sb and K, Sr, V, Cu, Cr, Se, and B in fresh and weathered CFAs, respectively.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Metais/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Metais/química , Solo/química , Solubilidade , África do Sul , Espectrometria por Raios X , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Difração de Raios X
17.
Animal ; 14(5): 963-972, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662140

RESUMO

The accurate estimation of protein requirements for beef cattle is a key factor in increasing livestock profitability and decreasing the environmental impacts of excessive N excretion due to mismatching between assumed requirements and diet formulation. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate and validate a new equation to predict the net protein requirements for growth (NPg) of Zebu beef cattle. For the development of the new approach, a database of 552 observations comprised of bulls, steers, and heifers of different genetic groups (Zebu, beef crossbreed, and dairy crossbreed) was assembled. The new approach was evaluated and compared to current models devised by the international nutrient requirements system committees (Agricultural Research Council, 1980; Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model, 2016; BR-CORTE, 2016) to predict NPg. The model evaluation was performed through the model evaluation system (version 3.1.16) using an independent data set (n = 177 observations). An equation was considered the best estimator of NPg if the following conditions were met: (1) the intercept and slope of the regression between ordinary residues and/or predicted NPg values must have been equal to zero and one, respectively; and (2) the greatest concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and determination coefficient (R), and lowest mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) were attained. Based on the regression models of the observed v. predicted NPg of Zebu beef cattle, both the new approach and that of the ARC (1980) correctly estimated NPg, since the intercept and slope were not different (P > 0.05) from zero and one, respectively. Additionally, the new approach's determination coefficient was the greatest and the closest to one. The fact that the new model achieved a higher CCC and lower MSEP than the existing models indicated its superior reproducibility and accuracy. The equations proposed by BR-CORTE (2016) and the BCNRM (2016) did not correctly estimate NPg in that the intercept and slope were different (P < 0.01) from zero and one, respectively. Thus, the equations proposed by the new approach and the ARC (1980) accurately and precisely estimated NPg and are recommended for Zebu cattle. Furthermore, the inclusion of equivalent empty BW (EQEBW) in the new approach improves the estimation of NPg. We suggest the use of the following equation to calculate NPg for Zebu beef cattle: NPg = 176.01 × EBG - 0.381 × EQEBW0.75 × EBG1.035 (R = 0.80 and CCC = 0.75); where NPg = net protein requirements for growth, EBG = empty body gain, and EQEBW = equivalent empty BW.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos , Hibridização Genética , Proteínas , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 2973-2984, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738689

RESUMO

International committees that have published nutrient requirements for dairy cattle have used data from mineral studies conducted in the 1920s to 1970s, and no study has reported data from animals less than 100 kg; therefore, there is a need to update mineral requirements for preweaned dairy calves. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the mineral requirements of Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na for Holstein and Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves using data from 5 studies developed at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, MG, Brazil). A total of 210 calves were separated into 2 breeds: purebred Holstein calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree higher than 87.5%) and Holstein × Gyr crossbred calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree lower than 87.5%). The comparative slaughter technique was used to estimate animal body composition and empty body weight (EBW). Mineral requirements for maintenance were estimated by the regression between retained mineral and mineral intake, whereas mineral requirements for gain were obtained from the first derivative of the mineral content in the animal's body. In addition, breed effect was tested on the intercept and slope of the models. The effect of breed was not observed for all analyzed variables. Thus, net requirements for maintenance were 12.73, 11.81, 20.28, 3.50, and 6.37 mg/kg of EBW per day for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. Retention coefficients were 73.18, 65.20, 13.16, 29.55, and 24.28% for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. The following equations were determined to estimate net requirements for gain (NRG, g/d): NRG for Ca = 14.402 × EBW-0.139 × empty body gain (EBG); NRG for P = 5.849 × EBW-0.027 × EBG; NRG for K = 1.140 × EBW-0.048 × EBG; NRG for Mg = 0.603 × EBW-0.036 × EBG; and NRG for Na = 1.508 × EBW-0.045 × EBG. Due to the high variation between the data found in this study and in the available literature, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to evaluate the estimates of this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Ingestão de Energia , Clima Tropical
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 177-186, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989369

RESUMO

No presente estudo, foram avaliados parâmetros oftalmológicos de 38 bovinos das raças Nelore (n= 19; grupo GN) e Gir (n= 19; grupo GG), machos, com idade média de 15 meses. Os exames oftalmológicos realizados foram teste lacrimal de Schirmer 1 (TLS-1), tonometria de aplanação, retinografia e biometria por ultrassonografia em modo B. Os resultados do TLS-1, tonometria de aplanação e biometria ocular foram avaliados por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA), e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Para o exame de retinografia, foi realizada a análise descritiva das estruturas anatômicas. O TLS-1 e a tonometria não diferiram (P≥0,05) nas comparações entre os olhos e entre os grupos raciais. A retinografia permitiu a visualização do disco óptico, dos vasos retinianos, do fundo tapetal e não tapetal, sem constatação de diferenças anatômicas entre as raças. Por meio da biometria ocular, foram observados valores maiores nos animais da raça Gir para as medidas do comprimento axial (CAx), da espessura da lente (EL) e da profundidade da câmara vítrea (CV), em ambos os eixos, horizontal (CAH) e vertical (CAV). Os exames oftalmológicos realizados podem ser executados a campo sem comprometer o bem-estar dos animais. Somente na ultrassonografia em modo B foram identificadas diferenças entre os bovinos das raças Nelore e Gir.(AU)


The ophthalmological parameters were evaluated of 38 male Nelore bovine (n= 19, GN group) and Gir (n= 19, GG group), with 15 months age. The ophthalmological examinations by Schirmer 1 (TLS-1), aplanation tonometry, retinography and B-mode ultrasonography were done. The results of the TLS-1, aplanation tonometry and ocular biometry were evaluated by analysis of variance and means compared by the Tukey test. A descriptive analysis of the anatomical structures was performed for the retinography examination. TLS-1 and tonometry did not differ (P≥ 0.05) in the comparisons between the eyes and between the groups. Retinography allowed the visualization of the optic disc, retinal vessels, tapetal and non-tapetal fundus, without any anatomical differences between the breed. In the ocular biometry, higher values were observed in Gir animals for measurements of axial length (CAx), lens thickness (EL) and depth of the vitreous chamber (CV), both horizontal (CAH) and vertical (CAV) imaging planes. Ophthalmologic examinations can be performed on the field without compromising animal welfare. Differences between Nelore and Gir bovines were identified only by B-mode ultrasonography.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Eliminação Lacrimal , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Biometria
20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(1): 82-93, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299852

RESUMO

There is little information regarding the nutritional requirements for dairy heifers, leading the majority of nutrient requirement systems to consider dairy heifers to be similar to beef heifers. Therefore, we evaluated the muscle protein metabolism and physical and chemical body composition of growing Holstein × Gyr heifers and estimated the energy and protein requirements. We performed a comparative slaughter experiment with 20 Holstein × Gyr heifers at an initial body weight of 218 ± 36.5 kg and an average age of 12 ± 1.0 months. Four heifers were designated as the reference group, and the 16 remaining heifers were fed ad libitum. The 16 heifers were distributed using a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two roughages (corn silage or sugarcane) and two concentrate levels (30 or 50%) for 112 days. Greater (p < 0.05) values for fractional rates of muscle protein synthesis, degradation and accretion were observed for heifers that were fed 50% concentrate. The following equations were obtained to estimate the net energy for gain (NEg ) and net protein for gain (NPg ): NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.0685 × EBW0.75  × EBWG1.095 and NPg (g/day) = 203.8 × EBWG - 14.80 × RE, respectively, in which EBW is the empty body weight, EBWG is the empty body weight gain and RE is the retained energy. We concluded that increased rates of protein turnover are achieved when a greater quality diet is provided. In the future, these results can be used to calculate the nutritional requirements for growth of Holstein × Gyr heifers after equation validation rather than using the recommendations provided by other systems, which use values developed from beef heifers, to determine the nutritional requirements of dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Saccharum , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
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