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3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1974, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479338

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are highlighted due to their low toxicity, compatibility with the human body, high surface area to volume ratio, and surfaces that can be easily modified with ligands. Biosynthesis of AuNPs using plant extract is considered a simple, low-cost, and eco-friendly approach. Brazilian Red Propolis (BRP), a product of bees, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. Here, we described the biosynthesis of AuNPs using BRP extract (AuNPextract) and its fractions (AuNPhexane, AuNPdichloromethane, AuNPethyl acetate) and evaluated their structural properties and their potential against microorganisms and cancer cells. AuNPs showed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 535 nm. The sizes and morphologies were influenced by the BRP sample used in the reaction. FTIR and TGA revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from BRP extract or its fractions in the synthesis and stabilization of AuNPs. AuNPdichloromethane and AuNPhexane exhibited antimicrobial activities against all strains tested, showing their efficacy as antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases. AuNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity both in T24 and PC-3 cells. AuNPdichloromethane and AuNPextract exhibited the highest in vitro cytotoxic effect. Also, the cytotoxicity of biogenic nanoparticles was induced by mechanisms associated with apoptosis. The results highlight a potential low-cost green method using Brazilian red propolis to synthesize AuNPs, which demonstrated significant biological properties.

4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(2): e10466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439935

RESUMO

Preoperative evaluation in elective surgeries has been associated with successful surgical treatment. However, there is no solid scientific evidence that screening for coronary artery disease (CAD) reduces surgical risk. The aims of this study were to describe the frequency of inappropriate investigation of obstructive CAD induced by pre-anesthetic assessment in individuals without cardiovascular symptoms (candidates for low- to intermediate-risk surgeries) and to evaluate predictors of this conduct. We performed a retrospective evaluation of medical records of anesthesiology services from patients undergoing pre-anesthesia assessment between May 2015 and May 2016, including those with functional capacity ≥4 metabolic equivalents without a diagnosis of heart disease. A total of 778 medical records (47±16 years of age, 62.6% female) were studied. A private hospital performed 50.1% of the surgeries and 60.4% were of intermediate risk. Only 2.7% (95%CI: 1.7-4.1%) were screened for CAD, and 91% of these requests were mediated by cardiology consultations performed during pre-anesthetic testing visits. Factors associated with screening for CAD were hypertension, diabetes, moderate systemic disease (ASA III), cardiac consultation, previous diagnosis of CAD, and admission to a private hospital. Independent predictors were private hospitals (OR: 3.9; 95%CI: 1.3-11.0), ASA III (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.7-16.2), and hypertension (OR: 3.8; 95%CI: 1.5-9.8). The frequency of inappropriate requests for CAD screening in asymptomatic individuals without untreated systemic diseases was low in pre-anesthetic visits. Although infrequent, screening for CAD is more common in the private setting, in patients with poorer health status, and is usually prescribed during cardiology consultation.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Procedimentos Desnecessários , Adulto , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10466, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153513

RESUMO

Preoperative evaluation in elective surgeries has been associated with successful surgical treatment. However, there is no solid scientific evidence that screening for coronary artery disease (CAD) reduces surgical risk. The aims of this study were to describe the frequency of inappropriate investigation of obstructive CAD induced by pre-anesthetic assessment in individuals without cardiovascular symptoms (candidates for low- to intermediate-risk surgeries) and to evaluate predictors of this conduct. We performed a retrospective evaluation of medical records of anesthesiology services from patients undergoing pre-anesthesia assessment between May 2015 and May 2016, including those with functional capacity ≥4 metabolic equivalents without a diagnosis of heart disease. A total of 778 medical records (47±16 years of age, 62.6% female) were studied. A private hospital performed 50.1% of the surgeries and 60.4% were of intermediate risk. Only 2.7% (95%CI: 1.7-4.1%) were screened for CAD, and 91% of these requests were mediated by cardiology consultations performed during pre-anesthetic testing visits. Factors associated with screening for CAD were hypertension, diabetes, moderate systemic disease (ASA III), cardiac consultation, previous diagnosis of CAD, and admission to a private hospital. Independent predictors were private hospitals (OR: 3.9; 95%CI: 1.3-11.0), ASA III (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.7-16.2), and hypertension (OR: 3.8; 95%CI: 1.5-9.8). The frequency of inappropriate requests for CAD screening in asymptomatic individuals without untreated systemic diseases was low in pre-anesthetic visits. Although infrequent, screening for CAD is more common in the private setting, in patients with poorer health status, and is usually prescribed during cardiology consultation.

6.
J Mycol Med ; 30(4): 101044, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes ∼15% mortality in AIDS patients. Rio Grande City, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, has the highest national rate of HIV/AIDS, considering cities with population more than 100,000 habitants. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis in a reference service for HIV-AIDS patients in the South region of Brazil, over seven years. Material and methods A retrospective study was performed including all cryptococcosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital, Federal University of Rio Grande (UH-FURG) between January 2010 and December 2016. RESULTS: Seventy cases of cryptococcosis were diagnosis from 2010 to 2016 in the UH-FURG in the seven years of the study. These numbers were responsible for 2.1% to 8.1% of the hospitalizations/year for HIV patients. All were caused by C. neoformans infection (95% C. neoformans var. grubii VNI and 5% C. neoformans var. grubii VNII). Neurocryptococcosis was the major clinical manifestation and cryptococcosis was the HIV- defining condition in 40% of patients. The period of hospitalization was an average of 39.3 days (SD=31.3), and more than half of patients (53%; 37/70) died after a mean of 82 days. DISCUSSION: The present study showed the importance of cryptococcosis as an AIDS-defining disease in HIV-AIDS patients in a tertiary hospital from Southern Brazil. More investment is necessary to reduce the impact of this opportunistic mycosis in HIV-AIDS patients from southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criptococose/complicações , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Meningite Fúngica/epidemiologia , Meningite Fúngica/etiologia , Meningite Fúngica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 192: 111106, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474325

RESUMO

Solanum lycocarpum fruits contain two major glycoalkaloids (GAs), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS). These compounds are reported as cytotoxic. However, they have poor water solubility and low bioavailability. To overcome these disadvantages and getting an efficient formulation the current study aimed to develop, characterize, and test the effectiveness of a nanotechnology-based strategy using poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) nanoparticles functionalized with folate as delivery system of glycoalkaloidic extract (AE) for bladder cancer therapy. The strategic of adding folic acid into nanoformulations can increase the selectivity of the compounds to the cancer cells reducing the side effects. Our results revealed the successful preparation of AE-loaded folate-targeted nanoparticles (NP-F-AE) with particle size around 177 nm, negative zeta potential, polydispersity index <0.20, and higher efficiency of encapsulation for both GAs present in the extract (>85 %). To investigate the cellular uptake, the fluorescent dye coumarin-6 was encapsulated into the nanoparticle (NP-F-C6). The cell studies showed high uptake of nanoparticles by breast (MDA-MB-231) and bladder (RT4) cancer cells, but not for normal keratinocytes cells (HaCaT) indicating the target uptake to cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was evaluated on RT4 2D culture model showing 2.16-fold lower IC50 than the free AE. Furthermore, the IC50 increased on the RT4 spheroids compared to 2D model. The nanoparticles penetrated homogeneously into the urotheliumof porcine bladder. These results showed that folate-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles are potential carriers for targeted glycoalkaloidic extract delivery to bladder cancer cells.

8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1143-1148, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038631

RESUMO

Objetivou-se neste estudo padronizar um protocolo de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para detecção de Microsporum canis em amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos. Foram selecionadas 48 amostras previamente identificadas por meio de cultura. Destas, 23 foram positivas para dermatófitos no cultivo. Padronizou-se a PCR a partir de primers desenhados para o alvo M. canis. Sessenta e um por cento (14/23) das amostras positivas para dermatófitos foram identificadas como M. canis em cultura. Desse total, 71,4% (10/14) apresentaram um fragmento de 218pb compatível com o esperado para a espécie fúngica alvo dessa reação. Observou-se uma sensibilidade de 71,4% e especificidade de 100% na PCR, além de uma boa concordância entre essas técnicas de diagnóstico (Kappa: 0,78; P<0,0001). O protocolo utilizado neste estudo apresentou alta especificidade na detecção de M. canis diretamente de amostras de pelos e/ou crostas de cães e gatos, viabilizando um diagnóstico mais rápido e específico, podendo esse protocolo ser empregado como um método confirmatório para agilizar a detecção de M. canis.(AU)


The aim of this study was to standardize a Polymerase Chain Reaction protocol (PCR) for the detection of Microsporum canis in fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats. 48 samples previously identified by culture were selected. Of these, 23 were positive for dermatophytes in culture. PCR was standardized from drawn primers whose target is M. canis. A total of 61% (14/23) of the dermatophyte positive samples were identified as M. canis in culture. Of this total, 71.4% (10/14) presented a fragment of 218bp compatible with that expected for the fungal species target of the reaction. A sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 100% in the PCR were observed, in addition to a good agreement between the techniques (Kappa: 0.78; P<0.0001). The protocol used in this study showed high specificity in the detection of M. canis directly from fur and/or crusts of dogs and cats, making possible a faster and more specific diagnosis. This protocol could be used as a confirmatory method, speeding the detection of M. canis.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Pelo Animal/microbiologia , Microsporum , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária
9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1362-1372, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297951

RESUMO

AIM: The increase in the number of fungal infections worldwide, coupled with the limitations of current antifungal chemotherapy, demand the development of safe and effective new antifungals. Here, we presented the synthesis of a novel acridone (M14) and its antifungal properties against Candida and dermatophytes species. METHODS AND RESULTS: A series of 17 acridones was designed, synthesized and tested for its antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. Only the acridone M14 showed growth-inhibitory activity against reference strains and clinical isolates of Candida and dermatophytes, with MIC range of 7·81-31·25 µg ml-1 . Moreover, M14 exhibited fungicidal activity and prevented biofilm formation by C. albicans as well as reduced the viability of preformed biofilms, even at sub-MICs. The confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis revealed that C. albicans hyphal growth was completely inhibited in the presence of M14. Similarly, there was a severe inhibition on hyphal growth of Trichophyton rubrum. We also found that M14 has relatively low toxicity to human fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: The new acridone M14 has antifungal properties against Candida spp. and dermatophytes, and antibiofilm activity against C. albicans. In addition, M14 is relatively selective to fungal cells compared to human normal cells. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Because of its in vitro antifungal activity, anti-Candida biofilm effect and moderate cytotoxicity towards normal human cell, M14 may serve as a valuable lead compound to develop a new antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Acridonas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Acridonas/síntese química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Transplant Proc ; 51(5): 1540-1544, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on the experience of family members of deceased potential donors in deciding to refuse donation when their loved one had expressed his or her wish in life not to donate organs and tissues for transplantation. METHOD: This is a qualitative study that uses social phenomenology as the theoretical reference, interviewing 8 family members of deceased potential donors. RESULTS: The family members' experiences were represented by the following categories: beliefs related to donation, fear in the face of the loved one's death, and the ethical dilemma of deciding to refuse the donation. The meaning of the refusal to donate was represented by the following categories: respect for the loved one's wishes and the family's peace of mind with the decision. CONCLUSIONS: The study shed light on the experience of family members of deceased potential donors in making the decision to refuse donation. The concerns that motivate refusal were elucidated and the meanings of the decision's intentionality were unveiled. The resulting knowledge about these families' experiences provides backing for experts in donation and transplantation who work in different realities, pointing to strategies for improving care for such family members.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Doadores de Tecidos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Transplant Proc ; 50(2): 394-396, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify the percentage of bone tissue donation in a brain death situation and the tendency of donation rate of this tissue in an organ procurement organization in the county of Sao Paulo from 2001 to 2016. It is a retrospective and quantitative study, based on the Organ and Tissue Donation Term of donors who died of brain death between 2001 and 2016. METHODS: A logistic regression model was applied, and the odds of donation were identified throughout the years, regarding the odds ratio different from zero. Finally, it was measured the accuracy of the odds ratio through the confidence interval. RESULTS: The analysis has shown a significant change on the trend of bone donation (P < .001). In this case, the odds ratio was >1, indicating that the donation rate has increased. However, the percentage of growth is still considered low. CONCLUSIONS: The study evidences a growth trend regarding the donation of bone tissue, but the percentage is still too low to adequately meet the demand of patients who need this modality of therapeutic intervention. It is believed that educational campaigns of donation are not emphasizing the donation of tissues for transplantation, which may be directly impacting their consent rates.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos/provisão & distribuição , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Osso e Ossos , Morte Encefálica , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Transplant Proc ; 50(3): 705-710, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study we propose a theoretical and practical basis for the best practices for interviewing relatives of brain-dead eligible organ donors. METHODS: This investigation was a reflective study of the methodologic factors of the family interview that affect their decision regarding the donation of a deceased patient's organs for transplantation. The articles that formed the empirical basis of the trial were obtained from PubMed, which is a free-access tool of the MEDLINE database of the United States National Library of Medicine. Published articles that allowed us to reflect on evidence-based family interview practice were selected. RESULTS: Thirty-six scientific articles were used to guide our assessment the family interview, providing evidence for its adequate execution in view of the following prerequisites: When should the family interview be performed? Where should it be done? How many and which people should participate in the interview? Who should perform it? How should it be done? CONCLUSION: Scientific studies offer evidence to donation and transplantation specialists that can help them in their daily work regarding their interactions with relatives in the process of decisionmaking and family consent.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Família/psicologia , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Adulto , Morte Encefálica , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Bull Entomol Res ; 107(6): 820-827, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28485268

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen). The parameters evaluated were enzymatic activities of insect protease, amylase and lipase and the starch content of the grains. There were differences in the enzymatic activity of amylase, lipase and protease of insect homogenate according to the food source. A lower activity of the enzyme amylase from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when insects were fed grain of the cultivar BRS Carijó. A lower activity of lipase enzyme from C. maculatus homogenate was observed when the insects fed on grain from the interaction of the cultivar Tapaihum inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. The lowest proteolytic activity was observed in homogenate of insects fed on interaction of 'BRS Carijó' inoculated with BR 3262 diazotrophs. Starch content correlated positively with the amylase activity of C. maculatus homogenate. The cultivar BRS Carijó had a different behavior from the other cultivars, according to the cluster analysis.


Assuntos
Besouros/enzimologia , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Fixação de Nitrogênio , Vigna/microbiologia , Amilases/metabolismo , Animais , Lipase/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo
14.
Braz J Biol ; 75(4 Suppl 2): S62-7, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26628228

RESUMO

Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil), one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al), chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.


Assuntos
Characidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Brasil , Testes de Mutagenicidade
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.2): 62-67, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-769609

RESUMO

Worldwide environmental pollution is increasing at the same rate as social and economic development. This growth, however, is disorganized and leads to increased degradation of water resources. Water, which was once considered inexhaustible, has become the focus of environmental concerns because it is essential for life and for many production processes. This article describes monitoring of the water quality at three points along the Sinos River (RS, Brazil), one in each of the upper, middle and lower stretches. The points were sampled in 2013 and again in 2014. The water samples were analyzed to determine the following physical and chemical parameters plus genotoxicity to fish: metals (Cr, Fe, Al), chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorides, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorous, total and fecal coliforms, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total Kjeldahl nitrogen nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen. Genotoxicity was tested by exposing individuals of the species Astyanax jacuhiensis to water samples and then comparing them with a control group exposed to water from the public water supply. The results confirmed the presence of substances with genotoxic potential at the sample points located in the middle and lower stretches of the river. The results for samples from the upper stretch, at P1, did not exhibit differences in relation to the control group. The physical and chemical analyses did not detect reductions in water quality in the lower stretch, as had been expected in view of the large volumes of domestic and industrial effluents discharged into this part of the river.


Resumo A poluição ambiental aumenta mundialmente, no mesmo ritmo que o desenvolvimento social e econômico. Este crescimento é, muitas vezes, desorganizado e proporciona um aumento da degradação dos recursos hídricos. Água, que já foi considerado inesgotável, tornou-se o foco das preocupações ambientais, pois é essencial para a vida e para muitos processos de produção. Este artigo aborda o monitoramento da qualidade da água, em três pontos do Rio dos Sinos, compreendendo o trecho superior, médio e inferior. Os pontos foram monitorados entre 2013 e 2014. As amostras de água foram analisadas para determinar os parâmetros físico-químicos complementarmente a genotoxicidade em peixes: metais (Cr, Fe, Al), demanda química de oxigenio, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, cloretos, condutividade, sólidos suspensos totais, fósforo total, coliformes totais e fecais, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, turbidez, nitrogênio total Kjeldahl, nitrato e nitrogênio amoniacal. A avaliação de genotoxicidade foi conduzida pela exposição à água de diferentes pontos do rio de indivíduos da espécie Astyanax jacuhiensis. O grupo controle foi exposto à água de abastecimento público. Os resultados confirmam a presença de substâncias com potencial genotóxico nos pontos localizados nos trechos médio e inferior. No trecho superior, ponto 1, não houve diferenças em relação ao grupo controle. A diminuição da qualidade da água do trecho inferior quando comparada com o superior também foi confirmada através das análises físico-químicas, as quais indicaram uma redução na qualidade da água nos trechos inferiores, como o esperado devido ao grande escoamento de esgotos domésticos e industriais neste trecho do rio.


Assuntos
Animais , Characidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil , Testes de Mutagenicidade
16.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 57-62, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270214

RESUMO

In the present study, leachate toxicity of a municipal solid waste landfill located in the Sinos River Valley region (southern Brazil) was evaluated using plant bioassays. Leachate toxicity was assessed by analysis of seed germination and root elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rocket plant Eruca sativa Mill.) and root elongation of onions Allium cepa L.). Bioassays were performed by exposing the seeds of L. sativa and E. sativa and the roots of A. cepa to raw leachate, treated leachate (biological treatment) and negative control (tap water). The levels of metals detected in both samples of leachate were low, and raw leachate showed high values for ammoniacal nitrogen and total Kjeldahl nitrogen. There is a reduction in the values of several physicochemical parameters, which demonstrates the efficiency of the treatment. Both L. sativa and A. cepa showed a phytotoxic response to landfill leachate, showing reduced root elongation. However, the responses of these two plant species were different. Root elongation was significantly lower in A. cepa exposed to treated leachate, when compared to negative control, but did not show any difference when compared to raw leachate. In L. sativa, seeds exposed to the raw leachate showed significant reduction in root elongation, when compared to treated leachate and negative control. Seed germination showed no difference across the treatments. The results of the study show that plant species respond differently and that municipal solid waste landfill leachate show phytotoxicity, even after biological treatment.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Cebolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brasil , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
17.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 63-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270215

RESUMO

It is well recognized that the classical biological and chemical markers of environmental pollution do not necessarily indicate the presence or absence of emerging threats to public health, such as waterborne viruses and genotoxicants. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the presence of material of enteroviruses (EV), rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) and genotoxicity in water samples from points of routine monitoring of water quality in the main course of the Sinos River. The points are classified into different levels of pollution in accordance to the Brazilian federal regulations. Viral genomes from EV, AdV were detected in two of the 4 collection points regardless of the level of urbanisation of the surrounding areas. In contrast, genotoxicity was not observed in piava (Leporinus obtusidens) fingerlings cultivated on these same water samples. Results were compared with classical physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. There was no clear evidence of association between any of the classical markers and the presence of viral genomes in the water samples tested.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Rios/virologia , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Brasil , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mutagênicos/análise , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 68-74, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270216

RESUMO

Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB) have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio), using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay) and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT). The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio) when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha). The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB.


Assuntos
Citotoxinas/toxicidade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Brasil , Characidae/genética , Characidae/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos , Células Vero
19.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 75-80, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270217

RESUMO

Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of surface waters and may help to improve the control of water quality. This study compared two methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Hep-2 cells to water samples collected from the Rolante River, an important affluent of the Sinos River. The toxicity was evaluated using the MTT and neutral red assays. Two methods were used to prepare culture media. In method 1, the sample was diluted at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000, 1:10.000 (v/v, sample/medium) in a standard culture medium; in method 2, water samples were used as the solvent for the culture medium, which was prepared at concentrations of 100, 80, 60, 40 and 20%. Semi-confluent cultures were then exposed to the media test for 24 hours, and cytotoxicity was determined immediately using the MTT and NR assays. Mitochondrial activity (MTT) was significantly lower at all concentrations in both methods, except at 1:1000 in method 1. However, the lysosome viability (NR) results revealed cytotoxicity only in the 1:1 sample of method 1. Both culture preparation methods were efficient and sensitive to the MTT assay, but method 2 seemed to be more adequate for the NR assay. The Rolante River has cytotoxic contaminants to Hep-2 cells, which may be one of the explanations for the poor water quality of the Sinos River basin.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Vermelho Neutro/química , Sais de Tetrazólio/química , Tiazóis/química , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
J Food Sci Technol ; 52(7): 4360-8, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26139901

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of adding different starches (native and modified) on the physicochemical, sensory, structural and microbiological characteristics of low-fat chicken mortadella. Two formulations containing native cassava and regular corn starch, coded CASS (5.0 % of cassava starch) and CORN (5.0 % of regular corn starch), and one formulation produced with physically treated starch coded as MOD1 (2.5 % of Novation 2300) and chemically modified starch coded as MOD2 (2.5 % of Thermtex) were studied. The following tests were performed: physicochemical characterization (moisture, ash, protein, starch and lipid contents, and water activity); cooling, freezing and reheating losses; texture (texture profile test); color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C and h); microbiological evaluation; sensory evaluation (multiple comparison and preference test); and histological evaluation (light microscopy). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) for ash, protein, cooling loss, cohesiveness or in the preference test for the tested samples. The other evaluated parameters showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Histological study allowed for a qualitative evaluation between the physical properties of the food and its microscopic structure. The best results were obtained for formulation MOD2 (2.5 % Thermtex). The addition of modified starch resulted in a better performance than the native starch in relation to the evaluated technological parameters, mainly in relation to reheating losses, which demonstrated the good interaction between the modified starch in the structure of the product and the possibility of the application of this type of starch in other types of functional meat products.

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