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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431904

RESUMO

Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Assuntos
Acacia , Formigas , Artrópodes , Animais , Abelhas , Insetos , Folhas de Planta
3.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(3): 204-206, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652492

RESUMO

Currently, we are experiencing a true pandemic of a communicable disease by the virus SARS-CoV-2 holding the whole world firmly in its grasp. Amazingly and unfortunately, this virus uses a metabolic and endocrine pathway via ACE2 to enter our cells causing damage and disease. Our international research training programme funded by the German Research Foundation has a clear mission to train the best students wherever they may come from to learn to tackle the enormous challenges of diabetes and its complications for our society. A modern training programme in diabetes and metabolism does not only involve a thorough understanding of classical physiology, biology and clinical diabetology but has to bring together an interdisciplinary team. With the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic, this prestigious and unique metabolic training programme is facing new challenges but also new opportunities. The consortium of the training programme has recognized early on the need for a guidance and for practical recommendations to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic for the community of patients with metabolic disease, obesity and diabetes. This involves the optimal management from surgical obesity programmes to medications and insulin replacement. We also established a global registry analyzing the dimension and role of metabolic disease including new onset diabetes potentially triggered by the virus. We have involved experts of infectious disease and virology to our faculty with this metabolic training programme to offer the full breadth and scope of expertise needed to meet these scientific challenges. We have all learned that this pandemic does not respect or heed any national borders and that we have to work together as a global community. We believe that this transCampus metabolic training programme provides a prime example how an international team of established experts in the field of metabolism can work together with students from all over the world to address a new pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Educação Médica Continuada , Obesidade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e10766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624732

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide, especially in Brazil, currently one of the leading countries in number of infections and deaths. The beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil is uncertain due to the low number of tests done in the country. The excess number of deaths can suggest the beginning of the pandemic in this context. In this article, we used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to investigate possible excesses in the number of deaths processed by the São Paulo Autopsy Service according to different causes of deaths: all-cause, cardiovascular, and pulmonary causes. We calculated the expected number of deaths using data from 2019 to 2020 (n=17,011), and investigated different seasonal patterns using harmonic dynamic regression with Fourier terms with residuals modeled by an ARIMA method. We did not find any abnormalities in the predicted number of deaths and the real values in the first months of 2020. We found an increase in the number of deaths only by March 20, 2020, right after the first COVID-19 confirmed case in the city of São Paulo, which occurred on March 16, 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Autopsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(4): e10766, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153540

RESUMO

The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is responsible for thousands of deaths worldwide, especially in Brazil, currently one of the leading countries in number of infections and deaths. The beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil is uncertain due to the low number of tests done in the country. The excess number of deaths can suggest the beginning of the pandemic in this context. In this article, we used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to investigate possible excesses in the number of deaths processed by the São Paulo Autopsy Service according to different causes of deaths: all-cause, cardiovascular, and pulmonary causes. We calculated the expected number of deaths using data from 2019 to 2020 (n=17,011), and investigated different seasonal patterns using harmonic dynamic regression with Fourier terms with residuals modeled by an ARIMA method. We did not find any abnormalities in the predicted number of deaths and the real values in the first months of 2020. We found an increase in the number of deaths only by March 20, 2020, right after the first COVID-19 confirmed case in the city of São Paulo, which occurred on March 16, 2020.

7.
Parasitology ; 147(13): 1552-1558, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741387

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/mortalidade , Doenças Endêmicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 34(12): 2890-2897, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) is a rare clinical subtype of pemphigus with the presence of urticarial plaques, severe pruritus, rare acantholysis and eosinophilic spongiosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IL-31 and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in the pathogenesis of PH. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with PH and three groups: pemphigus foliaceus (PF = 14), pemphigus vulgaris (PV = 15) and healthy controls (HC = 20) were selected for this study. The groups were analysed by immunohistochemistry utilizing IL-31, IL-31RA, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α antibodies. Serum levels of IL-4, IL-13, TNF, CXCL8, CCL5 and CCL2 were evaluated by cytometric bead array. RESULTS: Analysis of IL-31 family of PH patients revealed the following findings: (i) Enhanced in situ expression of IL-31 in PH samples, compared to PF and to PV (epidermis); (ii) Cutaneous IL-31RA expression in PH samples was higher than in PF, PV and HC groups (epidermis and dermis); (iii) PF patients that evolved to PH showed significant increased IL-31RA epidermal expression during the PH phase. Profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-17 and TNF-α) in PH patients' skin exhibited: (i) Enhanced IL-4 expression, when compared to patients with PF (epidermis and dermis) and with PV (epidermis); (ii) Augmented IL-17 expression than PF and PV patients (epidermis); (iii) Augmented expression of TNF-α when compared to PF at the epidermal level. Evaluation of circulating cytokines and chemokines showed higher levels of CXCL8 and CCL2 in PH sera compared to HC group. CONCLUSIONS: IL-31 and IL-31RA, cytokines related to pruritus, and pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCL8 and CCL2) seem to exert a role in the pathogenesis of PH. These findings support future studies to clarify the role of IL-31 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for patients with PH.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Pênfigo , Acantólise , Quimiocina CCL2 , Citocinas , Humanos , Interleucina-13
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 135306, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926406

RESUMO

Copper is an essential element to all living organisms. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic substances may cause contamination at a large scale. Altered levels of Cu2+ may result in harmful effects and can be associated with memory and cognitive dysfunction. Studying simple, genetically tractable organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, can reveal important data on the neural basis of conditioning. D. melanogaster is an important alternative experimental model to assess the toxic response to metals. In the present study, the effects of copper on flies' development and in learning and memory retention in male and female adult flies were investigated. We paired an odorant to pain perception and observed the aversion behavior over time. Exposure of D. melanogaster eggs to Cu2+ increased mortality of larvae, pupae, and adults and decreased memory retention in adults. Moreover, male flies demonstrated to be more susceptible to Cu2+ toxicity than females. The results therefore, reinforce the importance of controlling the anthropogenic heavy-metals soil contamination given their hazardous effects to living organisms.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Cobre , Feminino , Larva , Aprendizagem , Masculino
10.
Environ Geochem Health ; 42(9): 2771-2788, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900823

RESUMO

The chemical reactions of dry-disposed ash dump, ingressed oxygen, carbon dioxide, and infiltrating rainwater affect mineralogical transformation, redistribution, and migration of chemical species. Composite samples of weathered coal fly ash taken at various depths and fresh coal fly ash were examined using organic petrographic, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence techniques, and successive extraction procedures. Results obtained show relative enrichment of glass, Al-Fe-oxides, calcite, and tridymite in the weathered CFA, but the fresh CFA is enriched in mullite, inertinite, maghemite, and ettringite. The enrichment of the weathered CFA in amorphous glass suggests higher reactivity when compared to fresh CFA. The evident depletion of soluble oxides in the weathered CFA is attributed to flushing of the soluble salts by percolating rainwater. Comparative enrichment of examined elements in water-soluble, exchangeable, reducible, and residual fractions of the weathered CFA is partly due to the slow release of adsorbed chemical species from the alumina-silicate matrix and diffusion from the deeper sections of the particles of coal fly ash. Sodium and potassium show enrichment in the oxidisable fraction of fresh CFA. The estimated mobility factor indicates mobility for Ca, Mg, Na, Se, Mo, and Sb and K, Sr, V, Cu, Cr, Se, and B in fresh and weathered CFAs, respectively.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Metais/análise , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fracionamento Químico , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Metais/química , Solo/química , Solubilidade , África do Sul , Espectrometria por Raios X , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Difração de Raios X
11.
Animal ; 14(5): 963-972, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662140

RESUMO

The accurate estimation of protein requirements for beef cattle is a key factor in increasing livestock profitability and decreasing the environmental impacts of excessive N excretion due to mismatching between assumed requirements and diet formulation. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate and validate a new equation to predict the net protein requirements for growth (NPg) of Zebu beef cattle. For the development of the new approach, a database of 552 observations comprised of bulls, steers, and heifers of different genetic groups (Zebu, beef crossbreed, and dairy crossbreed) was assembled. The new approach was evaluated and compared to current models devised by the international nutrient requirements system committees (Agricultural Research Council, 1980; Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model, 2016; BR-CORTE, 2016) to predict NPg. The model evaluation was performed through the model evaluation system (version 3.1.16) using an independent data set (n = 177 observations). An equation was considered the best estimator of NPg if the following conditions were met: (1) the intercept and slope of the regression between ordinary residues and/or predicted NPg values must have been equal to zero and one, respectively; and (2) the greatest concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and determination coefficient (R), and lowest mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) were attained. Based on the regression models of the observed v. predicted NPg of Zebu beef cattle, both the new approach and that of the ARC (1980) correctly estimated NPg, since the intercept and slope were not different (P > 0.05) from zero and one, respectively. Additionally, the new approach's determination coefficient was the greatest and the closest to one. The fact that the new model achieved a higher CCC and lower MSEP than the existing models indicated its superior reproducibility and accuracy. The equations proposed by BR-CORTE (2016) and the BCNRM (2016) did not correctly estimate NPg in that the intercept and slope were different (P < 0.01) from zero and one, respectively. Thus, the equations proposed by the new approach and the ARC (1980) accurately and precisely estimated NPg and are recommended for Zebu cattle. Furthermore, the inclusion of equivalent empty BW (EQEBW) in the new approach improves the estimation of NPg. We suggest the use of the following equation to calculate NPg for Zebu beef cattle: NPg = 176.01 × EBG - 0.381 × EQEBW0.75 × EBG1.035 (R = 0.80 and CCC = 0.75); where NPg = net protein requirements for growth, EBG = empty body gain, and EQEBW = equivalent empty BW.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos , Hibridização Genética , Proteínas , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(4): 2973-2984, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738689

RESUMO

International committees that have published nutrient requirements for dairy cattle have used data from mineral studies conducted in the 1920s to 1970s, and no study has reported data from animals less than 100 kg; therefore, there is a need to update mineral requirements for preweaned dairy calves. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the mineral requirements of Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na for Holstein and Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves using data from 5 studies developed at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, MG, Brazil). A total of 210 calves were separated into 2 breeds: purebred Holstein calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree higher than 87.5%) and Holstein × Gyr crossbred calves (animals with a Holstein pedigree lower than 87.5%). The comparative slaughter technique was used to estimate animal body composition and empty body weight (EBW). Mineral requirements for maintenance were estimated by the regression between retained mineral and mineral intake, whereas mineral requirements for gain were obtained from the first derivative of the mineral content in the animal's body. In addition, breed effect was tested on the intercept and slope of the models. The effect of breed was not observed for all analyzed variables. Thus, net requirements for maintenance were 12.73, 11.81, 20.28, 3.50, and 6.37 mg/kg of EBW per day for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. Retention coefficients were 73.18, 65.20, 13.16, 29.55, and 24.28% for Ca, P, K, Mg, and Na, respectively. The following equations were determined to estimate net requirements for gain (NRG, g/d): NRG for Ca = 14.402 × EBW-0.139 × empty body gain (EBG); NRG for P = 5.849 × EBW-0.027 × EBG; NRG for K = 1.140 × EBW-0.048 × EBG; NRG for Mg = 0.603 × EBW-0.036 × EBG; and NRG for Na = 1.508 × EBW-0.045 × EBG. Due to the high variation between the data found in this study and in the available literature, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to evaluate the estimates of this study.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Minerais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Ingestão de Energia , Clima Tropical
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(1): 177-186, jan.-fev. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-989369

RESUMO

No presente estudo, foram avaliados parâmetros oftalmológicos de 38 bovinos das raças Nelore (n= 19; grupo GN) e Gir (n= 19; grupo GG), machos, com idade média de 15 meses. Os exames oftalmológicos realizados foram teste lacrimal de Schirmer 1 (TLS-1), tonometria de aplanação, retinografia e biometria por ultrassonografia em modo B. Os resultados do TLS-1, tonometria de aplanação e biometria ocular foram avaliados por meio da análise de variância (ANOVA), e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Para o exame de retinografia, foi realizada a análise descritiva das estruturas anatômicas. O TLS-1 e a tonometria não diferiram (P≥0,05) nas comparações entre os olhos e entre os grupos raciais. A retinografia permitiu a visualização do disco óptico, dos vasos retinianos, do fundo tapetal e não tapetal, sem constatação de diferenças anatômicas entre as raças. Por meio da biometria ocular, foram observados valores maiores nos animais da raça Gir para as medidas do comprimento axial (CAx), da espessura da lente (EL) e da profundidade da câmara vítrea (CV), em ambos os eixos, horizontal (CAH) e vertical (CAV). Os exames oftalmológicos realizados podem ser executados a campo sem comprometer o bem-estar dos animais. Somente na ultrassonografia em modo B foram identificadas diferenças entre os bovinos das raças Nelore e Gir.(AU)


The ophthalmological parameters were evaluated of 38 male Nelore bovine (n= 19, GN group) and Gir (n= 19, GG group), with 15 months age. The ophthalmological examinations by Schirmer 1 (TLS-1), aplanation tonometry, retinography and B-mode ultrasonography were done. The results of the TLS-1, aplanation tonometry and ocular biometry were evaluated by analysis of variance and means compared by the Tukey test. A descriptive analysis of the anatomical structures was performed for the retinography examination. TLS-1 and tonometry did not differ (P≥ 0.05) in the comparisons between the eyes and between the groups. Retinography allowed the visualization of the optic disc, retinal vessels, tapetal and non-tapetal fundus, without any anatomical differences between the breed. In the ocular biometry, higher values were observed in Gir animals for measurements of axial length (CAx), lens thickness (EL) and depth of the vitreous chamber (CV), both horizontal (CAH) and vertical (CAV) imaging planes. Ophthalmologic examinations can be performed on the field without compromising animal welfare. Differences between Nelore and Gir bovines were identified only by B-mode ultrasonography.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Eliminação Lacrimal , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Biometria
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(1): 82-93, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28299852

RESUMO

There is little information regarding the nutritional requirements for dairy heifers, leading the majority of nutrient requirement systems to consider dairy heifers to be similar to beef heifers. Therefore, we evaluated the muscle protein metabolism and physical and chemical body composition of growing Holstein × Gyr heifers and estimated the energy and protein requirements. We performed a comparative slaughter experiment with 20 Holstein × Gyr heifers at an initial body weight of 218 ± 36.5 kg and an average age of 12 ± 1.0 months. Four heifers were designated as the reference group, and the 16 remaining heifers were fed ad libitum. The 16 heifers were distributed using a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two roughages (corn silage or sugarcane) and two concentrate levels (30 or 50%) for 112 days. Greater (p < 0.05) values for fractional rates of muscle protein synthesis, degradation and accretion were observed for heifers that were fed 50% concentrate. The following equations were obtained to estimate the net energy for gain (NEg ) and net protein for gain (NPg ): NEg (Mcal/day) = 0.0685 × EBW0.75  × EBWG1.095 and NPg (g/day) = 203.8 × EBWG - 14.80 × RE, respectively, in which EBW is the empty body weight, EBWG is the empty body weight gain and RE is the retained energy. We concluded that increased rates of protein turnover are achieved when a greater quality diet is provided. In the future, these results can be used to calculate the nutritional requirements for growth of Holstein × Gyr heifers after equation validation rather than using the recommendations provided by other systems, which use values developed from beef heifers, to determine the nutritional requirements of dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Saccharum , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
15.
J Anim Sci ; 95(9): 4124-4138, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992030

RESUMO

Monensin and functional oils (FO) were supplemented to a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to 12 ruminally cannulated Zebu steers to study their effects on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and , , and relative population. A randomized complete block design with repeated measures over time within 2 experimental periods of 21 d each was used. Treatments were a control (CTR; with no additives), FO (included at 400 mg/kg), and monensin included at 30 mg/kg (M30) or 40 mg/kg (M40). All steers were fed the same high-concentrate basal diet, which consisted of 92.25% concentrate. The first 60 h after transition showed a treatment and hour interaction for ruminal propionate proportion ( = 0.028), and no change in acetate molar proportion ( = 0.633), rumen pH ( = 0.370), and time the rumen pH remained below 5.6 ( = 0.242) were observed. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased ( = 0.020) when monensin was fed in both concentrations (2.30 for the M30 treatment and 2.32 for the M40 treatment) compared with when the CTR was fed (2.85), without being different when the FO (2.71) treatment was fed. Only the M30 treatment did not show pH below 5.2 (P=0.047) over the 60 h after the abrupt transition. Within the entire period, DMI ( = 0.008) and mean ruminal pH ( = 0.040) as well as molar proportions of propionate ( = 0.034) and valerate ( = 0.031) had significant interactions between treatment and day. Total VFA concentration was greater ( = 0.017) for the M30 (117.36 m) and CTR treatments (115.77 m) compared with the M40 treatment (105.02 m), without being different for the FO treatment (111.55 m). Treatments did not change feed behavior parameters. Blood HCO ( = 0.006) and total carbon dioxide ( = 0.003) were greater for the M30 (27.8 and 29.3 mmol/L, respectively) and FO treatments (28.3 and 29.7 mmol/L, respectively) compared with the CTR treatment (25.7 and 26.9 mmol/L, respectively). ( < 0.0001) and ( < 0.0001) decreased their population throughout days, whereas ( = 0.026) increased its population. Independent of ciliated protozoa genera, the greatest ( < 0.0001) protozoa counts were observed for the CTR treatment (52.7 × 10/mL), intermediate for the FO treatment (35.3 x10/mL), and least for steers fed monensin in both concentrations (15 × 10/mL for the M30 treatment and 14 × 10/mL for the M40 treatment). Feed additives had different effects to reduce the subacute acidosis. The use of the FO and M40 treatments did not change most of the rumen fermentation variables, especially in the first week after abrupt transition, when the M30 treatment provided higher protection against acidosis.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Anacardium , Óleo de Rícino/farmacologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/farmacologia , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nozes , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo
16.
Neurotoxicology ; 63: 146-154, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031576

RESUMO

Nanotechnologies are at the center of societal interest, due to their broad spectrum of application in different industrial products. The current concern about nanomaterials (NMs) is the potential risks they carry for human health and the environment. Considering that NMs can reach bodies of water, there is a need for studying the toxic effects of NMs on aquatic organisms. Among the NMs' toxic effects on fish, the interactions between NMs and the nervous system are yet to be understood. For this reason, our goal was to assess the neurotoxicity of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanospheres [AgNS (PVP coated)] and compare their effects in relation to silver ions (Ag+) in carnivorous Hoplias intermedius fish after acute and subchronic trophic exposure through the analysis of morphological (retina), biochemical (brain) and genetic biomarkers (brain and blood). For morphological biomarkers, damage by AgNS (PVP coated) in retina was found, including morphological changes in rods, cones, hemorrhage and epithelium rupture, and also deposition of AgNS (PVP coated) in retina and sclera. In the brain biomarkers, AgNS (PVP coated) did not disturb acetylcholinesterase activity. However, lowered migration of the DNA tail in the Comet Assay of blood and brain cells was observed for all doses of AgNS (PVP coated), for both acute and subchronic bioassays, and in a dose-dependent manner in acute exposure. Ag+ also reduced the level of DNA damage only under subchronic conditions in the brain cells. In general, the results demonstrated that AgNS (PVP coated) do not cause similar effects in relation to Ag+. Moreover, the lowered level of DNA damage detected by Comet Assay suggests that AgNS (PVP coated) directly interacts with DNA of brain and blood cells, inducing DNA-DNA or DNA-protein crosslinks. Therefore, the AgNS (PVP coated) accumulating, particularly in the retina, can lead to a competitive disadvantage for fish, compromising their survival.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanosferas/toxicidade , Povidona/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Ensaio Cometa , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Peixes , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Células Fotorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Fotorreceptoras/ultraestrutura , Retina/citologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/ultraestrutura , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 1054-1061, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876945

RESUMO

Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a prevalência das principais causas de condenação de fígado bovino em abatedouro frigorífico sob Serviço de Inspeção Federal, situado na Zona da Mata mineira. Para obtenção dos dados, foram consultadas fichas relativas ao movimento mensal de abate de bovinos e de causas de condenação, no período compreendido entre 2007 e 2013, no referido estabelecimento. Durante esse período, foram abatidos 150.752 bovinos, e a prevalência de condenação hepática entre os anos variou de 9,38% a 14,09%. As principais patologias envolvidas foram abscesso, telangiectasia e fasciolose, responsáveis por 32,03%, 29,20% e 21,95% das condenações, respectivamente. Além disso, foi observada tendência de redução na frequência de condenação por abscesso (3,26%) e telangiectasia (0,68%) ao ano e, em contraposição, aumento por fasciolose de 3,40% ao ano. Conclui-se que as patologias responsáveis pelas condenações de fígado bovino foram abscesso, telangiectasia e fasciolose e que a inspeção post mortem tem grande importância no monitoramento da saúde e da produção animal e na qualidade da carne a ser comercializada.(AU)


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of the main causes for condemnation of bovine liver in an abattoir/cold store under the Federal Inspection Services, located in the Zona da Mata of the state of Minas Gerais, between 2007 and 2013. Study data was collated from forms containing information about the number of cattle slaughtered per month and the causes for liver condemnation at the studied abattoir. During the period under study, 150,752 cattle were slaughtered, and the frequency of liver condemnation varied between 9.38% and 14.09% from year to year. The main pathologies that led to liver condemnation were abscesses, telangiectasis, and fasciolosis, which were responsible for 32.03%, 29.20%, and 21.95% of the condemnations, respectively. The frequency of condemnation because of abscesses and telangiectasis showed a trend of decline, 3.26% and 0.68% per year, respectively. The frequency of condemnation because of fasciolosis, however, showed a trend of increase by 3.40% per year. This study shows the usefulness of post mortem inspection of animal health and production monitoring.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Inspeção de Alimentos , Fígado/microbiologia , Carne/análise , Bovinos , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Abscesso Hepático/veterinária , Telangiectasia/veterinária
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 121(25): 4830-4842, 2017 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585821

RESUMO

A complete experimental study on the vibrational properties of palmitic and stearic acids crystallized in the Bm and C forms, both belonging to the monoclinic system with the P21/a (C2h5) space group, through polarized Raman and infrared spectroscopy, is reported in this paper. Density functional theory calculations were also performed to assign the normal modes and to help in the interpretation of the experimental data. The different polarizations were compared and their influence on the spectral profiles, in both the lattice and the internal mode regions, was discussed. In general, the Raman and infrared spectra exhibit accentuated differences among the polymorphic forms, which are associated with the different molecular modifications, defined as gauche and all-trans conformations. Insights about interaction among different groups are also furnished.

19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 123(2): 392-400, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622460

RESUMO

AIM: This study examined the antifungal activity of the combination of tyrosol and farnesol against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the planktonic state or forming biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of drug association against Candida planktonic cells was assessed by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Mono- and dual-species biofilms were developed during 24 h and then treated with the compounds for 3 days, with two daily treatments of 1 min each. After, the total biomass, metabolic activity and the number of cultivable cells were quantified. Planktonic cells of the two species showed a similar susceptibility to the drug combination, however, a synergistic effect was only verified for C. glabrata. Regarding biofilm susceptibility, significant reductions in C. glabrata biomass, metabolism of C. albicans and mixed biofilms, and cultivable cells of single biofilms were verified for the drug combination, indicating an additive effect. For all other experiments, the effects were classified as indifferent. CONCLUSION: The combined use of tyrosol and farnesol was advantageous for some of the analysed parameters against Candida species. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These findings may contribute to the development of oral care products containing tyrosol and farnesol to combat oral infections caused by Candida species.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/genética , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candida glabrata/genética , Candida glabrata/fisiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Plâncton/genética , Plâncton/fisiologia
20.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 46(8): 1000-1006, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433212

RESUMO

A systematic review of the advantages and disadvantages of piezoelectric surgery in comparison with conventional saws for sagittal split osteotomy (SSO) was performed. Relevant studies published in the last 10 years were identified through a search of the PubMed/MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Embase databases and assessed against predetermined eligibility criteria. The initial search resulted in 1736 articles. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles remained. A total of 799 patients with an average age of 27.5 years underwent SSO performed using a saw or ultrasonic device. Results showed that it took longer to perform the osteotomies using an ultrasonic device than using a conventional saw. At ≥6 months of follow-up, neurosensory disturbance was seen in 4.7% of patients who underwent piezoelectric surgery versus 61.6% of patients who underwent surgery in which a conventional saw was used. It was found that the use of piezoelectric surgery in SSO leads to the best outcome regarding neurosensory disturbance when compared to conventional saws (P=0.04) at ≥6 months of follow-up. Further studies are required for the evaluation of the other clinical parameters assessed.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ortognáticos/instrumentação , Osteotomia Sagital do Ramo Mandibular/instrumentação , Piezocirurgia/instrumentação , Humanos
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