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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

RESUMO

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e231838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681894

RESUMO

Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Rios , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , População Rural , Suínos
3.
Andrologia ; 50(2)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28517368

RESUMO

This study evaluated the capacity of thermoregulation and its consequences on the scrotal surface temperature patterns and semen quality of buffalo bulls raised in a wet tropical climate. Eleven water buffaloes were evaluated in the rainiest, in the transitional and in the less rainy season. Air temperature and humidity were consistently high, but the animals did not show thermal stress in any season. The scrotal temperature gradient of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography was described, and three parallel and decreasing thermal bands were characterised. Sperm quality (n = 176 ejaculates) was maintained in normal parameters over the periods. Pearson's coefficients showed that sperm volume and progressive motility were negatively correlated with ocular globe, epididymal tail and minimum scrotal temperatures (p < .01). Sperm membrane integrity was negatively influenced by increases in epididymal tail and minimum scrotal temperatures (p < .01). Ocular globe temperature also showed positive correlation with rectal, spermatic cord, and epididymal tail temperatures (p < .01). Therefore, even under high temperature and humidity, the thermoregulatory system was effective in preventing heat stress and the normality of scrotal surface temperatures, spermatogenesis and sperm maturation were maintained.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Búfalos/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Testículo/fisiologia , Clima Tropical/efeitos adversos , Animais , Epididimo/fisiologia , Masculino , Escroto/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen , Maturação do Esperma/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia
4.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(2)2017 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549203

RESUMO

Buffalo production is spreading globally because of its economic advantage. Then, it has become necessary to improve the reproductive and productive efficiency of these animals, as well as to look for genetic factors that increase this efficiency. The objectives of this study were to characterize the promoter region of the melatonin 1A receptor gene (MTRN1A), to detect possible SNPs and associate them with fertility characteristics, and identify binding sites of transcription factors involved in the regulation of genetic expression in buffaloes in the Amazon. The conventional PCR method was carried out using the two primers designed from the reference sequence deposited in the GenBank AY52466.1. The products of the PCRs were purified, sequenced, and subsequently edited and aligned. Twenty-six SNPs were found, where 73% presented allele frequencies of wild nucleotides above 0.5, and 73% presented deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05) and FIS varying between 0.06 and 1.00, characterizing high degrees of inbreeding within the population. A block of ACAA deletion (position -1483) was observed in 25% of samples. The associations between these SNPs and reproductive characteristics were observed for calving interval and 5 SNPs: -1289, -1139, -911, -724, and -656 (P < 0.05), and three other SNPs: -1395, -724, and -94 (P < 0.05) were associated significantly with age at first calving, and were not associated with calving concentration. The promoter region was characterized by the different types of binding factors, where only 11 sites are significantly strong enough for transcription factor bindings. The ACAA deletion also exhibited a strong association with transcription factors. As a result, it would be necessary to test the SNPs above with other reproductive characteristics of economic relevance to approve the gene as a strong candidate for the selection of buffaloes in the Amazon.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Animais , Búfalos/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(2): 422-430, mar.-abr. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-779793

RESUMO

This paper aimed to evaluate the surface temperatures of buffalo bulls using infrared thermography, considering four distinct anatomical parts over time, and to correlate surface temperatures and thermal comfort indexes. The humid tropical climate (Kõppen's Afi) was predominant in the research station where the experiment was performed and the trial lasted from April to August. Ten bulls (n=10) were evaluated every 25 days (morning: 6:00-9:00; afternoon: 12:00-15:00) and the parameters assessed were respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT), and the thermograms of surface temperature for orbital area (ORB), right flank (RF), left flank (LF) and scrotum (SCR). Climatological data was continuously monitored and the Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) and the Index of Comfort of Benezra (ICB) were calculated. The average values of THI were ≥78, and significant differences between shifts were observed (P<0.05). The ICB ranged from 1.96 to 2.25 and significant differences were observed for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05). The averages of surface temperatures were RT=38.2±0.5°C, ORB=36.1±0.8°C, LF=33.5±2.5°C, RF=35.4±1.7ºC and SCR=33.3±1.1°C, which exhibited significant differences for shifts and throughout the months (P<0.05). Positive correlations were obtained between THI and ORB (0.72), RF (0.77), LF (0.75) and SCR (0.41) (P<0.0001). The maximum temperature of ORB showed the highest correlation with RT (0.58, P<0.0001). Therefore, the surface temperatures are subject to climatic variations and increase throughout the day, due to the variation in thermal comfort indexes, and the maximum ORB temperature was the parameter most related to rectal temperature. Lastly, the results indicate that IRT may be a useful non-invasive and accurate tool to detect the variations in ORB, LF, RF and SCR temperature in buffalo bulls.


O presente trabalho visou avaliar as temperaturas superficiais de diferentes regiões anatômicas de búfalos ao longo do tempo, por meio da termografia infravermelha, e correlacioná-las a índices bioclimatológicos de conforto térmico. O ensaio foi realizado em região de clima tropical úmido (Afi de Kõppen), de abril a agosto. Dez touros (n=10) foram avaliados a cada 25 dias (manhã: seis-nove horas; tarde: 12-15h), quanto à frequência respiratória (FR), temperatura retal (TR) e imagens termográficas da órbita ocular (ORB), flanco direito (FLd), flanco esquerdo (FLe) e escroto (ESC). Os dados climatológicos foram ininterruptamente monitorados, e calculados o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU) e o índice de conforto de Benezra (ICB). O ITU foi ≥78, com diferença entre turnos (P<0,05). Já o ICB variou de 1,96 a 2,25 e apresentou diferenças ao longo dos meses e entre turnos (P<0,05). As temperaturas observadas foram de TR=38,2±0,5ºC, ORB=36,1±0,8ºC, FLd=33,5±2,5ºC, FLe=35,4±1,7ºC e ESC=33,3±1,1ºC, as quais variaram significativamente ao longo dos meses e entre turnos (P<0,05). O ITU apresentou correlações positivas com ORB (0,72), FLd (0,77), FLe (0,75) e ESC (0,41) (P<0,0001). A temperatura máxima de ORB apresentou a maior correlação com a TR (0,58; P<0,0001). Portanto, as temperaturas superficiais dos animais sofrem interferências das variações climáticas e se elevam ao longo do dia, devido à variação nos índices de conforto térmico; a temperatura máxima de ORB foi o parâmetro mais condicionado à temperatura retal. Também, as oscilações de temperatura de superfície de ORB, FLd, FLe e ESC podem ser aferidas em bubalinos com o uso da termografia infravermelha, de modo preciso e não invasivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Temperatura Corporal , Búfalos , Raios Infravermelhos/efeitos adversos , /análise , Tratamento Térmico
6.
Parasitol Res ; 114(12): 4545-51, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26350377

RESUMO

To evaluate the anthelmintic effect of Musa spp. leaves, 12 animals were artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus, and another 12 animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Then, both treatment groups were offered 400 g of dried ground banana plant leaves, and the control animals were offered only 1000 g of coast cross hay. During the trials, the animals received weekly physical examinations. The methods used to evaluate the efficiency of this treatment were packed cell volume, total plasma protein and faecal egg counts, and egg hatchability tests were performed on days -2, +3, +6, +9, +13 and +15. Coproculture tests were performed on day -2 to confirm monospecific infections. In the FEC and EHT, a statistically significant difference (0.04, 0.005; p < 0.05) was noted for T. colubriformis. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) for Haemochus contortus group in all tests. Our results confirmed previous findings suggesting that dried ground banana plant leaves possess anthelmintic activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Musa/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Trichostrongylus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Tricostrongilose/tratamento farmacológico , Tricostrongilose/parasitologia , Tricostrongilose/veterinária
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 63(1): 74-80, Feb. 2011. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-582327

RESUMO

Avaliou-se a viabilidade do transporte de oócitos em meio quimicamente definido, e analisou-se a necessidade da adição ou não de hormônios neste meio. Os oócitos do grupo-controle (0h) foram maturados por 24h em estufa de CO2, e os dos grupos experimentais foram transportados em incubadora portátil. No experimento I, as taxas de clivagem foram similares (P>0,05) para os grupos 0h (59,7 por cento), 3h (53,5 por cento) e 9h (48,8 por cento), e houve redução nos grupos 6h (46,1 por cento) e 12h (43,8 por cento). Essas taxas foram semelhantes entre os grupos 3h, 6h, 9h e 12h. A produção de blastocistos não foi diferente (P>0,05) para os grupos 0h (38,0 por cento), 3h (32,3 por cento), 6h (27,3 por cento) e 9h (24,8 por cento), e houve redução no grupo 12h (18,9 por cento). Essas taxas foram semelhantes entre os grupos 6h, 9h e 12h. No experimento II, não houve diferença (P>0,05) entre as taxas de clivagem para os grupos 0h (71,4 por cento), 3h (70,3 por cento), 6h (56,0 por cento) com hormônios, e os grupos 3h (64,8 por cento) e 6h (54,1 por cento) sem hormônios. A produção de blastocistos foi similar (P>0,05) para os grupos 0h (46,1 por cento), 3h com hormônios (45,8 por cento) e 3h sem hormônios (41,1 por cento), porém houve redução nos grupos 6h com hormônios (35,5 por cento) e 6h sem hormônios (33,5 por cento). Essas taxas foram semelhantes entre os grupos 3h sem hormônios e 6h com e sem hormônios. Estes resultados indicam que é possível otransporte de oócitos bovinos por um período de até nove horas, e que a adição de hormônios neste meio não influencia os índices de clivagem e de blastocistos.


The viability of the transport of the bovine oocytes was evaluated in chemically defined medium and the need for the addition or not of hormones in this medium was analyzed. The oocytes in the control group (0h) were matured for 24h in CO2 incubator, and in experimental groups they were transported in portable incubator. In experiment I, the cleavage rates were similar (P>0.05) to the groups 0h (59.7 percent), 3h (53.5 percent), and 9h (48.8 percent), but they decreased in groups 6h (46.1 percent) and 12h (43.8 percent), however, these rates were similar among the groups 3h, 6h, 9h, and 12h. The production of blastocysts was not different (P>0.05) for groups 0h (38.0 percent), 3h (32.3 percent), 6h (27.3 percent), and 9h (24.8 percent), but there was a reduction in the 12h group (18.9 percent). These rates were similar among the groups 6h, 9h and 12h. In experiment II, no significant difference (P>0.05) was observed among the rates of cleavage for the groups 0h (71.4 percent), 3h with (70.3 percent) and without hormones (64.8 percent), and 6h with (56.0 percent) and without hormones (54.1 percent). The production of blastocysts was similar (P>0.05) for groups 0h (46.1 percent) and 3h with (45.8 percent) and without hormones (41.1 percent), but decreased in groups 6h with (35.5 percent) and without hormones (33.5 percent). These rates were similar among the groups 3h without, 6h with and without hormones. These results indicate the possibility of the transport of bovine oocytes up to 9h, and the addition of hormones in this medium does not influence the rates of cleavage and blastocysts.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Oócitos/citologia , Atmosfera/análise , Embriologia/métodos
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 62(6): 1375-1380, dez. 2010. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-576035

RESUMO

Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e a qualidade de embriões bovinos, cocultivados com células epiteliais do oviduto bovino (CEOBs) expostas ou não ao estradiol e à progesterona. Os ovócitos foram maturados in vitro por 24h e, então, fertilizados utilizando-se sêmen congelado, em estufa de CO2 a 5 por cento e 38,5ºC. As CEOBs foram cultivadas em TCM-199 com ou sem estradiol (E2) (24 horas), nas mesmas condições da maturação e fertilização in vitro (MIV e FIV), e, em seguida, adicionadas aos diferentes grupos em CR2 com ou sem progesterona (P4) (G1=P4+E2); (G2=E2); (G3=P4) e (G4=controle). Após 18h da FIV, as células foram cultivadas nos diferentes sistemas. Nenhuma diferença (P>0,05) foi observada nas taxas de clivagem entre G1, G2 e G4 (53,5 por cento; 56,3 por cento; 51,7 por cento) e nos padrões de blastocistos (BLs) (29,3 por cento; 31,2 por cento, 28,7 por cento). Índices menores (P<0,05) foram obtidos no G3 para ambas as variáveis (34,5 por cento; 16,4 por cento). G1 e G2 apresentaram taxas de eclosão maiores (P<0,05) que os outros grupos (23,3 por cento; 23,2 por cento), sendo G4 (19,3 por cento) diferente de G3 (16,1 por cento). Em G1, G2 e G3, o número de células nos BLs aumentou 125,9; 128,4 e 123,6, respectivamente (P<0,05), em relação ao G4 (112,5). Conclui-se que o tratamento das CEOBs com o E2, nas primeiras 24 horas de cultivo, pode ser usado isoladamente ou em combinação com a progesterona, a fim de melhorar a qualidade de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro.


The development and quality of bovine embryos co-cultivated with bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOEC) supplemented or not with estradiol and progesterone were evaluated. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro (MIV/FIV) (5 percentCO2/38.5ºC). The BOEC were cultivated in TCM-199 with or without estradiol (E2) (24h), in the same conditions of MIV/FIV. Presumptive zygotes were transferred to BOEC in suspension after in vitro maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes with thawed percoll-selected sperm. The zygotes were cultivated in CR2 medium containing or not progesterone (P4) (G1=P4+E2), (G2=E2), (G3=P4), and (G4=control). No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the cleavage rates among G1, G2, and G4 (53.5 percent, 56.3 percent, and 51.7 percent) as well as in relation to the blastocystis (BL) rates (29.3 percent, 31.2 percent, and 28.7 percent). However, significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the G3 for both variables (34.5 percent and 16.4 percent). G1 and G2 showed hatching rates higher (P<0.05) than the other groups (23.3 percent; 23.2 percent), being G4 (19.3 percent) different from G3 (16.1 percent) (P<0.01). In the groups G1, G2, and G3, the total cell number of the BL increased (125.9, 128.4, and 123.6) (P<0.05) compared to G4 (112.5). These results demonstrate that the treatment of the BOEC with estradiol in first the 24 hours of culture can be used separately or in combination with the progesterone to improve the quality of bovine embryos produced in vitro.


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos/classificação , Estruturas Embrionárias/embriologia , Estradiol , Hormônios/química , Progesterona
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 39(5): 595-602, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16648896

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5% (95% CI: 8.8-12.3) (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA). Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2%). HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6%) of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9%) was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5%) and genotype 2 (4.6%). Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0% of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8% detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5% in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/etiologia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(5): 595-602, May 2006. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-425794

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD), despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5 percent (95 percent CI: 8.8-12.3) (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA). Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2 percent). HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6 percent) of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9 percent) was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5 percent) and genotype 2 (4.6 percent). Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0 percent of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8 percent detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5 percent in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/etiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Parasitology ; 132(Pt 3): 331-8, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16255835

RESUMO

Human parasites are often distributed in metapopulations, which makes random sampling for genetic epidemiology difficult. The typical approach to sampling Schistosoma mansoni involves laboratory passage to obtain individual worms with small sample size and selection bias as a consequence. By contrast, the naturally pooled samples from egg output in stool or urine directly represent the genetic composition of current populations. To test whether pooled samples could be used to estimate population allele frequencies, DNA from individual cloned parasites was pooled and amplified by PCR for 7 microsatellites. By polyacrylamide gel analysis, the relative band intensities of the products from the major alleles in the pooled samples differed by 0-6% from the summed intensities of the individual clones (mean = 2.1%+/-2.1% S.D.). The number of PCR cycles (25-40) did not influence the accuracy of the estimate. Varying the frequency of 1 allele in pooled samples from 32 to 69% likewise did not affect accuracy. Allele frequency estimates from aggregate samples such as eggs will be a better foundation for studies of parasite population dynamics as well as the basis for large-scale association studies of host and parasite characteristics.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/análise , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Schistosoma mansoni/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biomphalaria , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Primers do DNA/química , DNA de Helmintos/química , Frequência do Gene/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Schistosoma mansoni/classificação
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 38(5): 767-75, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15917959

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV, TTV and GBV-C/GBV-C/HGV in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. We evaluated sera of 94 patients from a sentinel program who had acute hepatitis A (N = 40), B (N = 42) and non-A-C (N = 12); 71 blood donors served as controls. IgM and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay using commercial kits. TTV and GBV-C/HGV were detected by nested PCR; genotyping was done by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HEV IgG was present in 38, 10 and 17% of patients with hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. Four patients with hepatitis A and 1 with non-A-C hepatitis also had anti-HEV IgM detected in serum. TTV was detected in 21% of patients with acute hepatitis and in 31% of donors. GBV-C/HGV was detected in 9% of patients with hepatitis, and in 10% of donors. We found TTV isolates of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and GBV-C/HGV isolates of genotypes 1 and 2. Mean aminotransferase levels were lower in patients who were TTV or GBV-C/HGV positive. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HEV IgM in some acute hepatitis A cases suggests co-infection with HEV and hepatitis E could be the etiology of a few cases of sporadic non-A-C hepatitis in Salvador, Brazil. TTV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 isolates and GBV-C/HGV genotype 1 and 2 strains are frequent in the studied population. TTV and GBV-C/HGV infection does not appear to have a role in the etiology of acute hepatitis.


Assuntos
Vírus GB C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Torque teno virus/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Vírus GB C/genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Torque teno virus/genética
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(5): 767-775, May 2005. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-400949

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV, TTV and GBV-C/GBV-C/HGV in patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. We evaluated sera of 94 patients from a sentinel program who had acute hepatitis A (N = 40), B (N = 42) and non-A-C (N = 12); 71 blood donors served as controls. IgM and anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassay using commercial kits. TTV and GBV-C/HGV were detected by nested PCR; genotyping was done by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Anti-HEV IgG was present in 38, 10 and 17 percent of patients with hepatitis A, B and non-A-C. Four patients with hepatitis A and 1 with non-A-C hepatitis also had anti-HEV IgM detected in serum. TTV was detected in 21 percent of patients with acute hepatitis and in 31 percent of donors. GBV-C/HGV was detected in 9 percent of patients with hepatitis, and in 10 percent of donors. We found TTV isolates of genotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 and GBV-C/HGV isolates of genotypes 1 and 2. Mean aminotransferase levels were lower in patients who were TTV or GBV-C/HGV positive. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HEV IgM in some acute hepatitis A cases suggests co-infection with HEV and hepatitis E could be the etiology of a few cases of sporadic non-A-C hepatitis in Salvador, Brazil. TTV genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 isolates and GBV-C/HGV genotype 1 and 2 strains are frequent in the studied population. TTV and GBV-C/HGV infection does not appear to have a role in the etiology of acute hepatitis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Vírus GB C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Torque teno virus/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Vírus GB C/genética , Genótipo , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite Viral Humana/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Torque teno virus/genética
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 7(6): 409-417, dez. 2003. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-357653

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus displays a high degree of genetic mutation, with considerable heterogeneity, motivating clinical and biomolecular investigations. It is necessary to understand the effects of genotypes on the course of the disease, as well as their peculiarities at the regional level. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to compare epidemiological, biochemical and histological aspects of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 3 in Salvador, Bahia. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected retrospectively from outpatient medical records. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 127 patients with positive anti-HCV results were selected, based on detectable RNA-HCV (RT-PCR) of genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (30.7 percent) individuals were infected by subtype 1a, 45 (35.4 percent) by subtype 1b and 43 (33.9 percent) by subtype 3a. Most (73.2 percent) patients were male, with an average age of 47.8 years. The subtype 1b-infected patients had the highest average age (512 ±11.17; P=0.09). The use of illicit injected drugs was more frequent among subtype 3a infected individuals when compared with genotype 1 (6/43; 14 percent and 3/84; 3.6 percent, respectively; P=0,06). No significant differences were found for other epidemiological characteristics. Average values for GT, AST, ALT and ferritin did not differ between the groups (64, 78, 109, 276, respectively). Thyroid dysfunction occurred in 7/30 (23.3 percent) of those infected by genotype 3 (P=0.05). Cryoglobulinemia was also more frequent in this group (5/13, 38 percent, P=0.02). Most patients presented limited necro-inflammatory activity, stages 2 and 3 by the METAVIR Classification. In some cases, dissociation was noticed between inflammatory activity and fibrosis. No significant differences were found in the histopathological findings of the various genotypes. Younger patients had a significantly smaller degree of necrosis in stomatocytosis (P=0.032) and fibrosis (P=0.012). Intense parenchymatous activity and lymphoid follicles were more frequent among alcohol consumers (P=0.06 and P=0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In Bahia, genotype 3 dissemination seems to be associated with illicit drug use. The disease evolution depends on a function of complex interactions between virus and host. Age and alcohol consumption stand out as important variables in the development of cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hepatite C , Brasil , Genótipo , Hepatite C , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
15.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 7(6): 409-17, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14636481

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus displays a high degree of genetic mutation, with considerable heterogeneity, motivating clinical and biomolecular investigations. It is necessary to understand the effects of genotypes on the course of the disease, as well as their peculiarities at the regional level. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to compare epidemiological, biochemical and histological aspects of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 3 in Salvador, Bahia. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected retrospectively from outpatient medical records. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 127 patients with positive anti-HCV results were selected, based on detectable RNA-HCV (RT-PCR) of genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (30.7%) individuals were infected by subtype 1a, 45 (35.4%) by subtype 1b and 43 (33.9%) by subtype 3a. Most (73.2%) patients were male, with an average age of 47.8 years. The subtype 1b-infected patients had the highest average age (512 +/-11.17; P=0.09). The use of illicit injected drugs was more frequent among subtype 3a infected individuals when compared with genotype 1 (6/43; 14% and 3/84; 3.6%, respectively; P=0,06). No significant differences were found for other epidemiological characteristics. Average values for GT, AST, ALT and ferritin did not differ between the groups (64, 78, 109, 276, respectively). Thyroid dysfunction occurred in 7/30 (23.3%) of those infected by genotype 3 (P=0.05). Cryoglobulinemia was also more frequent in this group (5/13, 38%, P=0.02). Most patients presented limited necro-inflammatory activity, stages 2 and 3 by the METAVIR Classification. In some cases, dissociation was noticed between inflammatory activity and fibrosis. No significant differences were found in the histopathological findings of the various genotypes. Younger patients had a significantly smaller degree of necrosis in stomatocytosis (P=0.032) and fibrosis (P=0.012). Intense parenchymatous activity and lymphoid follicles were more frequent among alcohol consumers (P=0.06 and P=0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In Bahia, genotype 3 dissemination seems to be associated with illicit drug use. The disease evolution depends on a function of complex interactions between virus and host. Age and alcohol consumption stand out as important variables in the development of cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 62(2): 257-60, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10813481

RESUMO

We used a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to obtain the genotypes of circulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients from a Gastro-Hepatology Unit in the city of Salvador (Bahia State) in northeastern Brazil. Viral RNA was detected in 83 (65.4%) of 127 anti-HCV seropositive serum samples. Positivity was significantly associated with alterations in levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05). Genotyping of HCV was performed by RT-PCR using genotype-specific primers from the core region: 24.1% were infected with subtype 1a, 38.6% with 1b, 3.6% with 2, 21.7% with 3a, and 12.0% with a mixed genotype. There was no difference in genotype distribution when compared with results from other Brazilian locations. Surprisingly, the high frequency of genotype 3 in Brazilian samples continues to be different from that reported around the world and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Southern Blotting , Brasil/epidemiologia , Primers do DNA/química , DNA Viral/química , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/química , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Am Clin Lab ; 18(6): 18-9, 1999 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10557848

RESUMO

The data and the results obtained at the above symposium show that the flow cytometric method closely correlates with the standardized aCL bench ELISA and with the APhL ELISA kit. The aCL/aPS FACS kit is comparable in sensitivity to the APhL ELISA kit and standard aCL bench ELISA, but the aCL/aPS FACS kit is more specific than the standard anticardiolipin assay (particularly for the determination of aPS). In summary, the aCL/aPS FACS kit enables rapid (total run time < or = 1 hr) and simultaneous determination of aCL (aCL) and anti-PS antibodies of the IgG and IgM classes and combines good sensitivity and specificity in a single assay. The method is reproducible (intraassay variations < 5%). Furthermore, it is easy to transform into a partially or fully mechanized process and is well suited for laboratories that test large numbers of samples daily. The assay promises to be useful not only for detecting positive APS sera, but also in evaluating the significance of phospholipid specificity and antibody isotypes in patients with APS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Anticorpos Anticardiolipina/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/estatística & dados numéricos , Citometria de Fluxo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoensaio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 15(3): 581-90, 1999.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10502154

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess quality of care for premature labor at public maternity facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using referents, indicators, and standards of care derived from scientific evidence. The standard utilized in the process analysis for use of betamimetic tocolytics was 100%, considering the related referents. For outcome analysis, the standard applied was the occurrence of premature delivery in 11% of patients within 24 h and in 24% of patients (referent) within 48 h of hospital admission. Use of tocolytics was observed in 18.7% of patients admitted in premature labor. At gestational age from 28 weeks to 33 weeks and 6 days, especially critical for neonatal survival, tocolytics were used in 32.6% of patients. Premature birth occurred in 59% of patients within 24 h and in 64% within 48 h. These outcomes were consistent with the low rate of utilization of tocolytics. Effectiveness of care for preterm labor measured by rate of premature birth was low. Results of the corresponding process and outcomes analysis were consistent.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Tocólise/normas , Tocolíticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Tocolíticos/farmacologia
19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 15(4): 817-29, 1999.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10633204

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess quality of obstetric care for preterm labor patients, using referents, indicators, and standards derived from scientific evidence, focusing on antenatal corticotherapy. Available meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials were examined to establish referents, defining indicators and estimating process and outcome standards for the present study. Data from hospital discharge summaries of seven public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. The standard of process used was 100%. It was not possible to estimate outcome standards, since the necessary adjustment for gestational age was not feasible. Utilization of antenatal corticotherapy in the present study was very low, about 4% and 2%, considering patients up to 33 weeks and 6 days and 36 weeks and 6 days, respectively. Failure to use antenatal corticotherapy when formally indicated deserves attention by health planners and managers, considering: a) the ease in incorporating such a technology, in contrast to the adequate incorporation of special/intensive neonatal care; b) benefits and costs associated with this technology compared to those of delivering neonatal care to premature babies.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitais Públicos/normas , Humanos , Incidência , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia
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