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2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(2): 1066-1074, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865698

RESUMO

Disinfection is critical for maintaining a safe water supply, but the use of chlorine or chloramine leads to exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs), which have been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and bladder cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency revised the DBP regulations starting in 1998 to further limit levels of THMs in household water. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected between 2001 and 2012 (with 2 years per cycle) using models with and without water-related predictors to examine the utility of including these measures. Median blood chloroform levels (25th-75th percentiles) were 16.2 (9.13-31.2) ng/L in 2001-2002 and 5.97 (2.92-12.3) ng/L in 2011-2012. Median blood bromodichloromethane (BDCM) levels (25th-75th percentiles) were 2.22 (1.06-4.61) ng/L in 2001-2002 and 1.18 (

Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Desinfecção , Exposição Ambiental , Trialometanos , Abastecimento de Água
3.
N Engl J Med ; 382(8): 697-705, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causative agents for the current national outbreak of electronic-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) have not been established. Detection of toxicants in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid from patients with EVALI can provide direct information on exposure within the lung. METHODS: BAL fluids were collected from 51 patients with EVALI in 16 states and from 99 healthy participants who were part of an ongoing study of smoking involving nonsmokers, exclusive users of e-cigarettes or vaping products, and exclusive cigarette smokers that was initiated in 2015. Using the BAL fluid, we performed isotope dilution mass spectrometry to measure several priority toxicants: vitamin E acetate, plant oils, medium-chain triglyceride oil, coconut oil, petroleum distillates, and diluent terpenes. RESULTS: State and local health departments assigned EVALI case status as confirmed for 25 patients and as probable for 26 patients. Vitamin E acetate was identified in BAL fluid obtained from 48 of 51 case patients (94%) in 16 states but not in such fluid obtained from the healthy comparator group. No other priority toxicants were found in BAL fluid from the case patients or the comparator group, except for coconut oil and limonene, which were found in 1 patient each. Among the case patients for whom laboratory or epidemiologic data were available, 47 of 50 (94%) had detectable tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites in BAL fluid or had reported vaping THC products in the 90 days before the onset of illness. Nicotine or its metabolites were detected in 30 of 47 of the case patients (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin E acetate was associated with EVALI in a convenience sample of 51 patients in 16 states across the United States. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/análise , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros , Óleo de Coco/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Limoneno/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(12): 127003, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) was used as a gasoline additive in the United States during 1995-2006. Because of concerns about potential exposure and health effects, some U.S. states began banning MTBE use in 2002, leading to a nationwide phaseout in 2006. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the change in blood MTBE that occurred during the years in which MTBE was being phased out of gasoline. METHODS: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-2012 to assess the change in blood MTBE over this period. We fit sample-weighted multivariate linear regression models to 12,597 human blood MTBE concentrations from the NHANES 2001-2002 to 2011-2012 survey cycles. RESULTS: The unweighted proportion of the individuals with MTBE blood levels above the limit of detection (LOD) of 1.4 ng/L was 93.9% for 2001-2002. This portion dropped to 25.4% for the period 2011-2012. Weighted blood MTBE median levels (ng/L) (25th and 75th percentiles) decreased from 25.8 (6.08, 68.1) ng/L for the period from 2001-2002 to 4.57 (1.44, 19.1) ng/L for the period from 2005-2006. For the entire postban period (2007-2012), MTBE median levels were below the detection limit of 1.4 ng/L. DISCUSSION: These decreases in blood MTBE coincided with multiple statewide bans that began in 2002 and a nationwide ban in 2006. The multivariate log-linear regression model for the NHANES 2003-2004 data showed significantly higher blood MTBE concentrations in the group who pumped gasoline less than 7 h before questionnaire administration compared to those who pumped gasoline more than 12 h before questionnaire administration (p=0.032). This study is the first large-scale, national-level confirmation of substantial decrease in blood MTBE levels in the general population following the phaseout of the use of MTBE as a fuel additive. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5572.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1040-1041, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725707

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and multiple public health and clinical partners are investigating a national outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI). Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, 86% of 867 EVALI patients reported using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset (1). Analyses of THC-containing product samples by FDA and state public health laboratories have identified potentially harmful constituents in these products, such as vitamin E acetate, medium chain triglyceride oil (MCT oil), and other lipids (2,3) (personal communication, D.T. Heitkemper, FDA Forensic Chemistry Center, November 2019). Vitamin E acetate, in particular, might be used as an additive in the production of e-cigarette, or vaping, products; it also can be used as a thickening agent in THC products (4). Inhalation of vitamin E acetate might impair lung function (5-7).


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Surtos de Doenças , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(4): 2134-2140, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672285

RESUMO

Nitromethane is a known toxicant and suspected human carcinogen. Exposure to nitromethane in a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population in the United States ≥12 years old was assessed using 2007-2012 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Nitromethane was detected in all 8000 human blood samples collected, of which 6730 were used for analyses reported here. Sample-weighted median blood nitromethane was higher among exclusive combusted tobacco users (exclusive smokers; 774 ng/L) than nonusers of tobacco products (625 ng/L). In stratified sample-weighted regression analysis, smoking 0.5 pack of cigarettes per day was associated with a statistically significant increase in blood nitromethane by 150 ng/L, and secondhand smoke exposure (serum cotinine >0.05 ng/mL and <10 ng/mL) was statistically significant with a 31.1 ng/L increase in blood nitromethane. Certain dietary sources were associated with small but statistically significant increases in blood nitromethane. At median consumption levels, blood nitromethane was associated with an increase of 7.55 ng/L (meat/poultry), 9.32 ng/L (grain products), and 14.5 ng/L (vegetables). This is the first assessment of the magnitude and relative source apportionment of nitromethane exposure in the U.S. population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Criança , Cotinina , Dieta , Humanos , Metano/análogos & derivados , Nitroparafinas , Tabaco , Estados Unidos
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(18): 10571-10579, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133279

RESUMO

Sources of human aldehyde exposure include food additives, combustion of organic matter (tobacco smoke), water disinfection byproducts via ozonation, and endogenous processes. Aldehydes are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic, and chronic human aldehyde exposure has raised concerns about potential deleterious health effects. To aid investigations of human aldehyde exposure, we developed a novel method to measure 19 aldehydes released from Schiff base protein adducts in serum using controlled acid hydrolysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography (GC), and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Aldehydes are released from Schiff base protein adducts through acid hydrolysis, and are quantified in trace amounts (µg/L) using stable isotope dilution. Detection limits range from 0.1 to 50 µg/L, with calibration curves spanning 3 orders of magnitude. The analysis of fortified quality control material over a three-month period showed excellent precision and long-term stability (3-22% CV) for samples stored at -70 °C. The intraday precision is also excellent (CV, 1-10%). The method accuracy ranges from 89 to 108% for all measured aldehydes, except acrolein and crotonaldehyde, two aldehydes present in tobacco smoke; their analysis by this method is not considered robust due in part to their reactivity in vivo. However, results strongly suggest that propanal, butanal, isobutanal, and isopentanal levels in smokers are higher than levels in nonsmokers, and thus may be useful as biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. This method will facilitate large epidemiological studies involving aldehyde biomonitoring to examine nonoccupational environmental exposures.


Assuntos
Aldeídos , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Fumaça
8.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 23(1): 39-45, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22829048

RESUMO

Although disinfection of domestic water supply is crucial for protecting public health from waterborne diseases, this process forms potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). We evaluated the influence of physicochemical properties of four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) on the internal dose after showering. One hundred volunteers showered for 10 min in a controlled setting with fixed water flow, air flow, and temperature. We measured THMs in shower water, shower air, bathroom air, and blood samples collected at various time intervals. The geometric mean (GM) for total THM concentration in shower water was 96.2 µg/l. The GM of total THM in air increased from 5.8 µg/m(3) pre shower to 351 µg/m(3) during showering. Similarly, the GM of total-blood THM concentration increased from 16.5 ng/l pre shower to 299 ng/l at 10 min post shower. THM levels were significantly correlated between different matrices (e.g. dibromochloromethane levels) in water and air (r=0.941); blood and water (r=0.845); and blood and air (r=0.831). The slopes of best-fit lines for THM levels in water vs air and blood vs air increased with increasing partition coefficient of water/air and blood/air. The slope of the correlation plot of THM levels in water vs air decreased in a linear (r=0.995) fashion with increasing Henry's law constant. The physicochemical properties (volatility, partition coefficients, and Henry's law constant) are useful parameters for predicting THM movement between matrices and understanding THM exposure during showering.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Trialometanos/administração & dosagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Trialometanos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 120(5): 661-7, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22281753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have used various measures to characterize trihalomethane (THM) exposures, but the relationship of these indicators to exposure biomarkers remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined temporal and spatial variability in baseline blood THM concentrations and assessed the relationship between these concentrations and several exposure indicators (tap water concentration, water-use activities, multiroute exposure metrics). METHODS: We measured water-use activity and THM concentrations in blood and residential tap water from 150 postpartum women from three U.S. locations. RESULTS: Blood ΣTHM [sum of chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromo-chloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] concentrations varied by site and season. As expected based on variable tap water concentrations and toxicokinetic properties, the proportion of brominated species (BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) in blood varied by site (site 1, 24%; site 2, 29%; site 3, 57%) but varied less markedly than in tap water (site 1, 35%; site 2, 75%; site 3, 68%). The blood-water ΣTHM Spearman rank correlation coefficient was 0.36, with correlations higher for individual brominated species (BDCM, 0.62; DBCM, 0.53; TBM, 0.54) than for TCM (0.37). Noningestion water activities contributed more to the total exposure metric than did ingestion, but tap water THM concentrations were more predictive of blood THM levels than were metrics that incorporated water use. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial and temporal variability in THM concentrations was greater in water than in blood. We found consistent blood-water correlations across season and site for BDCM and DBCM, and multivariate regression results suggest that water THM concentrations may be an adequate surro-gate for baseline blood levels.


Assuntos
Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Período Pós-Parto , Trialometanos/sangue , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 42(22): 8330-8, 2008 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19068814

RESUMO

An occurrence study was conducted to measure five iodo-acids (iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid, and (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid) and two iodo-trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs), (dichloroiodomethane and bromochloroiodomethane) in chloraminated and chlorinated drinking waters from 23 cities in the United States and Canada. Since iodoacetic acid was previouslyfound to be genotoxic in mammalian cells, the iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were analyzed for toxicity. A gas chromatography (GC)/negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to measure the iodo-acids; iodo-THMs were measured using GC/high resolution electron ionization-MS with isotope dilution. The iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were found in waters from most plants, at maximum levels of 1.7 microg/L (iodoacetic acid), 1.4 microg/L (bromoiodoacetic acid), 0.50 microg/L ((Z)-3-bromo-3-iodopropenoic acid), 0.28 microg/L ((E)-3-bromo-3-iodopropenoic acid), 0.58 microg/L ((E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid), 10.2 microg/L (bromochloroiodomethane), and 7.9 microg/L (dichloroiodomethane). Iodo-acids and iodo-THMs were highest at plants with short free chlorine contact times (< 1 min), and were lowest at a chlorine-only plant or at plants with long free chlorine contact times (> 45 min). Iodide levels in source waters ranged from 0.4 to 104.2 microg/L (when detected), but there was not a consistent correlation between bromide and iodide. The rank order for mammalian cell chronic cytotoxicity of the compounds measured in this study, plus other iodinated compounds, was iodoacetic acid > (E)-3-bromo-2-iodopropenoic acid > iodoform > (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > (Z)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > diiodoacetic acid > bromoiodoacetic acid > (E)-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid > bromodiiodomethane > dibromoiodomethane > bromochloroiodomethane approximately chlorodiiodomethane > dichloroiodomethane. With the exception of iodoform, the iodo-THMs were much less cytotoxic than the iodo-acids. Of the 13 compounds analyzed, 7 were genotoxic; their rank order was iodoacetic acid >> diiodoacetic acid > chlorodiiodomethane > bromoiodoacetic acid > E-2-iodo-3-methylbutenedioic acid > (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo-propenoic acid > (E)-3-bromo-2-iodopropenoic acid. In general, compounds that contain an iodo-group have enhanced mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genotoxicity as compared to their brominated and chlorinated analogues.


Assuntos
Células CHO/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Iodetos , Ácido Iodoacético , Abastecimento de Água/análise , Animais , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Iodetos/análise , Iodetos/toxicidade , Ácido Iodoacético/análise , Ácido Iodoacético/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 42(7): 2522-7, 2008 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18504991

RESUMO

The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitromethane and its halogenated analogues in mammals raise concerns about potential toxicity to humans. This study shows that halonitromethanes are not stable in human blood and undergo dehalogenation to form nitromethane. We quantified nitromethane in human blood using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The limit of detection was 0.01 microg/L with a linear calibration curve spanning 3 orders of magnitude. This method employs isotope dilution to precisely quantify trace amounts of nitromethane (coefficient of variation <6%). At three spiked concentrations of nitromethane, method accuracy ranged from 88 to 99%. We applied this method to blood samples collected from 632 people with no known occupational exposure to nitromethane or halonitromethanes. Nitromethane was detected in all blood samples tested (range: 0.28-3.79 microg/L, median: 0.66 microg/L). Time-course experiments with trichloronitromethane- and tribromonitromethane-spiked blood showed that nitromethane was the major product formed (1 nmole tribromonitromethane formed 0.59 nmole of nitromethane, whereas 1 nmole trichloronitromethane formed 0.77 nmole nitromethane). Nitromethane may form endogenously from peroxynitrite: nitromethane concentrations increased proportionately in blood samples spiked with peroxynitrite. Blood nitromethane can be a biomarker of exposure to both nitromethane and halonitromethanes. This sensitive, accurate, and precise analytical method can be used to determine baseline blood nitromethane level in the general population. It can also be used to study the health impact from exposure to nitromethane and halonitromethanes in occupational environments and to assess trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) exposure in chemical terrorism investigations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Halogênios/química , Metano/análogos & derivados , Nitroparafinas/sangue , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Metano/sangue , Metano/química , Metano/toxicidade , Nitroparafinas/química , Nitroparafinas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
12.
J Anal Toxicol ; 32(4): 273-80, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18430294

RESUMO

Widespread use of fuel oxygenates, coupled with their high water solubility and slow degradation rate, have led to an increase in the potential for human exposure. We developed an accurate, precise, sensitive, and high-throughput analytical method to simultaneously quantify trace levels (low parts-per-trillion) of four fuel oxygenates in human blood: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The analytes were extracted from the head space above human blood samples, using solid-phase microextraction, desorbed into the heated injector, and chromatographically resolved by capillary gas chromatography. Analytes were detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry with multiple ion monitoring, and quantified against known standard levels by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards for recovery correction. The low limits of detection (0.6 ng/L) allowed for measurement of MTBE, ETBE, DIPE, and TAME in parts-per-trillion levels with excellent precision (coefficient of variation ranging from 1.7 to 5.4%) and accuracy (96-100%). This method provides a means to assess fuel oxygenate exposure and study the potential relationship between exposure and adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Éteres/sangue , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Microextração em Fase Sólida
13.
Toxicol Sci ; 99(2): 432-45, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17656487

RESUMO

Exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), one of the most prevalent disinfection byproducts in drinking water, can occur via ingestion of water and by dermal absorption and inhalation during activities such as bathing and showering. The objectives of this research were to assess BDCM pharmacokinetics in human volunteers exposed percutaneously and orally to (13)C-BDCM and to evaluate factors that could affect disposition of BDCM. Among study subjects, CYP2E1 activity varied fourfold; 20% had the glutathione S-transferase theta 1-1 homozygous null genotype; and body fat ranged from 7 to 22%. Subjects were exposed to (13)C-BDCM in water (target concentration of 36 mug/l) via ingestion and by forearm submersion. Blood was collected for up to 24 h and analyzed for (13)C-BDCM by solid-phase microextraction and high-resolution GC-MS. Urine was collected before and after exposure for mutagenicity determinations in Salmonella. After ingestion (mean dose = 146 ng/kg), blood (13)C-BDCM concentrations peaked and declined rapidly, returning to levels near or below the limit of detection (LOD) within 4 h. The T(max) for the oral exposure ranged from 5 to 30 min, and the C(max) ranged from 0.4 to 4.1 ng/l. After the 1 h dermal exposure (estimated mean dose = 155 ng/kg), blood concentrations of (13)C-BDCM ranged from 39 to 170 ng/l and decreased to levels near or below the LOD by 24 h. Peak postdose urine mutagenicity levels that were at least twice that of the predose mean level occurred in 6 of 10 percutaneously exposed subjects and 3 of 8 orally exposed subjects. These results demonstrate a highly significant contribution of dermal absorption to circulating levels of BDCM and confirm the much lower oral contribution, indicating that water uses involving dermal contact can lead to much greater systemic BDCM doses than water ingestion. These data will facilitate development and validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for BDCM in humans.


Assuntos
Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Área Sob a Curva , Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1/fisiologia , Glutationa Transferase/fisiologia , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Trialometanos/administração & dosagem , Trialometanos/farmacocinética
14.
J Anal Toxicol ; 30(9): 670-8, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17137527

RESUMO

Iodine-containing trihalomethanes (iodo-THMs) are formed as disinfection byproducts when iodide-containing water is disinfected using chloramination process. Subsequent water use may lead to human exposure to iodo-THMs. Because of health concerns surrounding exposure to iodo-THMs, a rapid, reliable, and high-throughput analytical method was developed to quantify trace levels of two iodo-THMs: dichloroiodomethane (IDCM) and bromochloroiodomethane (IBCM) in human blood. These analytes from the headspace above blood samples were extracted using solid-phase microextraction. Analytes were then desorbed and separated by capillary gas chromatography and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry with multiple ion monitoring. This method utilizes stable isotope dilution to quantify parts-per-trillion levels of all analytes, with excellent precision of < 9% coefficient of variation. At three spiked levels, method accuracy of IDCM and IBCM ranged between 6 and 20% difference when comparing spiked and measured amounts. The method limit of detection was 2 ng/L for both IDCM and IBCM. This selective, sensitive, and rapid method will help to assess human exposure to iodo-THMs and to study potential associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Iodados/sangue , Trialometanos/sangue , Adulto , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Purificação da Água
15.
J Anal Toxicol ; 29(2): 81-9, 2005 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15902975

RESUMO

The prevalence of disinfection by-products in drinking water supplies has raised concerns about possible adverse health effects from chronic exposure to these compounds. To support studies exploring the relation between exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and adverse health effects, an automated analytical method was developed using capillary gas chromatography (GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with selected ion mass detection and isotope-dilution techniques. This method quantified trace levels of THMs (including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in human blood. Analyte responses were adequate for measuring background levels after extraction of these volatile organic compounds with either purge-and-trap extraction or headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The SPME method was chosen because of its ease of use and higher throughput. Detection limits for the SPME GC-MS method ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 ng/L, with linear ranges of three orders of magnitude. This method proved adequate for measuring the THMs and MTBE in most blood samples tested from a diverse U.S. reference population.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Éteres Metílicos/sangue , Trialometanos/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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