Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 138
Filtrar
1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(1): e20170910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the effects of an intervention based on the Theater of the Oppressed in reducing school bullying. METHOD: a quasi-experimental study with 232 first-year high school students from two public schools in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. An intervention was performed with the Theater of the Oppressed, a theatrical methodology created by Augusto Boal and inspired by Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed", in which one school composed the intervention group, and another school, the comparison group. Both groups were assessed for involvement in bullying situations before and after intervention. For data analysis, Poisson Regression models with random effect were used. RESULTS: intervention group presented a significant decrease in direct victimization (physical and verbal aggression). CONCLUSION: the Theater of the Oppressed represents an important strategy in reducing bullying victimization among school adolescents.

2.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260519897329, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928300

RESUMO

Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a major public health concern worldwide. In Africa, particularly, Nigeria, CSA is a silent, but lethal public health menace with prevalence reaching as high as 56% for different child sexual violence. Understanding the vulnerability factors of CSA promotes the creation of strategies toward prevention of CSA. Due to social stigmatization of victims and their families in Nigeria, it is difficult for researchers and policymakers to have access to firsthand information about predisposing factors to CSA, which negatively impacts efforts toward prevention of CSA. Health care professionals are sources of experience-based, anonymous information about various public health issues. This study aims to understand qualitatively health care professionals' perception of vulnerability factors of CSA. The study presents a thematic content analysis of a semi-structured interview of 14 health care professionals working with sexually abused children in Nigeria, on their perception of vulnerability factors of CSA, while aligning the factors with known models of violence. Participants in the study reported several interrelated vulnerability factors involving the individual, sexual abuse perpetrator, family, environment, socioeconomic situations, and the lack or nonimplementation of policies against CSA. The study concludes that identifying these factors can assist health care professionals, parents, and family to better respond to child sexual violence cases and policymakers to create new strategies of preventing CSA, thereby improving the health and safety of children in Nigeria.

3.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(2): e2018178, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the practice of bullying reported by Brazilian students, according to sex, age and geographical location. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study based on two national samples from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE), 2015; a total of 102,301 students participated in the study forming a nationally representative sample; data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: bullying prevalence was 19.8% (95%CI - 19.2;20.3), with higher prevalence in the Southeast region of the country (22.2% - 95%CI 21.1;23.4), and in the State of São Paulo (24.2% - 95%CI 22.3;26.2), however the city with the highest prevalence was Boa Vista (25.5% - 95%CI 22.9;28.1), capital of the State of Roraima; boys (24.2% - 95%CI 23.4;25.0) practiced more bullying than girls (15.6% - 95%CI 14.9;16.2), as did younger students aged 13 to 15 years (22.0% - 95%CI 20.4;23.6). CONCLUSION: higher rates of reported bullying practices were found among adolescents from the Southeast region, among male and younger students.

4.
Front Psychol ; 10: 1086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156510

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the associations between bullying and moral disengagement in a Brazilian sample, using a mixed method design. Two-thousand three hundred and thirty-four adolescents (11-19 years; 42.9% girls) answered self-report measures on bullying and moral disengagement in response to bullying situations. Fifty-five participants were randomly selected and interviewed on their experiences on bullying at school. Results allowed to identify specific mechanisms of moral disengagement associated with bullying behavior among Brazilian adolescents. Qualitative analysis highlighted how moral disengagement mechanisms were spontaneously used by the adolescents to explain both the bullying and the bystander behaviors. Findings support the relevance of moral disengagement mechanisms in explaining bullying behaviors. The value of addressing these mechanisms when designing anti-bullying interventions is discussed.

5.
Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 27(2): 158-165, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011740

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução O bullying escolar representa um fenômeno expressivo no Brasil e no mundo, impactando na saúde e no desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes. Objetivo Analisar as relações entre as percepções de estudantes sobre bullying escolar e interações familiares. Método Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, do qual participaram 55 estudantes. Entrevistas semiestruturadas foram utilizadas na coleta de dados e analisadas segundo a análise de conteúdo, em sua modalidade temática, no software Atlas.Ti. O referencial teórico-metodológico adotado foi a Teoria Bioecológica do Desenvolvimento. Resultados Revelou-se que a) as características individuais, resultantes do processo de desenvolvimento que envolve a família, são os fatores que melhor explicam o bullying; b) as experiências negativas no contexto familiar podem favorecer o envolvimento dos estudantes em situações de bullying; e c) aspectos positivos das famílias podem ser considerados pontos fortes a serem explorados por programas de intervenção. Conclusão Foram identificadas relações entre as percepções acerca do bullying escolar e as interações familiares. A investigação aumenta a compreensão sobre a complexidade do bullying e poderá subsidiar iniciativas de formação de profissionais que atuam na área da saúde e têm as famílias como matriz de ação na atenção primária.


Abstract Background School bullying represents an expressive phenomenon in Brazil and in the world, impacting in the health and development of children and adolescents. Objective To analyze the relationships between student perceptions of school bullying and family interactions. Method This is a qualitative study, in which 55 students participated. Semi-structured interviews were used in the data collection and analyzed according to the content analysis, in its thematic modality, in the software Atlas.Ti. The theoretical-methodological reference adopted was the Bioecological Theory of Development. Results It was revealed that a) individual characteristics resulting from the development process involving the family are the factors that best explain bullying; b) negative experiences in the family context can favor the involvement of students in situations of bullying; and c) positive aspects of families can be considered as strengths to be explored by intervention programs. Conclusion Relationships between perceptions about school bullying and family interactions were identified. The research increases understanding about the complexity of bullying and may subsidize initiatives for the training of professionals who work in the health area and have the families as a matrix of action in primary care.

6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066838

RESUMO

This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001772

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo analisou a prevalência de sofrer bullying e fatores associados em escolares brasileiros. Trata-se de análise da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2015 em amostra nacional com 102.301 alunos do 9º ano. Foi calculada a prevalência de sofrer bullying e foi feita inicialmente análise bivariada com estimativas de razões de chance (OR) e IC95% para estimar as associações entre vitimização e variáveis sociodemográficas, contexto familiar, violência familiar, saúde mental e comportamentos de risco. Posteriormente, procedeu-se ao modelo de regressão logística múltipla, inserindo as variáveis de interesse com (p < 0,20). No modelo final ajustado (ORa) permaneceram variáveis com p < 0,05. A prevalência de bullying foi de 7,4%. A análise multivariada mostrou que quem tem maior chance de sofrer bullying são os escolares do sexo masculino, com 13 anos, da escola pública, filhos de mães sem escolaridade, que trabalham, com relato de solidão, sem amigos, com insônia; que sofreram agressão física dos familiares, faltaram as aulas sem avisar aos pais, usaram tabaco. Predominaram vítimas de 13 anos, com contexto social e familiar desfavorável, mostrando cenário de vulnerabilidades, demandando apoio de redes de proteção social, escolar e famíliar.


Abstract This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .

8.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 28(2): e2018178, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012072

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: identificar a prática de bullying referida por estudantes brasileiros, segundo o sexo, a idade e a localização geográfica. Métodos: estudo transversal, estruturado em duas amostras nacionais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015; participaram do estudo 102.301 estudantes, amostra nacionalmente representativa; a coleta de dados ocorreu mediante questionário autoaplicável. Resultados: a prevalência de prática de bullying foi de 19,8% (IC95% - 19,2;20,3), com maior ocorrência na região Sudeste do país (22,2% - IC95% 21,1;23,4) e no estado de São Paulo (24,2% - IC95% 22,3;26,2), embora a cidade com maior prevalência tenha sido Boa Vista (25,5% - IC95% 22,9;28,1), capital do estado de Roraima; meninos (24,2% - IC95% 23,4;25,0) praticaram mais bullying que meninas (15,6% - IC95% 14,9;16,2), assim como os estudantes mais jovens, de 13 a 15 anos (22,0% - IC95% 20,4;23,6). Conclusão: observou-se maior prática referida de bullying por adolescentes da região Sudeste, indivíduos do sexo masculino, e entre os mais jovens.


Resumen Objetivo: identificar la práctica de acoso escolar por estudiantes brasileños, según sexo, edad y localización geográfica. Métodos: estudio transversal, estructurado en dos muestras nacionales de la Investigación Nacional de Salud del Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015; participaron del estudio 102.301 estudiantes, muestra nacionalmente representativa; la recolección de datos ocurrió mediante cuestionario autoaplicable. Resultados: la prevalencia de la práctica de acoso fue del 19,8% (IC95% 19,2;20,3), con mayor incidencia en la región Sudeste del país (22,2% - IC95% 21,1;23,4) y en el Estado de São Paulo (24,2% - IC95% 22,3;26,2), aunque la ciudad con mayor prevalencia fue Boa Vista (25,5% - IC95% 22,9;28,1), capital del Estado de Roraima; los niños (24,2% - IC95% 23,4;25,0) practicaron más acoso que las niñas (15,6% - IC95% 14,9;16,2), así como los estudiantes más jóvenes, de 13 a 15 años (22,0% - IC95% 20,4;23,6). Conclusión: se observó mayor práctica de acoso moral por adolescentes de la región Sudeste, de sexo masculino, y entre los más jóvenes.


Abstract Objective: to identify the practice of bullying reported by Brazilian students, according to sex, age and geographical location. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study based on two national samples from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE), 2015; a total of 102,301 students participated in the study forming a nationally representative sample; data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Results: bullying prevalence was 19.8% (95%CI - 19.2;20.3), with higher prevalence in the Southeast region of the country (22.2% - 95%CI 21.1;23.4), and in the State of São Paulo (24.2% - 95%CI 22.3;26.2), however the city with the highest prevalence was Boa Vista (25.5% - 95%CI 22.9;28.1), capital of the State of Roraima; boys (24.2% - 95%CI 23.4;25.0) practiced more bullying than girls (15.6% - 95%CI 14.9;16.2), as did younger students aged 13 to 15 years (22.0% - 95%CI 20.4;23.6). Conclusion: higher rates of reported bullying practices were found among adolescents from the Southeast region, among male and younger students.

9.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 36: e180060, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039861

RESUMO

This study's objective was to assess the social skills, peer acceptance, and friendship among students involved in bullying situations transitioning from elementary to middle school. A total of 408 6th grade students from six public schools in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil composed the sample; 54.9% of whom were aged 11.3 years on average (Standard Deviation = 0.6). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and Spearman's correlation. In regard to social skills, bully-victims present a greater amount of passive and active responses when compared to victims, bullies, and not involved students. Only male bully-victims, however, experienced significantly more frequent rejection by peers, while female bully-victims had significantly fewer friends. The results indicate the need to develop interventions intended to prevent and decrease bullying in the period of school transition. Such interventions should, however, be gender-sensitive because of differences existing between boys and girls.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as habilidades sociais, aceitação pelos pares e amizade de estudantes em transição escolar envolvidos em situações de bullying. Participaram 408 estudantes do sexto ano do Ensino Fundamental, de seis escolas públicas do interior do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 54,9% do sexo feminino, idade média de 11,3 anos (Desvio Padrão = 0,6). Os dados foram analisados mediante Análises de Variância e correlação de Spearman. Em relação às habilidades sociais, as vítimas agressoras apresentaram maior quantidade de respostas passivas e de respostas ativas em comparação com as vítimas, agressores e não envolvidos no bullying. Entretanto, somente os meninos vítimas agressoras foram significativamente mais rejeitados pelos pares e as meninas vítimas agressoras tiveram significativamente menos amigos. Os resultados indicam a necessidade do desenvolvimento de intervenções objetivando prevenir e reduzir o bullying no período de transição escolar, intervenções que sejam sensíveis ao gênero, em função das diferenças identificadas.


Assuntos
Rejeição (Psicologia) , Desejabilidade Social , Amigos , Bullying , Habilidades Sociais
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(6): 3115-3120, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517419

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze a professor training experience for higher education. METHOD: This is a descriptive case report on the professor training process in the postgraduate course of the College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. An evaluative activity was performed to capture the perceptions and experiences of 21 graduate students who were interns of an educational improvement program. The data were analyzed following the thematic content analysis guidelines. RESULTS: Three thematic categories were identified: 1) knowledge necessary for teaching practice; 2) teaching routines and practices; 3) the essentiality of mentoring. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: This article provides a critical approach on the formative process of human resources for higher education in health, identifying potentials and challenges. Its innovative character resides in understanding pedagogical work articulated with graduate research training.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação/normas , Docentes/educação , Ensino/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Tutoria/tendências , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180015, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper was to compare the tendency of bullying across Brazilian capitals, considering the editions of National Scholl Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, 2012 and 2015, and to describe the prevalence of bullying by sex, age and administrative dependence of the school in the 2015 sample. METHODOLOGY: The prevalence of bullying and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were assessed per State capital and for all capitals. 95%CI was used to check for differences in the period. In the last edition, two samples were analyzed: sample 1 represents the students of the 9th year of Elementary School and sample 2 holds students from 13 to 17 years of age, from the 6th to 9th grade of Elementary and High Schools. RESULTS: The report of suffering bullying by 9th graders in Brazilian capitals increased from 5.4% (95%CI 5.1 - 5.7), in 2009, to 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8), in 2012, staying at 7.4% (95%CI 7.1 - 7.7) in 2015. Descriptive analysis for Brazil showed variation by age, as adolescents aged 13 years suffered more bullying than those aged 14, 15 and 16 years. Boys usually report more this problem than girls, as well as public school students, but with overlapping CI. DISCUSSION: The study pointed 37% increase in the prevalence of bullying between 2009 and 2015 in Brazilian capitals by. CONCLUSION: This study reiterates that Brazilian schools are still a space for violence reproduction, which makes it urgent to make progress in prevention and minimization of bullying at schools based on the concept of health promotion and integral care.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
12.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(6): 3115-3120, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977612

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze a professor training experience for higher education. Method: This is a descriptive case report on the professor training process in the postgraduate course of the College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. An evaluative activity was performed to capture the perceptions and experiences of 21 graduate students who were interns of an educational improvement program. The data were analyzed following the thematic content analysis guidelines. Results: Three thematic categories were identified: 1) knowledge necessary for teaching practice; 2) teaching routines and practices; 3) the essentiality of mentoring. Final considerations: This article provides a critical approach on the formative process of human resources for higher education in health, identifying potentials and challenges. Its innovative character resides in understanding pedagogical work articulated with graduate research training.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar una experiencia de formación de profesores para la enseñanza superior. Método: Se trata de un relato descriptivo sobre una experiencia en el proceso de formación docente en el postgrado de la Escuela de Enfermería de Ribeirão Preto de la Universidad de São Paulo. Se realizó una actividad evaluativa para aprehender las percepciones y la experiencia de 21 estudiantes de posgrado que fueron pasantes de un programa de perfeccionamiento de la enseñanza. Los datos fueron analizados siguiendo los supuestos del análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Resultados: Se identificaron tres categorías temáticas: 1) Conocimientos necesarios para la práctica docente; 2) Rutinas y prácticas de la docencia; 3) La esencialidad de la tutoría. Consideraciones finales: Este trabajo ofrece un enfoque crítico sobre el proceso formativo de recursos humanos para la enseñanza superior en el área de la salud, identificando potencialidades y desafíos. Su carácter innovador reside en la comprensión del trabajo pedagógico en articulación con la formación para la investigación en el posgrado.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar uma experiência de formação de professores para o ensino superior. Método: Trata-se de um relato descritivo sobre uma experiência no processo de formação docente na pós-graduação na Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Foi realizada uma atividade avaliativa para apreender as percepções e a experiência de 21 pós-graduandos que foram estagiários de um programa de aperfeiçoamento do ensino. Os dados foram analisados seguindo pressupostos da análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática. Resultados: Foram identificadas três categorias temáticas: 1) Conhecimentos necessários para a prática docente; 2) Rotinas e práticas da docência; 3) A essencialidade da tutoria. Considerações finais: Esse trabalho oferece uma abordagem crítica sobre o processo formativo de recursos humanos para o ensino superior na área da saúde, identificando potencialidades e desafios. Seu caráter inovador reside na compreensão do trabalho pedagógico em articulação com a formação para a pesquisa na pós-graduação.

13.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(suppl 3): 1220-1227, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the experiences of gay and lesbian adolescents and young people in the process of revealing sexual orientation to their families. METHOD: A qualitative study carried out in a city in the state of São Paulo. Twelve gay and lesbian adolescents and youngsters participated. For the data collection, the semi-structured interview was used and data analysis was performed using the method of interpretation of the senses. RESULTS: The family reactions in the process of "coming out of the closet" of the participants were violent, with persecution and even expulsion from home, in addition to the repression of expressions of homoerotic experiences, which impacted on their health and quality of life. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The family is an essential component of the support network, but also a space that can generate and reproduce forms of violence in the name of heteronormativity. Health services should develop care practices and care for the family and adolescent and homosexual youth victim of violence.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 67(3): 151-158, July-Sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954566

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a qualidade das interações familiares de adolescentes e o envolvimento em situações de bullying escolar. Métodos Estudo transversal de base populacional que contou com a participação de 2.354 estudantes (meninas = 50,7%; idade média M = 14,5 anos, DP = 2,0 anos) do ensino fundamental e médio, de 11 escolas públicas de uma cidade do interior de Minas Gerais. A amostra do estudo foi definida pela seleção de estratos (escolas), utilizando o método Probability Proportional to Size. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da aplicação coletiva de duas escalas, sendo uma para identificar comportamentos de bullying/vitimização e outra para aferir a qualidade das interações familiares dos adolescentes. Os procedimentos de análise incluíram: análise estatística descritiva, análise de variância (ANOVA) e regressão logística. Resultados O estudo identificou uma prevalência de 10,3% de estudantes agressores, 10,1% de vítimas e 5,4% de vítimas-agressoras na amostra. Verificou-se que os estudantes não envolvidos em situações de bullying possuíam melhores interações familiares quando comparados com os estudantes identificados como agressores, vítimas e vítimas-agressoras. Efeitos do aspecto "regras e monitoria" (OR: 1,21; p = 0,001) no contexto familiar foram identificados como protetivo para o bullying ou a vitimização. Os aspectos "punição física" (OR: 0,84; p = 0,001) e "comunicação negativa" (OR: 0,53; p = 0,001) foram associados a maior possibilidade de bullying ou vitimização entre os estudantes. Conclusões Confirmou-se que a qualidade das interações familiares influencia no envolvimento dos estudantes em situações de bullying. Implicações para a área da saúde foram discutidas a partir de indicadores de risco e proteção identificados.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the quality of the family interactions of adolescents and the involvement in situations of school bullying. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study involving 2,354 students (girls = 50.7%, mean age M = 14.5 years, SD = 2.0 years) of 11 primary schools in a city of the interior of Minas Gerais. The study sample was defined by stratum selection (schools), using the Probability Proportional to Size method. The data collection occurred through collective application of two scales, one to identify behaviors of bullying/victimization and another to measure the quality of family interactions of the adolescents. The analysis procedures included: descriptive statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression. Results The study found a prevalence of 10.3% of the aggressors students, 10.1% of the victims and 5.4% of the victims-aggressors in the sample. It was found that students not involved in bullying situations had better family interactions when compared to students identified as aggressors, victims and victims-aggressors. Effects of the "rules and monitoring" aspect (OR: 1,21; p = 0,001) in the family context were identified as protective for bullying or victimization. The "physical punishment" (OR: 0,84, p = 0,001) and "negative communication" (OR: 0,53; p = 0,001) aspects were associated with a greater possibility of bullying or victimization among the students. Conclusions It was confirmed that the quality of family interactions influences the involvement of the students in bullying situations. Implications for the health area were discussed from identified risk and protection indicators.

15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 71(3): 1085-1091, 2018 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to verify if the improvement of social and emotional skills reduces bullying victimization in 6th grade students 12 months after the end of the intervention. METHOD: Quasi-experimental study with 78 students who were bullying victims. A cognitive behavioral intervention based on social skills was conducted with the intervention group. The eight sessions addressed politeness, making friendships, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness and solution of interpersonal problems. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with random effect. RESULTS: Quasi-experimental study with 78 students who were bullying victims. A cognitive behavioral intervention based on social skills was conducted with the intervention group. The eight sessions addressed politeness, making friendships, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness and solution of interpersonal problems. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with random effect. CONCLUSION: Social skills are important in anti-bullying interventions and can be the basis for intersectoral interventions in the health area, aimed at favoring the empowerment of victims by improving their social interactions and quality of life in school.


Assuntos
Bullying/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Vítimas de Crime/educação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Mudança Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(3): 1085-1091, May-June 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958650

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to verify if the improvement of social and emotional skills reduces bullying victimization in 6th grade students 12 months after the end of the intervention. Method: Quasi-experimental study with 78 students who were bullying victims. A cognitive behavioral intervention based on social skills was conducted with the intervention group. The eight sessions addressed politeness, making friendships, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness and solution of interpersonal problems. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with random effect. Results: Quasi-experimental study with 78 students who were bullying victims. A cognitive behavioral intervention based on social skills was conducted with the intervention group. The eight sessions addressed politeness, making friendships, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness and solution of interpersonal problems. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression with random effect. Conclusion: Social skills are important in anti-bullying interventions and can be the basis for intersectoral interventions in the health area, aimed at favoring the empowerment of victims by improving their social interactions and quality of life in school.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Comprobar si la mejoría de las habilidades sociales reduce la victimización por acoso escolar (bullying) en estudiantes del 6º año de primaria, después de 12 meses de concluida la intervención. Método: Estudio de intervención cuasi-experimental entre 78 estudiantes víctimas de acoso escolar (bullying). Se llevó a cabo una intervención cognitivo-comportamental basada en habilidades sociales con ocho sesiones enfocadas en habilidades de civilidad, hacer amigos, autocontrol y expresividad emocional, empatía, asertividad y solución de problemas interpersonales. Los datos se analizaron a través de la Regresión de Poisson con efecto aleatorio. Resultado: El grupo intervención mejoró con respecto a las habilidades sociales; la victimización se redujo significativamente en ambos grupos (intervención y comparación), aunque en mayor cantidad en el grupo intervención. Conclusión: las habilidades sociales son importantes en mediaciones contra el acoso escolar y pueden fundamentar intervenciones intersectoriales en el área de la salud, con el fin de favorecer el empoderamiento de las víctimas mediante la mejoría de sus interacciones sociales y de la calidad de vida en la escuela.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se a melhoria de habilidades sociais reduz a vitimização por bullying em estudantes do 6º ano escolar após 12 meses da finalização da intervenção. Método: Estudo de intervenção quase-experimental com 78 estudantes vítimas de bullying. Realizou-se uma intervenção cognitivo comportamental baseada em habilidades sociais com o grupo intervenção. As oito sessões realizadas enfocaram habilidades de civilidade, fazer amizades, autocontrole e expressividade emocional, empatia, assertividade e solução de problemas interpessoais. Os dados foram analisados mediante regressão de Poisson com efeito aleatório. Resultado: O grupo da intervenção melhorou significativamente as habilidades sociais. A vitimização reduziu-se significativamente em ambos os grupos (intervenção e comparação), porém, em maior quantidade no grupo intervenção. Conclusão: As habilidades sociais são importantes em intervenções antibullying e podem fundamentar intervenções intersetoriais na área da saúde, visando favorecer o empoderamento das vítimas mediante a melhoria de suas interações sociais e qualidade de vida na escola.

17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(3): 751-761, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538556

RESUMO

This study unveils the meaning attributed by students to bullying and contributes to the approach of student health. The objective was to identify the dimensions of the conceptions of students regarding bullying. A total of 55 students from 11 public schools participated by answering semi-structured interviews. Dimensional analysis was used to treat data and a matrix was constructed with the dimensions identified. The Grounded Theory was adopted as the methodological and theoretical framework. The adolescents were aware of the main dimensions of bullying but explained it descriptively and from individual perspectives. The following dimensions were identified: type, nature, examples, motivation and consequences. The type of violence was a dimension with greater explanatory power in relation to the remaining dimensions. Verbal violence and its different manifestations stood out. Aspects of the literature that define bullying were identified, indicating how the topic is diffused, its occurrence and how it is understood by students. The innovative nature of this study is its focus on the identification of the dimensions of bullying present in the narrative of Brazilian students. It is an approach that contributes to the organization of healthcare programs and interventions in different fields.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Motivação , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(3): 751-761, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890555

RESUMO

Resumo Este estudo apreendeu o significado do bullying para estudantes e contribui com a abordagem da saúde do escolar. Objetivou-se conhecer as dimensões de concepções de estudantes sobre o bullying. Participaram 55 adolescentes de 11 escolas públicas, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas. A análise dimensional foi utilizada no tratamento dos dados e se construiu uma matriz com as dimensões identificadas. A Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados foi adotada como referencial metodológico e teórico. Os adolescentes conhecem as principais dimensões do bullying, mas o explicam de forma descritiva e numa perspectiva individual. As dimensões identificadas foram: tipo, natureza, exemplos, motivação e consequências. O tipo de violência foi a dimensão com maior poder explicativo em relação às demais, sobressaindo-se o tipo verbal e suas diferentes formas de manifestação. Aspectos da literatura que definem o bullying foram identificados no conjunto, indicando a difusão do tema, sua ocorrência e apreensão pelos estudantes. O caráter inovador do estudo se centra na identificação das dimensões presentes nas narrativas dos estudantes brasileiros sobre o bullying, abordagem que contribui com a organização dos programas de cuidado e intervenção em diferentes áreas.


Abstract This study unveils the meaning attributed by students to bullying and contributes to the approach of student health. The objective was to identify the dimensions of the conceptions of students regarding bullying. A total of 55 students from 11 public schools participated by answering semi-structured interviews. Dimensional analysis was used to treat data and a matrix was constructed with the dimensions identified. The Grounded Theory was adopted as the methodological and theoretical framework. The adolescents were aware of the main dimensions of bullying but explained it descriptively and from individual perspectives. The following dimensions were identified: type, nature, examples, motivation and consequences. The type of violence was a dimension with greater explanatory power in relation to the remaining dimensions. Verbal violence and its different manifestations stood out. Aspects of the literature that define bullying were identified, indicating how the topic is diffused, its occurrence and how it is understood by students. The innovative nature of this study is its focus on the identification of the dimensions of bullying present in the narrative of Brazilian students. It is an approach that contributes to the organization of healthcare programs and interventions in different fields.

19.
Trends Psychol ; 26(1): 509-522, jan.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904561

RESUMO

Resumo O bullying, considerado problema de saúde pública, afeta o relacionamento social, o desempenho escolar e a saúde de crianças e adolescentes. Esta revisão de literatura com metanálise objetivou verificar se intervenções em habilidades sociais reduzem a vitimização e/ou agressão por bullying. Foram consultadas as bases de dados: LILACS, PsycINFO, Scielo, SCOPUS e Web of Science. Na metanálise, empregou-se o modelo de efeitos aleatórios e o método de DerSimonian-Laird. Selecionou-se os seis estudos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, cuja qualidade metodológica foi avaliada pela escala de Downs e Black. Os resultados indicaram efeitos das intervenções em habilidades sociais na redução de agressão e vitimização, porém em níveis não significativos. Intervenções em habilidades sociais podem ser mais eficazes se desenvolvidas em conjunto com outras que envolvam também a variedade de situações, contextos e sujeitos implicados no bullying, como equipe escolar e família.


Resumen El Bullying o acoso escolar, considerado un problema de salud pública, afecta a las relaciones sociales, al desarrollo escolar y a la salud en general de niños y adolescentes. Esta revisión sistemática de literatura con metaanálisis tiene como objetivo comprobar si las intervenciones en habilidades sociales reducen la victimización y/o la agresión en los casos de acoso escolar. Se consultaron las bases de datos LILACS, PsycINFO, Scielo, SCOPUS y Web of Science. En el metaanáisis se empleó el modelo de efectos aleatórios y el modelo de DerSimonian-Laird. Se seleccionaron los seis estudios que corresponden a los critérios de exclusión cuya calidad metodológica fue evaluada en la escala de Downs y Black. Los resultados indicaron efectos positivos en las intervenciones pero a un nivel muy poco significativo. Las intervenciones podrían ser más eficaces si se desarrollan en conjunto con otras que aporten variedad en cuanto a situaciones, contextos y sujetos implicados en el acoso escolar tales como el personal docente y la familia.


Abstract Bullying, a public health problem, affects social relationships, school performance and students' health. The objective of this literature review was to verify whether interventions addressing social skills reduce victimization and/or aggression resulting from bullying. The following databases were consulted: LILACS, PsycINFO, Scielo, SCOPUS and Web of Science. The random-effects model and DerSimonian-Laird method were used. Six studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected, the methodological quality of which was assessed using the Downs and Black scale. Results indicated that interventions addressing social skills reduced bullying and victimization, however, at non-significant levels. Interventions addressing social skills may be more effective if developed together with other types of intervention which may include a wide range of situations, contexts, as well as the different individuals involved in the bullying incident, such as school staff and family.

20.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 22(3): e20170322, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-891821

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To report on the development of the phases of the photovoice method in qualitative research with adolescent mothers who were experiencing or experienced breastfeeding and/or weaning. Method: Twelve individual interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results: The photovoice was developed in the phases: Identification of the political decision makers in the community with some community leadership profile; Recruitment of participants; Introduction of the methodology to the participants; Obtaining informed consent; Identification of the theme (s) for the photographs; Distribution of cameras and review of their handling; Provision of time for the registration of photographs; Meeting (s) for discussion on photographs and identification of community resources and issues; Shared planning of the dissemination formats of the images and stories produced. Final considerations and implications for the practice: Photovoice stands out as a way to approach health professionals with the life circumstances of adolescent mothers, in order to promote and support breastfeeding.


Resumen Objetivo: Informar la experiencia del desarrollo de las fases del método photovoice en investigación cualitativa junto a madres adolescentes que estaban vivenciando o vivenciaron el proceso de lactancia y/o de destete. Método: Se realizaron 12 entrevistas individuales y un grupo focal. Resultados: El photovoice fue desarrollado en las fases: Identificación de los responsables políticos en la comunidad con algún perfil de liderazgo comunitario; Reclutamiento de las participantes; Introducción de la metodología a las participantes; Obtención del consentimiento informado; Identificación de tema(s) para las fotografías; Distribución de las cámaras y revisión de sus manipulaciones; Ofrecimiento de tiempo para el registro de las fotografías; Encuentro(s) para discusión sobre las fotografías e identificación de los recursos y problemáticas comunitarias; Planificación compartida de los formatos de diseminación de las imágenes e historias producidas. Consideraciones finales e implicaciones para la práctica: Se destaca el photovoice como medio para acercamiento de los profesionales de salud con las circunstancias de vida de las madres adolescentes, para actuar en la promoción y apoyo a la lactancia.


Resumo Objetivo: Relatar experiência do desenvolvimento das fases do método photovoice em pesquisa qualitativa junto a mães adolescentes que estavam vivenciando ou vivenciaram o processo de amamentação e/ou de desmame. Método: Realizaram-se 12 entrevistas individuais e um grupo focal. Resultados: O photovoice foi desenvolvido nas fases: Identificação dos decisores políticos na comunidade com algum perfil de liderança comunitária; Recrutamento das participantes; Introdução da metodologia às participantes; Obtenção do consentimento informado; Identificação de tema(s) para as fotografias; Distribuição das câmeras e revisão de seus manuseios; Oferecimento de tempo para o registro das fotografias; Encontro(s) para discussão sobre as fotografias e identificação dos recursos e problemáticas comunitárias; Planejamento partilhado dos formatos de disseminação das imagens e histórias produzidas. Considerações finais e implicações para a prática: Destaca-se o photovoice como meio para aproximação dos profissionais de saúde com as circunstâncias de vida das mães adolescentes, para atuarem na promoção e apoio à amamentação.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Enfermagem , Gravidez na Adolescência , Pesquisa Qualitativa
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA