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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066838

RESUMO

This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1359-1368, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001772

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo analisou a prevalência de sofrer bullying e fatores associados em escolares brasileiros. Trata-se de análise da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2015 em amostra nacional com 102.301 alunos do 9º ano. Foi calculada a prevalência de sofrer bullying e foi feita inicialmente análise bivariada com estimativas de razões de chance (OR) e IC95% para estimar as associações entre vitimização e variáveis sociodemográficas, contexto familiar, violência familiar, saúde mental e comportamentos de risco. Posteriormente, procedeu-se ao modelo de regressão logística múltipla, inserindo as variáveis de interesse com (p < 0,20). No modelo final ajustado (ORa) permaneceram variáveis com p < 0,05. A prevalência de bullying foi de 7,4%. A análise multivariada mostrou que quem tem maior chance de sofrer bullying são os escolares do sexo masculino, com 13 anos, da escola pública, filhos de mães sem escolaridade, que trabalham, com relato de solidão, sem amigos, com insônia; que sofreram agressão física dos familiares, faltaram as aulas sem avisar aos pais, usaram tabaco. Predominaram vítimas de 13 anos, com contexto social e familiar desfavorável, mostrando cenário de vulnerabilidades, demandando apoio de redes de proteção social, escolar e famíliar.


Abstract This study analyzed the prevalence of bullying and associated factors among Brazilian schoolchildren using data produced by the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE, acronym in Portuguese) consisting of a national sample of 102,301 eighth grade students. The prevalence of bullying was calculated and bivariate analysis was performed using a 95% confidence level to determine the association between victimization and socio-demographic variables and other variables relating to family background, mental health, and risk behaviors. Multivariate analysis was then conducted using the biologically plausible variables of interest. For the final model, variables that obtained p-values of < 0.05 were maintained. The prevalence of bullying was found to be 7.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that boys aged 13 years studying in public schools who worked and whose mother did not have any schooling were more likely to be bullied, as were schoolchildren who felt lonely, had no friends, suffered from insomnia, skipped lessons without parental permission, and who smoked. Victims of bullying were predominantly 13-year-olds from an unfavorable social and family background, painting a picture of vulnerability that calls for support from social protection networks, schools and families alike .

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(2): 535-544, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726385

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe and analyze factors associated with sexual violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was analyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimated according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; female; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sexual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students' vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention of this type of violence.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Pais , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(2): 535-544, Feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-984209

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo do estudo foi descrever e analisar fatores associados à violência sexual (VS) entre estudantes do ensino fundamental no Brasil. Analisaram-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) em 2015. Calculou-se a prevalência de VS total e desagregada segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, contexto familiar, saúde mental, comportamentos de risco, segurança e prática de atividade física. Estimaram-se as razões de chances (Odds Ratios - OR) de sofrer VS segundo variáveis associadas estatisticamente (p < 0,05) por meio de análise multivariada. A prevalência de VS foi de 4,0%. A VS entre escolares esteve associada a características como idade < 13 anos, sexo feminino, cor da pele preta, trabalhar, ser agredido por familiares, ter insônia, sentir-se solitário, não possuir amigos, consumir tabaco/álcool regularmente, ter experimentado drogas, ter iniciado atividade sexual, sentir-se inseguro na escola ou no trajeto escola-casa, ter sofrido bullying. Estudar em escola privada, possuir mãe com escolaridade de nível superior, morar com os pais e ter supervisão de familiares foram fatores protetores em relação à VS. Foi possível identificar vulnerabilidades dos estudantes frente à VS, o que pode apoiar pesquisadores, profissionais e famílias na prevenção deste tipo de violência.


Abstract The objective of this study was to describe and analyze factors associated with sexual violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was analyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimated according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; female; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sexual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students' vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention of this type of violence.

5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180015, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper was to compare the tendency of bullying across Brazilian capitals, considering the editions of National Scholl Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, 2012 and 2015, and to describe the prevalence of bullying by sex, age and administrative dependence of the school in the 2015 sample. METHODOLOGY: The prevalence of bullying and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were assessed per State capital and for all capitals. 95%CI was used to check for differences in the period. In the last edition, two samples were analyzed: sample 1 represents the students of the 9th year of Elementary School and sample 2 holds students from 13 to 17 years of age, from the 6th to 9th grade of Elementary and High Schools. RESULTS: The report of suffering bullying by 9th graders in Brazilian capitals increased from 5.4% (95%CI 5.1 - 5.7), in 2009, to 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8), in 2012, staying at 7.4% (95%CI 7.1 - 7.7) in 2015. Descriptive analysis for Brazil showed variation by age, as adolescents aged 13 years suffered more bullying than those aged 14, 15 and 16 years. Boys usually report more this problem than girls, as well as public school students, but with overlapping CI. DISCUSSION: The study pointed 37% increase in the prevalence of bullying between 2009 and 2015 in Brazilian capitals by. CONCLUSION: This study reiterates that Brazilian schools are still a space for violence reproduction, which makes it urgent to make progress in prevention and minimization of bullying at schools based on the concept of health promotion and integral care.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Adolescente , Brasil , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21: e180014, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate and describe the coverage of the Pap Smear test reported by women aged 25 to 64 years old from data collected by the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) and to compare the estimates made by the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases using a Telephone Survey (Vigitel) for the same indicator in the Brazilian capital cities and the Federal District in 2013. METHODS: Based on the data from the PNS and Vigitel, we estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of women who reported having had a Pap test screening in the past 3 years. RESULTS: According to the PNS, 79.4% (95%CI 78.5 - 80.2) of the women had had a cervical cancer screening in the past 3 years in Brazil. Women aged 55 to 64 years old (71.0%, 95%CI 68.7 - 73.3) and without an education or incomplete elementary school (72.1%, 95%CI 70.6 - 73.7) had the lowest prevalence, and 88.4% (95%CI 87.5 - 89.2) received test results within 3 months. There was no difference when comparing the estimates of the Vigitel with the PNS for the capital city and Federal District totals. In the PNS, the prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI 82.8 - 84.7) and in the Vigitel, it was 82.9% (95%CI 81.9 - 83.8). In addition, there were no differences by capital, except for Recife, Boa Vista, and João Pessoa. CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer screening coverage for the target population is below the target of 85%. When comparing the data for the capital city and Federal District totals, we verified that the Vigitel System has been effective in monitoring this indicator, which is similar to PNS estimates.


Assuntos
Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Telefone , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(6): 1799-1809, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972488

RESUMO

This article examines progress made towards the implementation of the core priorities laid out in the National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS, acronym in Portuguese) and current challenges, highlighting aspects that are essential to ensuring the sustainability of this policy in times of crisis. It consists of a narrative review drawing on published research and official government documents. The PNPS was approved in 2006 and revised in 2014 and emphasizes the importance of social determinants of health and the adoption of an intersectoral approach to health promotion based on shared responsibility networks aimed at improving quality of life. Progress has been made across all core priorities: tackling the use of tobacco and its derivatives; tackling alcohol and other drug abuse; promoting safe and sustainable mobility; adequate and healthy food; physical activity; promoting a culture of peace and human rights; and promoting sustainable development. However, this progress is seriously threatened by the grave political, economic and institutional crisis that plagues the country, notably budget cuts and a spending cap that limits public spending for the next 20 years imposed by Constitutional Amendment Nº 95, painting a future full of uncertainties.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Brasil , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(6): 2007-2016, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972507

RESUMO

This article reflects on the evolution of the theme of violence within the field of public health. It provides an overview of the strategies and actions developed within Brazil's Unified Health System developed in response to the country's main guiding policy on violence, the National Policy for the Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality due to Accidents and Violence, drawing on baseline documents, national and international research, data from the country's main violence information systems, and the firsthand experiences of the authors from their participation in the abovementioned actions. Violence against children and adolescents, women, and older persons have assumed a prominent position on the health agenda, while other forms of violence, such as child labor, human trafficking, homophobic and racial violence, and violence against street dwellers and people with disabilities, who are deprived of their liberty, are gradually finding their way onto the agenda. Despite undeniable progress in institutionalizing the theme, there is a need for greater investment in various areas including out-of-hospital emergency, rehabilitation, and mental health services. It is also necessary to incorporate the theme into the training and development of all of healthcare professionals and intensify continuing training to enhance capacity for detecting and reporting violence and delivering adequate care to victims.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Idoso , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Violência/prevenção & controle
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(6): 2007-2016, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952658

RESUMO

Resumo Realiza-se uma reflexão sobre o percurso histórico de inserção do tema da violência no campo da saúde pública. Busca-se oferecer um panorama das estratégias e ações implementadas no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde, tomando como norte a Política Nacional de Redução da Morbimortalidade por Acidentes e Violência, além de documentos, estudos e artigos, dados dos principais sistemas de informação e a participação das autoras em muitas das ações mencionadas. Os temas da violência contra crianças e adolescentes, contra a mulher, contra a pessoa idosa tiveram prioridade na agenda de saúde. Outros como: prevenção do trabalho infantil, do tráfico de pessoas, da violência homofóbica, racial, contra a população de rua e portadoras de deficiências, população privada de liberdade foram sendo aos poucos incluídos na pauta. A despeito de grandes avanços inegáveis na institucionalização do tema, observa-se a necessidade de mais investimento quanto aos serviços pré-hospitalares, de reabilitação e de saúde mental, por exemplo. É preciso também incluir a violência que impacta a saúde como tema na formação em todas as carreiras da área do setor saúde e na formação continuada, pois sem pessoas bem preparadas para implementá-lo, esse tema sempre será um estranho à racionalidade biomédica.


Abstract This article reflects on the evolution of the theme of violence within the field of public health. It provides an overview of the strategies and actions developed within Brazil's Unified Health System developed in response to the country's main guiding policy on violence, the National Policy for the Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality due to Accidents and Violence, drawing on baseline documents, national and international research, data from the country's main violence information systems, and the firsthand experiences of the authors from their participation in the abovementioned actions. Violence against children and adolescents, women, and older persons have assumed a prominent position on the health agenda, while other forms of violence, such as child labor, human trafficking, homophobic and racial violence, and violence against street dwellers and people with disabilities, who are deprived of their liberty, are gradually finding their way onto the agenda. Despite undeniable progress in institutionalizing the theme, there is a need for greater investment in various areas including out-of-hospital emergency, rehabilitation, and mental health services. It is also necessary to incorporate the theme into the training and development of all of healthcare professionals and intensify continuing training to enhance capacity for detecting and reporting violence and delivering adequate care to victims.

10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(6): 1799-1809, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952673

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo analisa os avanços e desafios da implementação da Política Nacional de Promoção da Saúde (PNPS) quanto às suas agendas prioritárias e aponta aspectos críticos para sua sustentabilidade em tempos de crises. Estudo de revisão narrativa, abrangendo estudos publicados e documentação institucional. A PNPS foi aprovada em 2006 e revisada em 2014 e destaca a importância dos condicionantes e determinantes sociais da saúde no processo saúde-doença e tem como pressupostos a intersetorialidade e a criação de redes de corresponsabilidade que buscam a melhoria da qualidade de vida. Foram descritos avanços nas prioridades destacadas na PNPS, em programas e ações de enfrentamento ao uso do tabaco e seus derivados; alimentação adequada e saudável; práticas corporais e atividades físicas; promoção do desenvolvimento sustentável; o enfrentamento do uso abusivo de álcool e outras drogas; a promoção da mobilidade segura e sustentável; e a promoção da cultura da paz e de direitos humanos. Entretanto, os avanços da PNPS apresentados podem estar seriamente ameaçados frente à grave crise política, econômica e institucional que abateu o país, em especial os cortes orçamentários para os próximos 20 anos, com a Emenda Constitucional 95, desenhando um cenário futuro de muitas incertezas.


Abstract This article examines progress made towards the implementation of the core priorities laid out in the National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS, acronym in Portuguese) and current challenges, highlighting aspects that are essential to ensuring the sustainability of this policy in times of crisis. It consists of a narrative review drawing on published research and official government documents. The PNPS was approved in 2006 and revised in 2014 and emphasizes the importance of social determinants of health and the adoption of an intersectoral approach to health promotion based on shared responsibility networks aimed at improving quality of life. Progress has been made across all core priorities: tackling the use of tobacco and its derivatives; tackling alcohol and other drug abuse; promoting safe and sustainable mobility; adequate and healthy food; physical activity; promoting a culture of peace and human rights; and promoting sustainable development. However, this progress is seriously threatened by the grave political, economic and institutional crisis that plagues the country, notably budget cuts and a spending cap that limits public spending for the next 20 years imposed by Constitutional Amendment Nº 95, painting a future full of uncertainties.

13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180015, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977708

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: O estudo objetivou comparar a tendência de bullying nas capitais brasileiras, considerando as edições da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) 2009, 2012 e 2015, e descrever na amostra de 2015 a prevalência do bullying por sexo, idade e dependência administrativa da escola. Metodologia: Foram comparadas as prevalências de sofrer bullying e seus intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%), por cada capital e total de capitais. Foram considerados os IC95% para verificar a ocorrência de diferenças no período. Na última edição, foram analisadas duas amostras: a amostra 1 representa os alunos do 9º ano do Ensino Fundamental e a amostra 2, alunos de 13 a 17 anos, estudantes do 6º ao 9º ano do Ensino Fundamental e do 1º ao 3º ano do Ensino Médio. Resultados: O relato de sofrer bullying entre os alunos do 9º ano das capitais brasileiras aumentou de 5,4% (IC95% 5,1 - 5,7), em 2009, para 7,2% (IC95% 6,6 - 7,8), em 2012, e 7,4% (IC95% 7,1 - 7,7), em 2015. Uma análise descritiva do Brasil apontou variação do problema com a idade e que adolescentes de 13 anos sofreram mais bullying que alunos de 14 a 16 anos. Meninos em geral relatam mais esse problema que as meninas, bem como alunos da escola pública, embora com sobreposição dos IC. Discussão: O estudo apontou aumento de 37% da prevalência de sofrer bullying entre 2009 e 2015 nas capitais brasileiras. Conclusão: Reitera-se do estudo que o contexto escolar brasileiro continua sendo um espaço de reprodução da violência, tornando-se urgente avançar na perspectiva de prevenção e minimização das situações de bullying na escola, fundamentada no conceito de promoção da saúde e integralidade do cuidado.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this paper was to compare the tendency of bullying across Brazilian capitals, considering the editions of National Scholl Health Survey (PeNSE) 2009, 2012 and 2015, and to describe the prevalence of bullying by sex, age and administrative dependence of the school in the 2015 sample. Methodology: The prevalence of bullying and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were assessed per State capital and for all capitals. 95%CI was used to check for differences in the period. In the last edition, two samples were analyzed: sample 1 represents the students of the 9th year of Elementary School and sample 2 holds students from 13 to 17 years of age, from the 6th to 9th grade of Elementary and High Schools. Results: The report of suffering bullying by 9th graders in Brazilian capitals increased from 5.4% (95%CI 5.1 - 5.7), in 2009, to 7.2% (95%CI 6.6 - 7.8), in 2012, staying at 7.4% (95%CI 7.1 - 7.7) in 2015. Descriptive analysis for Brazil showed variation by age, as adolescents aged 13 years suffered more bullying than those aged 14, 15 and 16 years. Boys usually report more this problem than girls, as well as public school students, but with overlapping CI. Discussion: The study pointed 37% increase in the prevalence of bullying between 2009 and 2015 in Brazilian capitals by. Conclusion: This study reiterates that Brazilian schools are still a space for violence reproduction, which makes it urgent to make progress in prevention and minimization of bullying at schools based on the concept of health promotion and integral care.

14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21: e180014, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958818

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivos: Estimar e descrever a cobertura do exame Papanicolaou, relatado por mulheres brasileiras entre 25 e 64 anos, na Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), e comparar as estimativas do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Sistema Vigitel) para o mesmo indicador nas capitais brasileiras e no Distrito Federal em 2013. Métodos: A partir dos dados da PNS e do Vigitel, foram estimadas as prevalências e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) de mulheres que referiram ter realizado o exame de Papanicolaou nos últimos 3 anos. Resultados: Segundo a PNS, 79,4% (IC95% 78,5 - 80,2) das mulheres realizaram exame Papanicolaou nos últimos 3 anos no Brasil. Mulheres de 55 a 64 anos (71,0%; IC95% 68,7 - 73,3) e sem instrução ou com ensino fundamental incompleto (72,1%; IC95% 70,6 - 73,7) apresentaram as menores prevalências; 88,4% (IC95% 87,5 - 89,2) receberam resultado do exame em até 3 meses. Não houve diferença ao comparar as estimativas do Sistema Vigitel com a PNS para o total das capitais e Distrito Federal. Na PNS, a prevalência foi de 83,8% (IC95% 82,8 - 84,7) e no Vigitel, de 82,9% (IC95% 81,9 - 83,8); além disso, não houve diferenças por capitais, exceto para Recife, Boa Vista e João Pessoa. Conclusão: A cobertura do exame Papanicolaou para a população-alvo encontra-se abaixo da meta de 85%. Ao comparar os dados para o total de capitais e o Distrito Federal, verificou-se que o Sistema Vigitel tem sido efetivo no monitoramento desse indicador, assemelhando-se às estimativas da PNS.


ABSTRACT: Objectives: To estimate and describe the coverage of the Pap Smear test reported by women aged 25 to 64 years old from data collected by the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS) and to compare the estimates made by the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases using a Telephone Survey (Vigitel) for the same indicator in the Brazilian capital cities and the Federal District in 2013. Methods: Based on the data from the PNS and Vigitel, we estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of women who reported having had a Pap test screening in the past 3 years. Results: According to the PNS, 79.4% (95%CI 78.5 - 80.2) of the women had had a cervical cancer screening in the past 3 years in Brazil. Women aged 55 to 64 years old (71.0%, 95%CI 68.7 - 73.3) and without an education or incomplete elementary school (72.1%, 95%CI 70.6 - 73.7) had the lowest prevalence, and 88.4% (95%CI 87.5 - 89.2) received test results within 3 months. There was no difference when comparing the estimates of the Vigitel with the PNS for the capital city and Federal District totals. In the PNS, the prevalence was 83.8% (95%CI 82.8 - 84.7) and in the Vigitel, it was 82.9% (95%CI 81.9 - 83.8). In addition, there were no differences by capital, except for Recife, Boa Vista, and João Pessoa. Conclusion: Cervical cancer screening coverage for the target population is below the target of 85%. When comparing the data for the capital city and Federal District totals, we verified that the Vigitel System has been effective in monitoring this indicator, which is similar to PNS estimates.

15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(11): 3763-3772, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211181

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to describe the prevalence of violence committed by acquaintances in accordance with demographic characteristics. It is a descriptive study, based on data from a population-based National Health Research survey conducted in Brazil in 2013. Data from the adult population (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 households. Prevalence rates were calculated and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) according to gender, age, education, race/color, area of residence and geographical region. The prevalence of violence committed by acquaintances was 2.5% (95%CI 2.3-2.7), significantly higher in women (3.1%; 95%CI 2.8-3.5) compared to men (1.8%; 95% CI 1.6-2.1). This prevalence was higher in the population aged 18-29 years old (3.2%; 95%CI 2.8-3.7) compared to older individuals (1.1%; 95%CI 0.8-1.3), and among residents of the North (3.2%; 95%CI 2.5-3.8) and Northeast Regions (3.0%; 95%CI 2.5-3.8) when compared to residents of the Southeast Region (2.0%; 95%CI 1.6-2.3). Violence was present in higher prevalence among women, proving the occurrence of gender-based violence and confirming its occurrence in all geographical regions and in different population groups in Brazil in 2013.


Assuntos
Amigos , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20(4): 661-675, 2017.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the implantation of the Surveillance System for Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and the challenges in maintaining it. METHODS: A literature review was carried out the information contained in federal government directives between 2003 and 2015 was consulted. RESULTS: A comprehensive risk and protection factor surveillance system was implemented. It is capable of producing information and providing evidence to monitor changes in the health behavior of the population. Among the advances cited are the organization of epidemiological surveys, such as the Surveillance System for Risk Factors and Protection for NCD (Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para DCNT - Vigitel), the National School Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE), and the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saude) from 2013, which enabled the most extensive health diagnosis of the Brazilian population. In 2011, the NCD National Plan 2011-2022 established targets for reducing risk factors and NCD mortality. CONCLUSION: The information gathered from the NCD surveillance system can support the implementation of sectoral and intersectorial strategies, which will result in the implementation of the Brazilian Strategic Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of their results periodically. Finally, it can be a very important tool to help Brazil achieve the goals proposed by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Global Plan to Tackling NCDs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Humanos , Política Pública , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(4): 661-675, Out.-Dez. 2017. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898628

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever a implantação do Sistema de Vigilância de Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis (DCNT) no Sistema Único de Saúde e os desafios colocados para sua sustentabilidade. Métodos: Foram feitas revisão de literatura e consultas às informações contidas em portarias do governo federal entre 2003 e 2015. Resultados: Foi implantado um sistema de vigilância de fatores de risco (FR) e proteção integrado, capaz de produzir informações e fornecer evidências para monitorar mudanças nos comportamentos de saúde da população. Dentre os avanços, foram citados a organização dos inquéritos epidemiológicos, como o Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para DCNT (Vigitel), a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), e a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), em 2013, que possibilitou o mais amplo diagnóstico de saúde da população brasileira. Em 2011, o Plano de Enfrentamento de DCNT 2011 - 2022 estabeleceu metas para redução de FR e mortalidade por DCNT. Conclusão: A produção de informações do Sistema de Vigilância de DCNT pode apoiar a implementação de estratégias setoriais e intersetoriais, que resultem no apoio à execução do Plano de Ações Estratégicas para o Enfrentamento das DCNT, bem como monitorar e avaliar os resultados periodicamente. Constitui ferramenta relevante para o alcance das metas e dos Objetivos do Desenvolvimento Sustentável e do Plano Global de Enfrentamento das DCNT.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the implantation of the Surveillance System for Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and the challenges in maintaining it. Methods: A literature review was carried out the information contained in federal government directives between 2003 and 2015 was consulted. Results: A comprehensive risk and protection factor surveillance system was implemented. It is capable of producing information and providing evidence to monitor changes in the health behavior of the population. Among the advances cited are the organization of epidemiological surveys, such as the Surveillance System for Risk Factors and Protection for NCD (Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para DCNT - Vigitel), the National School Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE), and the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saude) from 2013, which enabled the most extensive health diagnosis of the Brazilian population. In 2011, the NCD National Plan 2011-2022 established targets for reducing risk factors and NCD mortality. Conclusion: The information gathered from the NCD surveillance system can support the implementation of sectoral and intersectorial strategies, which will result in the implementation of the Brazilian Strategic Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of their results periodically. Finally, it can be a very important tool to help Brazil achieve the goals proposed by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Global Plan to Tackling NCDs.

18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(11): 3763-3772, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890188

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a prevalência de violência cometida por pessoas conhecidas segundo características demográficas. Trata-se de estudo descritivo, a partir dos dados obtidos em inquérito de base populacional, a Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, realizada no Brasil em 2013. Foram analisados dados da população adulta (≥ 18 anos) em 64.348 domicílios. Calcularamse as prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) segundo sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade, cor/raça, zona de residência e região geográfica. A prevalência de violência cometida por pessoa conhecida foi de 2,5% (IC95% 2,3-2,7), significativamente maior nas mulheres (3,1%; IC95% 2,8-3,5) quando comparadas aos homens (1,8%; IC95% 1,6-2,1), na população jovem de 18 a 29 anos (3,2%; IC95% 2,8-3,7) em relação aos mais velhos (1,1%; IC95% 0,8-1,3) e nos residentes das Regiões Norte (3,2%; IC95% 2,5-3,8) e Nordeste (3,0%; IC95% 2,5-3,8) em comparação aos da Região Sudeste (2,0%; IC95% 1,6-2,3). A violência foi observada em maior prevalência no sexo feminino, comprovando a ocorrência da 'violência de gênero' e confirmando sua existência em todas as regiões geográficas e nos diferentes grupos populacionais do Brasil, em 2013.


Abstract The scope of this article is to describe the prevalence of violence committed by acquaintances in accordance with demographic characteristics. It is a descriptive study, based on data from a population-based National Health Research survey conducted in Brazil in 2013. Data from the adult population (≥ 18 years) of 64,348 households. Prevalence rates were calculated and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) according to gender, age, education, race/color, area of residence and geographical region. The prevalence of violence committed by acquaintances was 2.5% (95%CI 2.3-2.7), significantly higher in women (3.1%; 95%CI 2.8-3.5) compared to men (1.8%; 95% CI 1.6-2.1). This prevalence was higher in the population aged 18-29 years old (3.2%; 95%CI 2.8-3.7) compared to older individuals (1.1%; 95%CI 0.8-1.3), and among residents of the North (3.2%; 95%CI 2.5-3.8) and Northeast Regions (3.0%; 95%CI 2.5-3.8) when compared to residents of the Southeast Region (2.0%; 95%CI 1.6-2.3). Violence was present in higher prevalence among women, proving the occurrence of gender-based violence and confirming its occurrence in all geographical regions and in different population groups in Brazil in 2013.

19.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e00134915, 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954056

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to describe the trend of tobacco-use indicators for adults in Brazilian state capitals. Simple linear regression was used to analyze tobacco-use trends according to data from telephone survey VIGITEL between 2006 and 2014. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil dropped 0.645p.p. per year this period, from 15.6% (2006) to 10.8% (2014). There was a decrease per sex, schooling, major regions, and in most age groups. The prevalence of former smokers dropped from 22.2% (2006) to 21.2% (2014); smoking 20 cigarettes or more per day went from 4.6% (2006) to 3% (2014). Passive smoking at home dropped 0.614p.p. per year since 2009, and was 9.4% in 2014. Passive smoking at the workplace decreased 0.54p.p. a year, reaching 8.9% in 2014. The prevalence trend of smokers is declining for sexes, schooling, and major regions in almost all age groups. This indicates that the global target of 30% reduction in tobacco use until 2025 is possible to be reached, reflecting the effectiveness of control actions for this risk factor in Brazil.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Telefone , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(9): 2889-2898, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954140

RESUMO

This study explored the association between demographic characteristics (age and sex) and other variables related to violence committed against children (form of violence perpetrator, place of occurrence, and nature of injury) using a sample of 404 children taken from the 2014 Violence and Accident Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes, VIVA) survey. Correspondence analysis was used to identify variables associated with the outcome violence against children. Victims were predominantly male. The most common form of violence was neglect/abandonment, followed by physical violence and sexual violence. The most common perpetrators were parents (ages zero to one and two to five years), followed by friends (ages six to nine years). The most common place of occurrence was the home. Notable levels of violence were observed at school, particularly among children aged between six and nine years. Neglect was most common in the age group zero to one year and two to five years, while physical violence was most common between children aged between six and nine years.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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