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1.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(3): 426-435, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). In addition, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. METHODS: Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: 1) nontrained (OSANT, n = 21) and 2) trained (OSAT, n = 20). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by microneurography technique, muscle blood flow (FBF) by venous occlusion plethysmography, heart rate by electrocardiography, and blood pressure with an automated oscillometric device. All physiological variables were simultaneously assessed at rest, during isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and during posthandgrip muscle ischemia (PHMI). Muscle metaboreflex sensitivity was calculated as the difference in MSNA between PHMI and the rest period. Patients in the OSAT group underwent 72 sessions of moderate exercise training, whereas patients in the OSANT group were clinical follow-up for 6 months. RESULTS: The OSANT and OSAT groups were similar in anthropometric, neurovascular, hemodynamic and sleep parameters. Exercise training reduced the baseline MSNA (34 ± 2 bursts per minute vs 25 ± 2 bursts per minute; P < 0.05) and increased the baseline FBF (2.1 ± 0.2 mL·min per 100 g vs 2.4 ± 0.2 mL·min per 100 g; P < 0.05). Exercise training significantly reduced MSNA levels and increased FBF responses during isometric exercise. Exercise training significantly increased MSNA responses during PHMI (Δ6.5 ± 1 vs -1.7 ± 1 bursts per minute, P < 0.01). No significant changes in FBF or hemodynamic parameters in OSANT patients were found. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training increases muscle metaboreflex sensitivity in patients with OSA. This autonomic change associated with increased muscle blood flow may contribute to the increase in exercise performance in this set of patients.


Assuntos
Exercício , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reflexo , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 49(7): 1424-1431, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28230704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 yr, body mass index = 28 ± 1 kg·m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography. HR, blood pressure (BP), MSNA (microneurography), and forearm blood flow measured by venous occlusion plethysmography were continuously measured 4 min at baseline, during 3 min of 30% handgrip static exercise, and during 2 min of post-handgrip muscle ischemia (PHMI). RESULTS: Control and OSA groups were similar in age, body mass index, and ejection fraction. Baseline HR, BP, and forearm blood flow increased similarly during handgrip exercise. Blood pressure remained significantly elevated in relation to baseline during PHMI, but HR and forearm blood flow returned toward baseline during PHMI in both groups. Baseline MSNA was significantly higher in the OSA group than in controls (P < 0.05). During peak 30% static handgrip exercise, MSNA increased significantly in both control and OSA groups, but MSNA responses were higher in patients with OSA. During PHMI, MSNA in control subjects remained significantly elevated compared with that at baseline. In contrast, in patients with OSA, MSNA decreased to baseline values. A significant correlation was found between changes in MSNA due to PHMI and apnea-hypopnea index (r = -0.61, P < 0.001), and with minimum O2 saturation (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest an association between OSA and decreased metaboreflex control of MSNA. Muscle vasodilation during handgrip static exercise is preserved in patients with OSA.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
3.
Sleep ; 39(1): 25-33, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26237773

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) response and executive performance during mental stress in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Individuals with no other comorbidities (age = 52 ± 1 y, body mass index = 29 ± 0.4, kg/m2) were divided into two groups: (1) control (n = 15) and (2) untreated OSA (n = 20) defined by polysomnography. Mini-Mental State of Examination (MMSE) and Inteligence quocient (IQ) were assessed. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and MSNA (microneurography) were measured at baseline and during 3 min of the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). Sustained attention and inhibitory control were assessed by the number of correct answers and errors during SCWT. RESULTS: Control and OSA groups (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI = 8 ± 1 and 47 ± 1 events/h, respectively) were similar in age, MMSE, and IQ. Baseline HR and BP were similar and increased similarly during SCWT in control and OSA groups. In contrast, baseline MSNA was higher in OSA compared to controls. Moreover, MSNA significantly increased in the third minute of SCWT in OSA, but remained unchanged in controls (P < 0.05). The number of correct answers was lower and the number of errors was significantly higher during the second and third minutes of SCWT in the OSA group (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of errors in the third minute of SCWT with AHI (r = 0.59), arousal index (r = 0.55), and minimum O2 saturation (r = -0.57). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to controls, MSNA is increased in patients with OSA at rest, and further significant MSNA increments and worse executive performance are seen during mental stress. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, registration number: NCT002289625.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Músculos/inervação , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta , Atenção , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Descanso , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Teste de Stroop
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