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1.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(3): 836-845, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775807

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on performance, measurement of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), body temperature and relative organ weights of weaned piglets exposed to a heat stress or a thermoneutral environment. One hundred and forty-four piglets with initial BW of 5.82 ± 0.33 kg (28 d old) were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, four plasma levels (0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5%) and two environments (34º [heat stress (HS)] and 24°C [thermoneutral (TN)]). SDPP was fed from weaning (28 d of age) to the end of the trial (piglets were weighed at the beginning, 7, 21 and 35 days of trial). Rectal, neck, shoulder and leg temperatures were measured every seven days. At 21 days of trial, one piglet per pen was slaughtered to determine the weight of the carcass and organs. Blood samples were collected at 18 and 35 days of trial to determine levels T3 and T4. The rectal, neck, shoulder and leg temperatures were increased (p < 0.05) 0.4, 1.5, 1.0 and 1.3ºC, respectively, and relative weight of the lungs (p < 0.05) and total T3 (p < 0.05) were decreased 0.001 kg/kg and 0.19 ng/dl, respectively, for pigs in the HS environment. The estimated inclusion of 5.1% of SDPP had the greatest (p < 0.05) weight gain during the first week, and throughout the nursery phase, the 5% of inclusion had a tendency of improvement (p = 0.075), regardless of ambient temperature. For the entire period, pigs reared in the HS environment had the greatest (p < 0.05) estimated feed intake by the quadratic regression with the inclusion of 4.3% of SDPP.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Distribuição Aleatória , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(6): 1675-1685, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094927

RESUMO

A total of 224 weaned pigs (DanBred sows x PIC 337 sires) with an average body weight (BW) of 6.37 ± 0.34 kg (21 days of age) were used to evaluate how different levels of benzoic acid fed to weaning pigs orally inoculated with Escherichia coli (K88+ ) affected the nursing and grow-finishing performance, the physicochemical properties of the intestine, the volatile fatty acid concentration in the caecum and the incidence of diarrhoea. Pigs were randomly allocated in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a 4 × 2 factorial design, and they were administered four levels of benzoic acid (0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 0.75%) and inoculated (or not) in two consecutive days with 1 ml solution containing 106 CFU/ml of E. coli (K88+ ). Seven replicates (pens) per treatment were used, and four animals were kept per pen. Supplementation with 0.75% benzoic acid promoted better performance (p < 0.05) in the nursery phase as well as in the subsequent phases until slaughter, and it decreased the incidence of diarrhoea in piglets (p < 0.05). In the piglets fed the benzoic acid diet, the villus height in the jejunum and ileum was greater until 42 days of life (p < 0.05), the crypt depth was decreased in the caecum (p < 0.05), and the butyric acid concentration was increased in the caecal content tendencially (p = 0.0708). In conclusion, supplementation with 0.75% benzoic acid has a positive effect on piglets by reducing diarrhoea, improving intestinal health and promoting the performance from weaning to finishing. Thus, benzoic acid can be considered a potential alternative that can replace growth-promoting antibiotics.

3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(2): 541-548, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28631826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many strategies, such as the antibiotic growth promoters, have been developed to improve intestinal health and performance of newly weaned piglets. Natural products such as essential oils have been scientifically recognized as growth enhancer feed additives for weanling pigs, replacing the antibiotics. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that Brazilian red pepper could replace performance-enhancing antibiotics also in weanling pig diets. However, one experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil or antimicrobial growth promoter on intestinal health and growth performance of weanling pigs. RESULTS: No effects of treatments were observed on performance and organ weights (P > 0.05). Overall, both additives [red pepper essential oil (RPEO) or antibiotic (ANT)] increased gut Lactobacillus counts compared to negative control, as well as reduced villi density (P < 0.05). Animals fed diets containing 1.5 g kg-1 RPEO presented the lowest incidence of diarrhea (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that essential oil from Brazilian red pepper or chlorohydroxyquinoline added in weanling pig diets affect gut microbiota and histology without affecting performance and organ weights. In addition, there was an indication that high doses of essential oil could reduce the incidence of diarrhea. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Capsicum/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Suínos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Capsicum/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Suínos/anatomia & histologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
4.
Ciênc. rural ; 39(5): 1507-1513, ago. 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-521171

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes níveis de lisina digestível (LISD), em rações com reduzido teorde proteína bruta (PB), por meio do desempenho e das características de carcaça de suínos dos 20 aos 50kg. Foram utilizados 40 suínos machos, castrados, de elevado potencial para ganho de carne (peso inicial de 22,5±1,4kg e final de 47,8±3,4kg), distribuídos em delineamento em blocoscasualizados, com cinco tratamentos (quatro níveis de LISD - 0,7; 0,9; 1,1 e 1,3% - em rações com 14% PB e um tratamentocontrole, formulado de acordo com as tabelas brasileiras, com1,03% LISD e 18% de PB) e quatro repetições, durante 31 dias. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) entre os níveis de LISD, em rações com 14% PB para o ganho de peso diário; entretanto, apenas o nível 0,7% de lisina foi diferente em relação ao tratamento-controle. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) com relação ao consumo, mas houve um efeito linear crescente (P<0,05) dos níveis de lisina na conversão alimentar em rações com reduzido teor de PB. A eficiência de utilização de lisina, para ganho de peso, diminuiu (P<0,05) linearmente com o aumento desse aminoácido. Houve efeito quadrático para rendimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo e relação carne:gordura, sendo 1,03; 1,00 e 1,09% os respectivos níveis de LISD que proporcionaram melhores resultados nesse nível de PB. Com relação ao tratamento-controle, os níveis de 0,9%e 1,1% de LISD apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) para espessura de toucinho. Conclui-se que o nível de 1,1% de LISD em rações com reduzidoteor de PB melhora a qualidade da carcaça, sem afetar o desempenho.


The objective of this research was to evaluate the different levels of true digestible lysine (TDL) in diets with reduced crude protein (CP) level through to performance and carcasscharacteristics of pigs from 20 to 50kg. Forty barrows with high performance (initial weight of 22.50±1.4kg and final of 47.8±3.4kg), distributed in randomized block design with fivetreatments (four levels of TDL - 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3% - in 14% CP diets - and a control treatment, formulated inaccordance to Brazilian Tables, with 1.03% of TDL and 18% CP) and four replications during 31 days were utilized. There were no differences (P>0.05) between levels of TDL in dietswith 14% CP for average daily gain; however, just the level of 0.7% of TDL was different of control treatment. There was no difference (P>0.05) on feed intake, but there was crescent linear effect (P<0.05) of the TDL levels on feed conversion in reduced CP diets. The lysine utilized efficiency to weight gain decrease (P<0.05) linearly with the increase of this amino acid. Therewas quadratic effect to carcass yield, Longissimus muscle area and meat:fat relation being 1.03; 1.00 and 1.09% the respective levels of TDL that resulted the best results in this CP level. Withregard to the control treatment the levels of 0.9 and 1.1% of TDL shown bigger carcass yield. There was no difference (P>0.05) to backfat thickness. It was conclude that the level of 1.1% TDL in diets with reduced CP increase carcass yield without to modify the performance.

5.
Ciênc. agrotec., (Impr.) ; 33(3): 903-910, maio-jun. 2009. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-519519

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different levels of metabolic energy (ME) in diets with a reduced level of crude protein (CP) on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing swine. Thirty-two high- performance barrows (initial weight of 22.5 ± 1.43 kg and final weight of 50.81 ± 2.54 kg) were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (three levels of ME – 3,060,3,230 and 3,400 kcal/kg - in diets with 14% CP, and one control treatment with 3,230 kcal ME/kg and 18% CP) and four replicates. The diets were formulated with a true digestible basis of amino acids present in the feed, with methionine and threonine concentrations corrected as a function of lysine levels. The animals were slaughtered and their carcasses were studied. The ME levels did not affect the average weight gain, the feed:gain ratio, the backfat thickness or the loin eye area. A higher carcass yield and a higher carcass meat:fat ratio were observed in the animals that received the 3,230 and 3,060 kcal/kg ME levels. Compared to the control treatment, only the 3,400 kcal/kg ME level had a lower average daily feed intake. It is concluded that the CP level in diet should be reduced from 18% to 14% and the metabolizable energy level should be increased, thus reducing the feed intake and increasing the carcass meat:fat ratio without affecting the animal weight gain.


Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar diferentes níveis de energia metabolizável (EM) em rações com reduzido teor de proteína bruta (PB) através do desempenho e características de carcaça de suínos em crescimento. Foram utilizados 32 suínos machos castrados de elevado ganho de peso (peso inicial de 22,5 ± 1,43 kg e final de 50,81 ± 2,54 kg), distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (três níveis de EM - 3060, 3230 e 3400 kcal/kg - em rações com 14% PB e um tratamento controle com 3230 kcal EM/kg e 18% de PB) e quatro repetições. As rações foram formuladas com base na digestibilidade verdadeirados aminoácidos presentes nos alimentos, sendo a metionina e a treonina corrigidas em função dos níveis de lisina. Os animais foram abatidos e tiveram suas carcaças estudadas. Os níveis de EM não afetaram o ganho de peso médio diário, a conversão alimentar, a espessura de toucinho e a área de olho de lombo. Observou-se maior rendimento e relação carne:gordura na carcaça dos animais que receberam os níveis de 3230 e 3060 kcal EM, respectivamente. Comparado ao controle, apenas o nível de 3400 kcal/kg EM reduziu o consumo de ração médio diário. Conclui-se que o teor de PB da ração para suínos em crescimento pode ser reduzido de 18% para 14% e o nível de energia aumentado, propiciando menor consumo e maior relação carne: gordura sem afetar o ganho de peso dos animais.

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