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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033282

RESUMO

Background: Medication use during pregnancy is a common practice that has been increasing in recent years. The aim of this study is to describe medication use among pregnant women from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Methods: This paper relies on a population-based cohort study including 4270 women. Participants completed a questionnaire about the antenatal period, including information about medication use. We performed descriptive analyses of the sample and the medications used and adjusted analyses for the use of medications and self-medication. Results: The prevalence of medication use was 92.5% (95% CI 91.7-93.3), excluding iron salts, folic acid, vitamins, and other minerals. The prevalence of self-medication was 27.7% (95% CI 26.3-29.1). In the adjusted analysis, women who had three or more health problems during pregnancy demonstrated higher use of medicines. Self-medication was higher in lower income groups and among smokers and multiparous women (three pregnancies or more). Acetaminophen, scopolamine, and dimenhydrinate were the medications most commonly used. Conclusions: This study describes the pattern of drug use among pregnant women in a population-based cohort study, with a high prevalence of self-medication. Greater awareness of the risks of self-medication during pregnancy is required, focusing on groups more prone to this practice, as well as ensuring qualified multidisciplinary prenatal care.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over-the-counter analgesic use during pregnancy, particularly acetaminophen, may be associated with negative developmental outcomes in children. OBJECTIVE: Estimate associations of prenatal and early-life exposure to acetaminophen in early childhood with cognitive, motor, and language skills in two birth cohorts. METHODS: The American Project Viva cohort (1217 mother-child pairs enrolled 1999-2002) assessed cognition at approximately 3 years using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). The Brazilian 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort (3818 mother-child pairs) assessed cognition at 2 years using the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment. We used linear regression to estimate associations of acetaminophen use during pregnancy (Project Viva and Pelotas) and infancy (Project Viva) with children's cognitive scores adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, education, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, depression during pregnancy, antibiotic and ibuprofen use during pregnancy, household income, and child's sex. RESULTS: In Project Viva, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was associated with lower WRAVMA drawing scores (ß -1.51, 95% CI -2.92, -0.10). However, in Pelotas, exposure to acetaminophen in both the 1st and 2nd trimester of pregnancy was not associated with INTER-NDA motor scores (ß 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, 0.09) and was associated with higher INTER-NDA total scores (ß 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.16). Other comparisons did not show evidence for any associations. CONCLUSIONS: Inconsistencies and lack of specificity of the findings did not clarify the research question considering that we still have a large variability and uncertainty to define the risk or safety in the use of acetaminophen related to cognition in early childhood. More studies using better exposure assessment and better confounding variables are needed to clarify these associations.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963112

RESUMO

Background: This study describes medication use by women up to 3 months postpartum and evaluates the association between medication use by women who were still breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum and weaning at 6 and 12 months. Methods: Population-based cohort, including women who breastfed (n = 3988). Medications were classified according to Hale's lactation risk categories and Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria. Duration of breastfeeding was analysed using Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves, including only women who were still breastfeeding at three months postpartum. Results: Medication use with some risk for lactation was frequent (79.6% regarding Hale's risk categories and 12.3% regarding Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria). We did not find statistically significant differences for weaning at 6 or 12 months between the group who did not use medication or used only compatible medications and the group who used medications with some risk for lactation, according to both criteria. Conclusions: Our study found no association between weaning rates across the different breastfeeding safety categories of medications in women who were still breastfeeding at three months postpartum. Therefore, women who took medications and stopped breastfeeding in the first three months postpartum because of adverse side-effects associated with medications could not be addressed in this analysis.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 889, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries recommend micronutrient supplements for pregnant women to improve their nutritional status, prevent possible deficiencies and avoid fetal healgth consequences. This study evaluated the influence of socioeconomic status on the use of folic acid, iron salts and other vitamins and minerals among pregnant women in the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort. METHODS: This population-based birth cohort study was carried out with 4270 women. Participants were interviewed during pregnancy and at the maternity hospital about the antenatal period; including the use of iron salts, vitamins and other minerals. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize the sample. The analyses were adjusted according to socioeconomic variables (maternal education, ethnicity, household income). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of the use of folic acid, iron salts or other vitamins and minerals was 91.0% (95% CI: 90.1-91.8). Specifically, 70.9% (95% CI: 69.5-72.3) used folic acid, 72.9% (95% CI: 71.5-74.3) used iron compounds, and 31.8% (95% CI: 30.3-33.2) used other vitamins or minerals. In the adjusted analysis, the use of iron salts was associated with nonwhite mothers, with ≤4 years of education and whose family income was less than or equal to the monthly minimum wage. The use of folic acid and other vitamins and minerals was associated with white mothers who were more highly educated and had a higher family income. CONCLUSION: Although folic acid and other vitamins and minerals were more frequently used in white, richer and more educated mothers, which indicates inequality, iron supplements were more frequently used in the poorer, less educated nonwhite mothers, suggesting the opposite association for this supplement.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gestantes , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 235, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintentional child poisoning represents a significant public health problem across the globe, placing a substantial burden on health services emergency departments. Around the world, every year, thousands of children die as a result of physical injuries, most of which involve children under 5 years old. Medicines are the main products involved in poisoning, and children under 5 years old are the most vulnerable age group. The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of unsafe storage of medicines in households with a 4-year-old child. METHODS: We used data from the follow-up of 4-year-old in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study in Brazil (N = 3799). "Unsafe storage" was considered present when medicines were stored unlocked and within reach of children (at a height below the eye level of the average adult). Independent variables included maternal and family socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the child's health care. All information was collected during household interviews with the mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The overall prevalence rate with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and the prevalence associated with various independent variables were determined. RESULTS: The storage of medicines in unlocked areas was reported by 80.9% of the mothers, and, within reach of children for 26.5%. The overall prevalence rate of unsafe storage of medicines was 21.4% (20.1-22.7%). The main storage locations used were the kitchen (57.0%) and bedroom (53.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that medicines were unsafely stored in a 21.4% number of homes, which can contribute to the vulnerability of children to poisoning from medicines. To minimize this risk, education about the safe storage of medicines should be reinforced by health professionals.

6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 51, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trace the pattern of drug use during delivery hospitalization. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out from June to October 2015, included in the 2015 Pelotas births cohort. All women living in the urban area of the city who were hospitalized for delivery were part of the sample. We collected information regarding drug prescription and drug use by mothers during the whole period of hospitalization. Sociodemographic data were obtained in interview after delivery, and other data were obtained from medical charts. The drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system. RESULTS: All study participants (1,392 women) used at least one drug, with the mean amount being larger the higher the age of the mother, both prepartum/during delivery and postpartum. It was also higher in cases of spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, cesarean deliveries, school hospitals, and longer hospitalizations. Analysis of the sample as a whole showed no significant difference in the number of drugs used according to hospitalization type, but when stratified by length of hospital stay the mean was higher in SUS hospitalizations than in private and health insurance hospitalizations. Drugs for the nervous system were the most used (30.5%), followed by drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism (13.8%). The use of anti-infective agents and drugs that act on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was higher in mothers who underwent cesarean delivery. This study showed high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and showed cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia as the main factors related to high drug consumption in this period. CONCLUSIONS: We found high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and the main factors were cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia. Drugs that act on the nervous system were the most used.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anestesia Epidural , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/classificação , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 51, jan. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004515

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Trace the pattern of drug use during delivery hospitalization. METHOD: Cross-sectional study carried out from June to October 2015, included in the 2015 Pelotas births cohort. All women living in the urban area of the city who were hospitalized for delivery were part of the sample. We collected information regarding drug prescription and drug use by mothers during the whole period of hospitalization. Sociodemographic data were obtained in interview after delivery, and other data were obtained from medical charts. The drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system. RESULTS: All study participants (1,392 women) used at least one drug, with the mean amount being larger the higher the age of the mother, both prepartum/during delivery and postpartum. It was also higher in cases of spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia, cesarean deliveries, school hospitals, and longer hospitalizations. Analysis of the sample as a whole showed no significant difference in the number of drugs used according to hospitalization type, but when stratified by length of hospital stay the mean was higher in SUS hospitalizations than in private and health insurance hospitalizations. Drugs for the nervous system were the most used (30.5%), followed by drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism (13.8%). The use of anti-infective agents and drugs that act on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was higher in mothers who underwent cesarean delivery. This study showed high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and showed cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia as the main factors related to high drug consumption in this period. CONCLUSIONS: We found high drug consumption in the delivery hospitalization period, and the main factors were cesarean delivery and epidural anesthesia. Drugs that act on the nervous system were the most used.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Identificar o padrão de uso dos medicamentos durante a internação para o parto. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado de junho a outubro de 2015, inserido na coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas de 2015. Todas as mulheres residentes na zona urbana da cidade que foram internadas para o parto fizeram parte da amostra. Foram coletadas informações referentes à prescrição e uso de medicamentos pela mãe durante todo o período de internação. Dados sociodemográficos foram obtidos na entrevista realizada após o parto, e os demais nos prontuários. Os medicamentos foram classificados de acordo com o sistema Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical. RESULTADOS: Todas as participantes do estudo (1.392 mulheres) utilizaram pelo menos um medicamento, sendo a quantidade média maior quanto maior a idade da mãe, tanto no momento pré/durante o parto como no pós-parto. Também foi maior em casos de raquianestesia ou anestesia geral, partos cesarianos, hospitais escola e internações mais prolongadas. Na análise da amostra como um todo, não houve diferença significativa no número de medicamentos utilizados de acordo com o tipo de hospitalização, mas quando estratificada por período de internação, a média foi maior nas internações pelo SUS que nas internações particulares e por convênios. Medicamentos para o sistema nervoso foram os mais utilizados (30,5%), seguidos dos que atuam no trato alimentar e metabolismo (13,8%). O uso de anti-infecciosos e fármacos que atuam nos sistemas cardiovascular e respiratório foi maior em mães que fizeram cesariana. Este estudo evidenciou elevado consumo de medicamentos no período de internação para o parto, e o parto cesariano e a anestesia peridural como os principais fatores relacionados ao consumo elevado de medicamentos neste período. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se elevado consumo de medicamentos no período de internação para o parto, sendo os principais fatores a cesariana e a anestesia peridural. Os medicamentos que atuam no sistema nervoso foram os mais utilizados.

8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(6): e00125517, 2018 09 03.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184019

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the validity of patient-reported anemia and therapeutic use of iron supplements, compared to hemoglobin values recorded on the patient's prenatal card. The study used data from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. For validation of self-reported anemia, we included all mothers with hemoglobin values recorded on their prenatal card (N = 3,419), while validation of self-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements included those who had hemoglobin values recorded on their prenatal care and who reported having used medicines containing ferrous sulfate during pregnancy. Anemia was defined as at least one record of hemoglobin ≤ 11g/dL on the prenatal card (gold standard). Prevalence of anemia according to the gold standard was 35.9% (34.3-37.5), while patient-reported anemia was 42.2% (40.8-43.7), and patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements was 43.2% (41.3-45.1). Sensitivity of patient-reported anemia was 75.2% (72.8-77.6) and specificity was 75.1% (73.3-76.9). For patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements, sensitivity was 66.4% (63.5-69.2) and specificity was 71.9% (69.7-74.0). Specificity of patient-reported anemia and patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements in mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling was 78.4% (75.4-81.4) and 79.5% (76.1-82.9), respectively. In the study population, for every five postpartum women that reported anemia or therapeutic use of iron supplements, three were telling the truth. The specificity of both self-reports was high in mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Autorrelato/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Anemia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(6): e00125517, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-952400

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a validade do autorrelato de anemia e de uso terapêutico de sais de ferro, frente à informação de hemoglobina da carteira da gestante. O estudo utiliza dados da coorte de nascimentos de 2015 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a validação do autorrelato de anemia, foram incluídas todas as mães que tinham registro de hemoglobina na carteira da gestante (N = 3.419), ao passo que, para a validação do autorrelato de uso terapêutico de sais de ferro, foram incluídas as que tinham registro de exames de hemoglobina na carteira da gestante e que relataram haver utilizado algum medicamento com sulfato ferroso em sua composição durante a gestação. Anemia foi definida como, pelo menos, um registro de hemoglobina ≤ 11g/dL na carteira da gestante (padrão-ouro). A prevalência de anemia conforme padrão-ouro foi 35,9% (34,3-37,5), ao passo que a de anemia autorrelatada foi 42,2% (40,8-43,7), e o autorrelato de uso terapêutico de sais de ferro, 43,2% (41,3-45,1). A sensibilidade do autorrelato de anemia foi 75,2% (72,8-77,6) e a especificidade, 75,1% (73,3-76,9). Para o autorrelato de uso terapêutico de sais de ferro, a sensibilidade foi 66,4% (63,5-69,2) e a especificidade, 71,9% (69,7-74,0). A especificidade do autorrelato de anemia e do autorrelato de uso terapêutico de sais de ferro entre mães com ≥ 12 anos de escolaridade foi 78,4% (75,4-81,4) e 79,5% (76,1-82,9). Na população estudada, com alta prevalência de anemia, de cada cinco puérperas que relataram anemia ou uso terapêutico de sais de ferro, três relatavam a verdade. A especificidade de ambos os autorrelatos foi mais elevada entre mães com ≥ 12 anos de escolaridade.


This study aimed to investigate the validity of patient-reported anemia and therapeutic use of iron supplements, compared to hemoglobin values recorded on the patient's prenatal card. The study used data from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. For validation of self-reported anemia, we included all mothers with hemoglobin values recorded on their prenatal card (N = 3,419), while validation of self-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements included those who had hemoglobin values recorded on their prenatal care and who reported having used medicines containing ferrous sulfate during pregnancy. Anemia was defined as at least one record of hemoglobin ≤ 11g/dL on the prenatal card (gold standard). Prevalence of anemia according to the gold standard was 35.9% (34.3-37.5), while patient-reported anemia was 42.2% (40.8-43.7), and patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements was 43.2% (41.3-45.1). Sensitivity of patient-reported anemia was 75.2% (72.8-77.6) and specificity was 75.1% (73.3-76.9). For patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements, sensitivity was 66.4% (63.5-69.2) and specificity was 71.9% (69.7-74.0). Specificity of patient-reported anemia and patient-reported therapeutic use of iron supplements in mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling was 78.4% (75.4-81.4) and 79.5% (76.1-82.9), respectively. In the study population, for every five postpartum women that reported anemia or therapeutic use of iron supplements, three were telling the truth. The specificity of both self-reports was high in mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling.


El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la validez del autoinforme de anemia y uso terapéutico de sales de hierro, respecto a la información sobre la hemoglobina, presente la cartilla de la embarazada. El estudio utiliza datos de la cohorte de nacimientos en Pelotas, Rio Grande ddo Sul, Brasil, 2015. Para la validación del autoinforme de anemia, se incluyeron a todas las madres que tenían un registro de hemoglobina en la cartilla de la embarazada (N = 3.419), al mismo tiempo que, para la validación del autoinforme del uso terapéutico de sales de hierro, se incluyeron a quienes tenían registro de exámenes de hemoglobina en la cartilla de la embarazada, y que informaron haber utilizado algún medicamento con sulfato ferroso en su composición durante la gestación. La anemia se definió como, por lo menos, un registro de hemoglobina ≤ 11g/dL en la cartilla de la embarazada (patrón ideal). La prevalencia de anemia, según el patrón ideal, fue de un 35,9% (34,3-37,5), mientras que la de la anemia autoinformada fue de un 42,2% (40,8-43,7), y el autoinforme de uso terapéutico de sales de hierro, 43,2% (41,3-45,1). La sensibilidad del autoinforme de anemia fue de un 75,2% (72,8-77,6) y la especificidad, 75,1% (73,3-76,9). Para el autoinforme de uso terapéutico de sales de hierro, la sensibilidad fue 66,4% (63,5-69,2) y la especificidad, 71,9% (69,7-74,0). La especificidad del autoinforme de anemia y del autoinforme de uso terapéutico de sales de hierro entre madres con ≥ 12 años de escolaridad fue 78,4% (75,4-81,4) y 79,5% (76,1-82,9). En la población estudiada, con una alta prevalencia de anemia, de cada cinco puérperas que informaron anemia o uso terapéutico de sales de hierro, tres relataban la verdad. La especificidad de ambos autoinformes fue más elevada entre madres con ≥ 12 años de escolaridad.

10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20(2): 310-323, 2017.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832853

RESUMO

Introduction:: Well-planned and executed pharmaceutical services (PS) are important for proper treatment of the population's health needs, thus enabling the access to essential drugs and promoting their rational use. Objective:: To assess the situation of PS in the city of Uruguaiana (State of Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Methods:: This cross-sectional study was applied to 650 interviews between June and September of 2013 in 11 Basic Health Units (UBS) and in the Main Pharmacy of the city. The indicators of prescription, of patient's care, and of service, were assessed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).The Instrument of Self-Assessment for Pharmaceutical Services Planning (IAPAF) from the Brazilian Department of Health was used to assess the management and planning capacity of the PS, which was then applied in the Main Pharmacy and in the medicine stockroom. Results:: The number of drugs per prescription varied from 1 to 10 (mean = 1.7). The percentages of prescribed drugs by generic name, and included in the City List of Essential Drugs (REMUME) were, respectively, 75.5 and 67.7%; antibiotics were prescribed in 9.7% of the medical appointments. The average time of medical appointment was 6 minutes; 51.4% of the users obtained their prescription; only 18.9% of the patients completely understood their prescriptions. Of the 24 items analyzed in the IAPAF, 12 were found in stage 1 (worst rating), 12 in stage 2, and none in stage 3 (ideal situation). Conclusion:: Results seem to show the lack of PS in Uruguaiana with regard to planning, management, and patient's care. The absence of effective management may result in waste and incorrect use of drugs.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(8): 2627-2644, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793078

RESUMO

The need to increase access to medicines, coupled with the limited acceptance of generics has sparked the search for effective interventions to promote it. This systematic review aimed to conduct a survey on interventions to promote the use of generic drugs and its impact. Randomized clinical trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series were included. The analysis of the impact of interventions and quality of evidence followed Cochrane's guidelines. Impact of interventions was rated from "very large" to "very small" and the quality of evidence was rated from "high" to "very low". Seventeen papers addressing prescribers, pharmacists and users were selected. There were educational, financial incentives and use of electronic prescription and managerial interventions. Interventions applied to prescribers had little to medium impact, with very low-to-low quality evidence. Interventions applied to pharmacists had small impact with very low quality evidence. Interventions applied to users had medium and large impact with very low-to-low quality evidence. Further studies with good quality addressing interventions are required.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2627-2644, Ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890424

RESUMO

Resumo A necessidade de aumento do acesso aos medicamentos, aliada à limitada aceitação dos genéricos, tem suscitado a busca de intervenções eficazes para a sua promoção. Esta revisão sistemática realizou levantamento de intervenções voltadas à promoção do uso dos medicamentos genéricos e seus impactos. Foram incluídos ensaios randomizados, ensaios controlados não randomizados, estudos tipo antes e depois e séries temporais interrompidas. As análises quanto ao impacto das intervenções e qualidade das evidências seguiram as orientações da Cochrane. A classificação do impacto das intervenções variou de muito grande a muito pequeno e da qualidade da evidência de alta a muito baixa. Selecionou-se 17 artigos com público alvo de prescritores, farmacêuticos e usuários. As intervenções utilizadas foram educativas, de incentivo financeiro, uso de prescrição eletrônica e gerencial. Intervenções aplicadas aos prescritores tiveram impacto pequeno a médio, com qualidade muito baixa a baixa; aos farmacêuticos, impacto pequeno e qualidade muito baixa; aos usuários mostraram impacto médio e grande com qualidade muito baixa e baixa. São necessários mais estudos de boa qualidade abordando as intervenções.


Abstract The need to increase access to medicines, coupled with the limited acceptance of generics has sparked the search for effective interventions to promote it. This systematic review aimed to conduct a survey on interventions to promote the use of generic drugs and its impact. Randomized clinical trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series were included. The analysis of the impact of interventions and quality of evidence followed Cochrane's guidelines. Impact of interventions was rated from "very large" to "very small" and the quality of evidence was rated from "high" to "very low". Seventeen papers addressing prescribers, pharmacists and users were selected. There were educational, financial incentives and use of electronic prescription and managerial interventions. Interventions applied to prescribers had little to medium impact, with very low-to-low quality evidence. Interventions applied to pharmacists had small impact with very low quality evidence. Interventions applied to users had medium and large impact with very low-to-low quality evidence. Further studies with good quality addressing interventions are required.

13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51: 59, 2017 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS: We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS: The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimento do Paciente sobre a Medicação , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(2): 310-323, Abr.-Jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-898588

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: A Assistência Farmacêutica (AF) bem planejada e conduzida é importante para o adequado atendimento às necessidades de saúde da população, facilitando o acesso aos medicamentos essenciais e promovendo seu uso racional. Objetivo: Avaliar a situação da AF no município de Uruguaiana (RS). Métodos: Estudo transversal, com realização de 650 entrevistas, entre junho e setembro de 2013, em 11 Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS) e na Farmácia Central. Os indicadores de prescrição, de assistência ao paciente e de serviço foram avaliados de acordo com as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Para avaliar a capacidade gerencial e de planejamento da AF, foi utilizado o Instrumento de Autoavaliação para o Planejamento da Assistência Farmacêutica (IAPAF) do Ministério da Saúde, o qual foi aplicado na Farmácia Central e no almoxarifado de medicamentos. Resultados: O número de medicamentos por prescrição variou de 1 a 10 (média = 1,7). Os percentuais de medicamentos prescritos pelo nome genérico e que constam na Relação Municipal de Medicamentos Essenciais (REMUME) foram de 75,5 e 67,7%, respectivamente; em 9,7% das consultas médicas foram prescritos antibióticos. O tempo médio de consulta médica foi de 6 minutos; 51,4% dos usuários tiveram sua prescrição atendida; apenas 18,9% dos pacientes compreenderam totalmente a prescrição. Dos 24 itens analisados no IAPAF, 12 encontravam-se no estágio 1 (pior avaliação), 12 no estágio 2 e nenhum no estágio 3 (situação considerada ideal). Conclusão: Os resultados encontrados parecem demonstrar a deficiência da AF em Uruguaiana quanto ao planejamento, à gerência e à assistência ao paciente. A ausência de gestão efetiva pode resultar em desperdícios e no uso incorreto de medicamentos.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Well-planned and executed pharmaceutical services (PS) are important for proper treatment of the population's health needs, thus enabling the access to essential drugs and promoting their rational use. Objective: To assess the situation of PS in the city of Uruguaiana (State of Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Methods: This cross-sectional study was applied to 650 interviews between June and September of 2013 in 11 Basic Health Units (UBS) and in the Main Pharmacy of the city. The indicators of prescription, of patient's care, and of service, were assessed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).The Instrument of Self-Assessment for Pharmaceutical Services Planning (IAPAF) from the Brazilian Department of Health was used to assess the management and planning capacity of the PS, which was then applied in the Main Pharmacy and in the medicine stockroom. Results: The number of drugs per prescription varied from 1 to 10 (mean = 1.7). The percentages of prescribed drugs by generic name, and included in the City List of Essential Drugs (REMUME) were, respectively, 75.5 and 67.7%; antibiotics were prescribed in 9.7% of the medical appointments. The average time of medical appointment was 6 minutes; 51.4% of the users obtained their prescription; only 18.9% of the patients completely understood their prescriptions. Of the 24 items analyzed in the IAPAF, 12 were found in stage 1 (worst rating), 12 in stage 2, and none in stage 3 (ideal situation). Conclusion: Results seem to show the lack of PS in Uruguaiana with regard to planning, management, and patient's care. The absence of effective management may result in waste and incorrect use of drugs.

15.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 59, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903215

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

16.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 59, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-903335

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 32(7)2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27487440

RESUMO

This study compared the perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using two cross-sectional population-based studies from 2002 and 2012. Study outcomes were: (a) prevalence of use of generics; (b) generics as a proportion of all medication; (c) users' perceptions of prices and quality; (d) users' knowledge of generics; and (e) strategies for acquisition of medicines. Prevalence of generics use increased from 3.6% (95%CI: 3.0-4.3) to 26.1% (95%CI: 24.5-27.7) in the 10-year period. Perceptions of prices and quality of generics remained stable, identification of characteristics that distinguish generics from other drugs improved (p < 0.001), and drug classification errors decreased (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in acquiring medication by replacing prescribed drugs with generics. Between 2002 and 2012 there was an increase in knowledge and use of generics, while perception of lower prices and equivalent quality remained high.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Substituição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Substituição de Medicamentos/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Percepção , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 38(5): 246-52, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187928

RESUMO

Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 38(5): 246-252, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-787655

RESUMO

Abstract Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIVþ) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015 , with HIVþ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIVþrelative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm3, and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIVþ pregnant women.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a qualidade de vida de gestantes com sorologia positiva para o HIV através do instrumento Target Quality of Life ( HAT-QoL ). Métodos Estudo transversal, realizado de maio de 2014 a novembro de 2015, em gestantes HIV þ , sendo a amostra de conveniência. Através de entrevista foram coletados dados sociodemográficos, comportamentais e aplicado o questionário HATQoL. Dados clínicos e laboratoriais foram aferidos dos prontuários. Resultados Participaram 27 gestantes. A idade média foi de 27 anos (dp:7,3). A maioria (59%) tem até oito anos de estudo, 52% se declararam brancas, 56% não estavam trabalhando e 59% tinham renda familiar superior a um salário mínimo. O tempo médio de infecção pelo vírus foi de 68,4 meses (5,7 anos). A maioria (74%) foi contaminada pelo HIV através da relação sexual e (67%) refere não ter familiar HIV þ . Em relação ao uso do preservativo, 41% declararam usar às vezes e a mesma proporção não tinha conhecimento adequado sobre o mesmo. Apenas 23 pacientes (85%) relataram prescrição de antirretrovirais. Apresentaram CD4 superior a 500 células/ mm3 14 (64%) e carga viral indetectável 13 (59%) gestantes. Os escores dos domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida mais comprometidos foram "Preocupação com sigilo sobre a infecção" (média: 39,8; dp: 27,1) seguido de "Preocupações financeiras" (média: 49,1; dp: 36) e "Aceitação do HIV"(média: 49,1; dp: 35,8). O domínio com melhor escore foi "Preocupação com a medicação" (média: 80,8; dp: 26,5). Conclusão A qualidade de vida vem sendo utilizada cada vez mais como avaliação de desfecho clínico, os resultados deste estudo contribuem para estabelecimento de intervenções baseadas nas necessidades das gestantes que vivem com HIV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Infecções por HIV , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Autorrelato
20.
Int J Public Health ; 61(9): 1013-1020, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27105883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrences and patterns of multimorbidity in adults from a southern Brazilian city. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with adults (20 or more years) living in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Multimorbidity was evaluated by a list of 11 morbidities (based on medical diagnosis; Patient Health Questionnaire 9 for depression; and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical index) and operationalized according to two cutoff points: ≥2 and ≥3 morbidities. Descriptive analysis and factor analysis (FA) were performed. RESULTS: The sample was made up of 2927 adults. Multimorbidity reached 29.1 % (95 % CI: 27.1; 31.1) for ≥2, and 14.3 % (95 % CI: 12.8; 15.8) for ≥3 morbidities and was greater in females, older people, those with less schooling and those from lower economic classes. Four pairs (frequency ≥5 %) and four triplets (frequency ≥2 %) were observed. Two patterns of morbidities (cardiometabolic and joint problems; and respiratory diseases) explained 93 % of total variance. CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity was common in the studied population. The observed patterns may be used to generate and improve Brazilian diseases guidelines.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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