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1.
BMJ ; 367: l6692, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843943
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687866

RESUMO

Background: Gender-related differences have been found among invited speakers in select professional and medical societies. We examined whether similar disparities existed among keynote speakers, plenary speakers, and invited lecturers in a broad range of medical specialty conferences from 2013 to 2017. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 27 U.S. medical specialty conferences for which data were available on plenary speakers, keynote speakers, and/or invited lecturers. For each speaker, gender and degree(s) were determined. Fisher's exact test was performed to compare proportions of women among speakers to Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) physician workforce data on gender distribution. Results: In aggregate, we identified 246 women among 984 speakers, significantly lower than expected when compared with 2015 AAMC data (25.0% vs. 34.0%; p < 0.00001). Compared with AAMC data reported in 2013, 2015, and 2017, women were significantly underrepresented in 2013 (p = 0.0064) and 2015 (p = 0.00004). In 2017, the proportion of women among invited speakers trended lower than AAMC active women physicians but did not reach significance (p = 0.309). Analysis of individual conference data stratified by year indicated that, while the representation of women among all speakers improved between 2015 and 2017, the representation of women among keynote speakers, plenary speakers, and invited lectureships was variable (including zero levels some years during the study period) and remained lower than expected as compared with workforce data for specific medical specialties. Conclusions: Evaluating for and improving disparities is recommended to ensure gender equity among invited speakers across all medical specialty conferences.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688009

RESUMO

In the United States, the number of people with Hispanic backgrounds is rapidly increasing. This growth, along with other factors, may put them at increased risk for healthcare disparities. Thus, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) should evaluate disparities in health services through the lens of the evidence base. To our knowledge, this is the first review describing the literature on healthcare disparities for Hispanic patients in the field of PM&R. This review explores healthcare utilization, risk factors, access, and health conditions specific to Hispanic populations. Articles used in this narrative review were collected over a 10-year span (2009-2018) from online databases.Our findings highlight disparities across common conditions and injuries in the PM&R literature, including post stroke rehabilitation, hip fracture treatment and rehabilitation, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. Our review suggests that Hispanic patients may be at risk for worse outcomes following these conditions, due to low access to rehabilitation services and disparities in the referral process. Similar results are reported for pain management and Parkinson's disease. As we strive to provide optimal care to an increasingly diverse patient population, researchers and clinicians must consider effects of race and ethnicity on access to and utilization of rehabilitation services.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593525

RESUMO

In this perspective piece, we describe a multifactorial phenomenon whereby academic women physicians become invisible in the mid-career stage. Barriers, both small and large, cause a cumulative inequity effect, and women may leave academic medicine. Certainly, family and lifestyle choices play a role. And as we describe, so is a situation created where women become discouraged and disillusioned. We describe the growing evidence of subtle disparities, or micro-inequities, that cause women to be less visible and marginalized. Over time, early career women transition to mid-career with an accumulation of these micro-inequities. Women have more difficulty in building their academic portfolios and curriculum vitae-core components of academic promotion. They comprise greater than 50% of the health care workforce; yet, they are underrepresented in top leadership positions. For example, only 22% of full professors, 18% of department chairs, and 17% of medical school deans are women. Macro-inequities, which are observable and measurable, are also well documented. For example, women receive less compensation than men for the same job. We examine the contributing and causative processes and offer suggestions on how to promote equity among highly qualified mid-career women as they graduate from training and move beyond the early career stage.

6.
BMJ ; 367: l5888, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594768
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609732

RESUMO

Professionalism in medicine is universally embraced, and it is the foundation for core competencies in medical education, clinical practice, and research. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physicians must master a complex body of knowledge and use this to responsibly care for patients. Rehabilitation professionals work in various settings; however, each one must establish and maintain ethical standards consistent with the specialty and national standards. For example, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education lists professionalism as 1 of its 6 core competencies which trainees must master. There is a growing interest in professionalism and some of the ethical issues that it encompasses. This report provides a general overview of professionalism. Future reports are needed, and there is an opportunity to consider many facets of professionalism in greater detail.

8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(11): 2391-2402, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626056

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The American College of Sports Medicine convened an International Multidisciplinary Roundtable on Exercise and Cancer in March 2018 to evaluate and translate the evidence linking physical activity and cancer prevention, treatment, and control. This article discusses findings from the Roundtable in relation to the biologic and epidemiologic evidence for the role of physical activity in cancer prevention and survival. RESULTS: The evidence supports that there are a number of biologically plausible mechanisms, whereby physical activity can influence cancer risk, and that physical activity is beneficial for the prevention of several types of cancer including breast, colon, endometrial, kidney, bladder, esophageal, and stomach. Minimizing time spent in sedentary behavior may also lower risk of endometrial, colon and lung cancers. Conversely, physical activity is associated with higher risk of melanoma, a serious form of skin cancer. Further, physical activity before and after a cancer diagnosis is also likely to be relevant for improved survival for those diagnosed with breast and colon cancer; with data suggesting that postdiagnosis physical activity provides greater mortality benefits than prediagnosis physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, there is consistent, compelling evidence that physical activity plays a role in preventing many types of cancer and for improving longevity among cancer survivors, although the evidence related to higher risk of melanoma demonstrates the importance of sun safe practices while being physically active. Together, these findings underscore the importance of physical activity in cancer prevention and control. Fitness and public health professionals and health care providers worldwide are encouraged to spread the message to the general population and cancer survivors to be physically active as their age, abilities, and cancer status will allow.

9.
Pediatrics ; 144(5)2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548337

RESUMO

Gender bias and discrimination have profound and far-reaching effects on the health care workforce, delivery of patient care, and advancement of science and are antithetical to the principles of professionalism. In the quest for gender equity, medicine, with its abundance of highly educated and qualified women, should be leading the way. The sheer number of women who comprise the majority of pediatricians in the United States suggests this specialty has a unique opportunity to stand out as progressively equitable. Indeed, there has been much progress to celebrate for women in medicine and pediatrics. However, many challenges remain, and there are areas in which progress is too slow, stalled, or even regressing. The fair treatment of women pediatricians will require enhanced and simultaneous commitment from leaders in 4 key gatekeeper groups: academic medical centers, hospitals, health care organizations, and practices; medical societies; journals; and funding agencies. In this report, we describe the 6-step equity, diversity, and inclusion cycle, which provides a strategic methodology to (1) examine equity, diversity, and inclusion data; (2) share results with stakeholders; (3) investigate causality; (4) implement strategic interventions; (5) track outcomes and adjust strategies; and (6) disseminate results. Next steps include the enforcement of a climate of transparency and accountability, with leaders prioritizing and financially supporting workforce gender equity. This scientific and data-driven approach will accelerate progress and help pave a pathway to better health care and science.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 220(Supplement_2): S50-S61, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430384

RESUMO

In medicine, a wide array of evidence demonstrates the presence of gender, racial, ethnic, and other disparities in representation, compensation, and career development. These disparities also exist in the field of infectious diseases, providing important opportunities for the Infectious Diseases Society of America to identify and report its successes in and challenges to achieving equity. In this article, we review the literature documenting challenges with equity broadly in medicine and specifically in infectious diseases. We then introduce the Be Ethical Campaign, an initiative that encourages healthcare leaders to use metrics and data analysis to identify workforce equity gaps and pursue opportunities to close them.

11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 40(11): 1262-1268, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452490

RESUMO

Social media, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) each impact every area of medicine. Independently, each have power to change medicine, however, synergistically, the impact could be transformative. Given the profound clinical, financial, and public health impact of infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship combined with the incomplete uptake of best practices, multimodal strategies employing social media are critical to increase the speed and reach of research. This review discusses the strategic utilization of online communication platforms to increase the dissemination of critical publications.

12.
Neurology ; 93(12): 538-549, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366723

RESUMO

Despite the fact that the percentages of women among physicians and neurologists have been rising, gender-related disparities in numerous metrics persist, notably in compensation, promotion, funding, recognition, leadership, publishing, and speaking. Simultaneously, women working in academia, including medicine, face high rates of sexual harassment. Leaders of all health care-related organizations must accept the moral and ethical imperative to expeditiously address both gender-related discrimination and harassment (inclusive of but not limited to sexual harassment) of women in medicine. At this unique time in history, there is an opportunity for leaders in neurology to strategically accelerate efforts to address workforce gender disparities and ensure harassment-free training and work environments. Leaders will have to plan an intentional path forward, using a systematic process, metrics, and strategies unique to their own organizations, to overcome barriers to an equitable and safe work environment for women. Moreover, leaders in 4 gatekeeper organizations-medical schools/academic medical centers, funding agencies, journals, and medical societies-must hold each other accountable for gender equity as their own success and financial return on investment is dependent on the efforts of those in the other categories. In short, the path forward is to focus on ethical principles and behavior when it comes to addressing workforce gender disparities for women in medicine.


Assuntos
Medicina , Neurologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Faculdades de Medicina
13.
Health Equity ; 3(1): 360-377, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312783

RESUMO

Background: Ensuring the strength of the physician workforce is essential to optimizing patient care. Challenges that undermine the profession include inequities in advancement, high levels of burnout, reduced career duration, and elevated risk for mental health problems, including suicide. This narrative review explores whether physicians within four subpopulations represented in the workforce at levels lower than predicted from their numbers in the general population-women, racial and ethnic minorities in medicine, sexual and gender minorities, and people with disabilities-are at elevated risk for these problems, and if present, how these problems might be addressed to support patient care. In essence, the underlying question this narrative review explores is as follows: Do physician workforce disparities affect patient care? While numerous articles and high-profile reports have examined the relationship between workforce diversity and patient care, to our knowledge, this is the first review to examine the important relationship between diversity-related workforce disparities and patient care. Methods: Five databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, and EBSCO Discovery Service) were searched by a librarian. Additional resources were included by authors, as deemed relevant to the investigation. Results: The initial database searches identified 440 potentially relevant articles. Articles were categorized according to subtopics, including (1) underrepresented physicians and support for vulnerable patient populations; (2) factors that could exacerbate the projected physician deficit; (3) methods of addressing disparities among underrepresented physicians to support patient care; or (4) excluded (n=155). The authors identified another 220 potentially relevant articles. Of 505 potentially relevant articles, 199 (39.4%) were included in this review. Conclusions: This report demonstrates an important gap in the literature regarding the impact of physician workforce disparities and their effect on patient care. This is a critical public health issue and should be urgently addressed in future research and considered in clinical practice and policy decision-making.

14.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 2015-2021, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in long-term employment outcomes in the postacute care setting. DESIGN: Retrospective review of the prospectively collected Burn Model System National Database. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 695 adult survivors of burn injury enrolled between May 1994 and June 2016 who required postacute care at a Burn Model System center following acute care discharge were included. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on acute care discharge disposition. Those who received postacute care at an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) following acute care were included in the IRF group (N=447), and those who were treated at a skilled nursing facility, long-term care hospital, or other extended-care facility following acute care were included in the Other Rehab group (N=248). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Employment status at 12 months postinjury. Propensity score matching and logistic regression were utilized to determine the effect of postacute care setting on employment status. RESULTS: Individuals in the IRF group had larger burns and were more likely to have an inhalation injury and to undergo amputation. At 12 months postinjury, the IRF group had over 9 times increased odds of being employed compared to the Other Rehab group, using propensity score matching (P=.046). CONCLUSIONS: While admitting patients with more severe injuries, IRFs provided a long-term benefit for survivors of burn injury in terms of regaining employment. Given the current lack of evidence-based guidelines on postacute care decisions, the results of this study shed light on the potential benefits of the intensive services provided at IRFs in this population.

15.
Health Equity ; 3(1): 162-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289775

RESUMO

Purpose: Women physicians do not advance in academic promotion or leadership at the same rate as their male counterparts. One factor contributing to academic promotion and advancement is the experience of serving in elected leadership positions. Although >400 women are running for political office in 2018, fewer than a handful are physicians and there has never been a woman physician elected to the Congress. Yet, little is known about women physicians who run for elected positions within their institutions, medical/professional societies, or government. This study sought to examine how women physicians experience elections using a cross-sectional survey of women physicians to gain insight into patterns of reported experiences and perceived barriers to elected leadership positions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study of 1221 women physicians. Results: 43.8% (N=535) of women physicians ran for an elected office from high school through medical school graduation, in contrast to only 16.7% (N=204) after graduating from medical school. Only 8.5% of women physicians surveyed reported a boss or supervisor encouraged them to run for an elected position. Conclusion: Women physicians are less likely to run for elected positions and for those with previous election experience, the most common barriers cited were lack of institutional time and support, experience, and mentorship.

18.
PM R ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate Functional Independence Measure (FIM) changes and incidence of serious medical complications requiring return to the primary acute care service of acute rehabilitation cancer inpatients with leptomeningeal disease (LMD). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary referral based comprehensive cancer center acute inpatient rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty cancer patients admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation between 8 January 2014 and 8 August 2018 with pathology confirmed LMD within 6 months. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FIM and incidence of return to the primary acute care service. RESULTS: Twenty five of 30 (83.3%) patients were noted to have neurologic impairments and 13/30 (43.3%) were noted to have cognitive impairments. Five of 30 patients (16.7%) received intrathecal chemotherapy and 4/30 (13.3%) received radiation during acute inpatient rehabilitation for LMD treatment. Median days in acute care prior to acute inpatient rehabilitation was 22.5. Median days from acute inpatient rehabilitation admission until death of the 23 deceased patients as of 1 January 2019 was 180.00. Twenty of 30 (66.7%) patients were discharged home, 9/30 (30%) transferred to the primary acute care service, and 1/30 (3.3%) discharged to a skilled nursing facility. Reasons for return to the primary acute care service included additional chemotherapy 3/9 (33%), neurologic decline 2/9 (22%), fever 2/9 (22%), altered mental status 1/9 (11%), and progressive polyarthritis 1/9 (11%). Of the 21 patients who completed acute inpatient rehabilitation without return to the primary acute care service, mean FIM subscore changes from admission to discharge for Activities of Daily Living, Mobility, and Motor were 5.1 (P < .001), 4.8 (P < .001) and 11.7 (P < .001), respectively (Wilcoxon signed rank test, significance P < .05). CONCLUSION: LMD patients who completed acute inpatient rehabilitation made statistically significant improvements on the majority of FIM items. Most patients were discharged home. Our data suggest LMD should not be a reason for exclusion from acute inpatient rehabilitation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

19.
Lancet ; 393(10185): 2037-2038, 2019 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106748
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