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1.
Nature ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057201

RESUMO

Age is the dominant risk factor for most chronic human diseases, but the mechanisms through which ageing confers this risk are largely unknown1. The age-related acquisition of somatic mutations that lead to clonal expansion in regenerating haematopoietic stem cell populations has recently been associated with both haematological cancer2-4 and coronary heart disease5-this phenomenon is termed clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP)6. Simultaneous analyses of germline and somatic whole-genome sequences provide the opportunity to identify root causes of CHIP. Here we analyse high-coverage whole-genome sequences from 97,691 participants of diverse ancestries in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme, and identify 4,229 individuals with CHIP. We identify associations with blood cell, lipid and inflammatory traits that are specific to different CHIP driver genes. Association of a genome-wide set of germline genetic variants enabled the identification of three genetic loci associated with CHIP status, including one locus at TET2 that was specific to individuals of African ancestry. In silico-informed in vitro evaluation of the TET2 germline locus enabled the identification of a causal variant that disrupts a TET2 distal enhancer, resulting in increased self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells. Overall, we observe that germline genetic variation shapes haematopoietic stem cell function, leading to CHIP through mechanisms that are specific to clonal haematopoiesis as well as shared mechanisms that lead to somatic mutations across tissues.

2.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106845

RESUMO

Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degree-of-freedom test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-degree-of-freedom interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in the COPDGene study and SpiroMeta Consortium. We considered two smoking variables: (1) ever/never and (2) current/non-current. In the 1-degree-of-freedom interaction test, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on 15q25.1 (CHRNB4) for ever- and current-smoking and identified PI*Z allele (rs28929474) of SERPINA1 for ever-smoking and 3q26.2 (MECOM) for current-smoking in an analysis of previously reported COPD loci. In the 2-degree-of-freedom test, most of the significant signals were also significant for genetic marginal effects, aside from 16q22.1 (SMPD3) and 19q13.2 (EGLN2). The significant effects at 15q25.1 and 19q13.2 loci, both previously described in prior genome-wide association studies of COPD or smoking, were replicated in the COPDGene and SpiroMeta. We identified interaction effects at previously reported COPD loci, however, we failed to identify novel susceptibility loci.

3.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962511

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking impacts DNA methylation, but the investigation of sex-specific features of lung tissue DNA methylation in smokers has been limited. Women appear more susceptible to cigarette smoke, and often develop more severe lung disease at an earlier age with less smoke exposure. We aimed to analyse whether there are sex differences in DNA methylation in lung tissue and whether these DNA methylation marks interact with smoking. We collected lung tissue samples from former smokers who underwent lung tissue resection. One hundred thirty samples from white subjects were included for this analysis. Regression models for sex as a predictor of methylation were adjusted for age, presence of COPD, smoking variables and technical batch variables revealed 710 associated sites. 294 sites demonstrated robust sex-specific methylation associations in foetal lung tissue. Pathway analysis identified 6 nominally significant pathways including the mitophagy pathway. Three CpG sites demonstrated a suggested interaction between sex and pack-years of smoking: GPR132, ANKRD44 and C19orf60. All of them were nominally significant in both male- and female-specific models, and the effect estimates were in opposite directions for male and female; GPR132 demonstrated significant association between DNA methylation and gene expression in lung tissue (P < 0.05). Sex-specific associations with DNA methylation in lung tissue are wide-spread and may reveal genes and pathways relevant to sex differences for lung damaging effects of cigarette smoking.

4.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(3)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963991

RESUMO

Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comprises distinct phenotypes, all characterised by airflow limitation. Objectives: We hypothesised that somatotype changes - as a surrogate of adiposity - from early adulthood follow different trajectories to reach distinct phenotypes. Methods: Using the validated Stunkard's Pictogram, 356 COPD patients chose the somatotype that best reflects their current body build and those at ages 18, 30, 40 and 50 years. An unbiased group-based trajectory modelling was used to determine somatotype trajectories. We then compared the current COPD-related clinical and phenotypic characteristics of subjects belonging to each trajectory. Measurements and main results: At 18 years of age, 88% of the participants described having a lean or medium somatotype (estimated body mass index (BMI) between 19 and 23 kg·m-2) while the other 12% a heavier somatotype (estimated BMI between 25 and 27 kg·m-2). From age 18 onwards, five distinct trajectories were observed. Four of them demonstrating a continuous increase in adiposity throughout adulthood with the exception of one, where the initial increase was followed by loss of adiposity after age 40. Patients with this trajectory were primarily females with low BMI and D LCO (diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide). A persistently lean trajectory was seen in 14% of the cohort. This group had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), D LCO, more emphysema and a worse BODE (BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise capacity) score thus resembling the multiple organ loss of tissue (MOLT) phenotype. Conclusions: COPD patients have distinct somatotype trajectories throughout adulthood. Those with the MOLT phenotype maintain a lean trajectory throughout life. Smoking subjects with this lean phenotype in early adulthood deserve particular attention as they seem to develop more severe COPD.

6.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 346-361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877963

RESUMO

Background: Risk factor identification is a proven strategy in advancing treatments and preventive therapy for many chronic conditions. Quantifying the impact of those risk factors on health outcomes can consolidate and focus efforts on individuals with specific high-risk profiles. Using multiple risk factors and longitudinal outcomes in 2 independent cohorts, we developed and validated a risk score model to predict mortality in current and former cigarette smokers. Methods: We obtained extensive data on current and former smokers from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study at enrollment. Based on physician input and model goodness-of-fit measures, a subset of variables was selected to fit final Weibull survival models separately for men and women. Coefficients and predictors were translated into a point system, allowing for easy computation of mortality risk scores and probabilities. We then used the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort for external validation of our model. Results: Of 9867 COPDGene participants with standard baseline data, 17.6% died over 10 years of follow-up, and 9074 of these participants had the full set of baseline predictors (standard plus 6-minute walk distance and computed tomography variables) available for full model fits. The average age of participants in the cohort was 60 for both men and women, and the average predicted 10-year mortality risk was 18% for women and 25% for men. Model time-integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve statistics demonstrated good predictive model accuracy (0.797 average), validated in the external cohort (0.756 average). Risk of mortality was impacted most by 6-minute walk distance, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and age, for both men and women. Conclusions: Current and former smokers exhibited a wide range of mortality risk over a 10- year period. Our models can identify higher risk individuals who can be targeted for interventions to reduce risk of mortality, for participants with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929743

RESUMO

locStra is an R -package for the analysis of regional and global population stratification in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies, where regional stratification refers to the substructure defined by the loci in a particular region on the genome. Population substructure can be assessed based on the genetic covariance matrix, the genomic relationship matrix, and the unweighted/weighted genetic Jaccard similarity matrix. Using a sliding window approach, the regional similarity matrices are compared with the global ones, based on user-defined window sizes and metrics, for example, the correlation between regional and global eigenvectors. An algorithm for the specification of the window size is provided. As the implementation fully exploits sparse matrix algebra and is written in C++, the analysis is highly efficient. Even on single cores, for realistic study sizes (several thousand subjects, several million rare variants per subject), the runtime for the genome-wide computation of all regional similarity matrices does typically not exceed one hour, enabling an unprecedented investigation of regional stratification across the entire genome. The package is applied to three WGS studies, illustrating the varying patterns of regional substructure across the genome and its beneficial effects on association testing.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13075, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753590

RESUMO

Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, more than 25% of COPD patients are non-smokers, and gene-by-smoking interactions are expected to affect COPD onset. We aimed to identify the common genetic variants interacting with pack-years of smoking on FEV1/FVC ratios in individuals with normal lung function. A genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) on FEV1/FVC was performed for individuals with FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 70 in the Korea Associated Resource cohort data, and significant SNPs were validated using data from two other Korean cohorts. The GWIS revealed that rs10947231 and rs8192575 met genome-wide significant levels; For [Formula: see text] the likelihood ratio (LR) test was conducted, and its P values, PLR, for rs10947231 and rs8192575 were 2.23 × 10-12 and 1.18 × 10-8, respectively. Interaction between rs8192575 and smoking is significantly replicated with two additional data (PINT = 0.0454, 0.0131). Expression quantitative trait loci, topologically associated domains, and PrediXcan analyses revealed that rs8192575 is significantly associated with AGER expression. SNPs on the 6p21 region are associated with FEV1/FVC, and the effect of smoking on FEV1/FVC differs among the associated genotypes.

9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
10.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681690

RESUMO

Noncoding DNA contains gene regulatory elements that alter gene expression, and the function of these elements can be modified by genetic variation. Massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA) enable high-throughput identification and characterization of functional genetic variants, but the statistical methods to identify allelic effects in MPRA data have not been fully developed. In this study, we demonstrate how the baseline allelic imbalance in MPRA libraries can produce biased results, and we propose a novel, nonparametric, adaptive testing method that is robust to this bias. We compare the performance of this method with other commonly used methods, and we demonstrate that our novel adaptive method controls Type I error in a wide range of scenarios while maintaining excellent power. We have implemented these tests along with routines for simulating MPRA data in the Analysis Toolset for MPRA (@MPRA), an R package for the design and analyses of MPRA experiments. It is publicly available at http://github.com/redaq/atMPRA.

11.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 188, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-15 (ADAM15) is expressed by activated leukocytes, and fibroblasts in vitro. Whether ADAM15 expression is increased in the lungs of COPD patients is not known. METHODS: ADAM15 gene expression and/or protein levels were measured in whole lung and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) macrophage samples obtained from COPD patients, smokers, and non-smokers. Soluble ADAM15 protein levels were measured in BAL fluid (BALF) and plasma samples from COPD patients and controls. Cells expressing ADAM15 in the lungs were identified using immunostaining. Staining for ADAM15 in different cells in the lungs was related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), and pack-years of smoking history. RESULTS: ADAM15 gene expression and/or protein levels were increased in alveolar macrophages and whole lung samples from COPD patients versus smokers and non-smokers. Soluble ADAM15 protein levels were similar in BALF and plasma samples from COPD patients and controls. ADAM15 immunostaining was increased in macrophages, CD8+ T cells, epithelial cells, and airway α-smooth muscle (α-SMA)-positive cells in the lungs of COPD patients. ADAM15 immunostaining in macrophages, CD8+ T cells and bronchial (but not alveolar) epithelial cells was related inversely to FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, but not to pack-years of smoking history. ADAM15 staining levels in airway α-SMA-positive cells was directly related to FEV1/FVC. Over-expressing ADAM15 in THP-1 cells reduced their release of matrix metalloproteinases and CCL2. CONCLUSIONS: These results link increased ADAM15 expression especially in lung leukocytes and bronchial epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of COPD.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482784

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) likely has developmental origins, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully identified. Investigation of lung tissue-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation using network approaches might facilitate insights linking in-utero smoke (IUS) exposure and risk for COPD in adulthood.We performed genome-wide methylation profiling for adult lung DNA from 160 surgical samples and 78 fetal lung DNA samples isolated from discarded tissue from 8 to 18 weeks of gestation. Co-methylation networks were constructed to identify preserved modules that shared methylation patterns in fetal and adult lung tissues and associations with fetal IUS exposure, gestational age and COPD.Weighted correlation networks highlighted preserved and co-methylated modules for both fetal and adult lung data associated with fetal IUS-exposure, COPD and lower adult lung function. These modules were significantly enriched for genes involved in embryonic organ development and specific inflammation-related pathways including Hippo, PI3K/AKT, Wnt, MAP-Kinase and TGF-beta signalling. Gestational age-associated modules were remarkably preserved for COPD and lung function and were also annotated to genes enriched for the Wnt and PI3K/AKT pathways.Epigenetic network perturbations in fetal lung tissue exposed to IUS and of early lung development recapitulated in adult lung tissue from former smokers with COPD. Overlapping fetal and adult lung tissue network modules highlighted putative disease pathways supportive of exposure-related and age-associated developmental origins of COPD.

13.
Chest ; 158(3): 952-964, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of mortality. RESEARCH QUESTION: We hypothesized that applying machine learning to clinical and quantitative CT imaging features would improve mortality prediction in COPD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected 30 clinical, spirometric, and imaging features as inputs for a random survival forest. We used top features in a Cox regression to create a machine learning mortality prediction (MLMP) in COPD model and also assessed the performance of other statistical and machine learning models. We trained the models in subjects with moderate to severe COPD from a subset of subjects in Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) and tested prediction performance in the remainder of individuals with moderate to severe COPD in COPDGene and Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE). We compared our model with the BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise capacity (BODE) index; BODE modifications; and the age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction index. RESULTS: We included 2,632 participants from COPDGene and 1,268 participants from ECLIPSE. The top predictors of mortality were 6-min walk distance, FEV1 % predicted, and age. The top imaging predictor was pulmonary artery-to-aorta ratio. The MLMP-COPD model resulted in a C index ≥ 0.7 in both COPDGene and ECLIPSE (6.4- and 7.2-year median follow-ups, respectively), significantly better than all tested mortality indexes (P < .05). The MLMP-COPD model had fewer predictors but similar performance to that of other models. The group with the highest BODE scores (7-10) had 64% mortality, whereas the highest mortality group defined by the MLMP-COPD model had 77% mortality (P = .012). INTERPRETATION: An MLMP-COPD model outperformed four existing models for predicting all-cause mortality across two COPD cohorts. Performance of machine learning was similar to that of traditional statistical methods. The model is available online at: https://cdnm.shinyapps.io/cgmortalityapp/.

14.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 103, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard spirometry cannot identify the predominant mechanism underlying airflow obstruction in COPD, namely emphysema or airway disease. We aimed at validating a previously developed methodology to detect emphysema by mathematical analysis of the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve in standard spirometry. METHODS: From the COPDGene population we selected those 5930 subjects with MEFV curve and inspiratory-expiratory CT obtained on the same day. The MEFV curve descending limb was fit real-time using forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory flows at 25, 50 and 75% of FVC to derive an emphysema severity index (ESI), expressed as a continuous positive numeric parameter ranging from 0 to 10. According to inspiratory CT percent lung attenuation area below - 950 HU we defined three emphysema severity subgroups (%LAA-950insp < 6, 6-14, ≥14). By co-registration of inspiratory-expiratory CT we quantified persistent (%pLDA) and functional (%fLDA) low-density areas as CT metrics of emphysema and airway disease, respectively. RESULTS: ESI differentiated CT emphysema severity subgroups increasing in parallel with GOLD stages (p < .001), but with high variability within each stage. ESI had significantly higher correlations (p < .001) with emphysema than with airway disease CT metrics, explaining 67% of %pLDA variability. Conversely, standard spirometric variables (FEV1, FEV1/FVC) had significantly lower correlations than ESI with emphysema CT metrics and did not differentiate between emphysema and airways CT metrics. CONCLUSIONS: ESI adds to standard spirometry the power to discriminate whether emphysema is the predominant mechanism of airway obstruction. ESI methodology has been validated in the large multiethnic population of smokers of the COPDGene study and therefore it could be applied for clinical and research purposes in the general population of smokers, using a readily available online website.

15.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 100, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354332

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cachexia contributes to increased mortality and reduced quality of life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and may be associated with underlying gene expression changes. Our goal was to identify differential gene expression signatures associated with COPD cachexia in current and former smokers. METHODS: We analyzed whole-blood gene expression data from participants with COPD in a discovery cohort (COPDGene, N = 400) and assessed replication (ECLIPSE, N = 114). To approximate the consensus definition using available criteria, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low body mass index (BMI) (< 20 kg/m2) and 1/3 criteria: decreased muscle strength (six-minute walk distance < 350 m), anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl), and low fat-free mass index (FFMI) (< 15 kg/m2 among women and < 17 kg/m2 among men) in COPDGene. In ECLIPSE, cachexia was defined as weight-loss > 5% in the past 12 months or low BMI and 3/5 criteria: decreased muscle strength, anorexia, abnormal biochemistry (anemia or high c-reactive protein (> 5 mg/l)), fatigue, and low FFMI. Differential gene expression was assessed between cachectic and non-cachectic subjects, adjusting for age, sex, white blood cell counts, and technical covariates. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed using MSigDB. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD cachexia was 13.7% in COPDGene and 7.9% in ECLIPSE. Fourteen genes were differentially downregulated in cachectic versus non-cachectic COPD patients in COPDGene (FDR < 0.05) and ECLIPSE (FDR < 0.05). DISCUSSION: Several replicated genes regulating heme metabolism were downregulated among participants with COPD cachexia. Impaired heme biosynthesis may contribute to cachexia development through free-iron buildup and oxidative tissue damage.

17.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med ; 12(6): e1489, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307915

RESUMO

Network Medicine applies network science approaches to investigate disease pathogenesis. Many different analytical methods have been used to infer relevant molecular networks, including protein-protein interaction networks, correlation-based networks, gene regulatory networks, and Bayesian networks. Network Medicine applies these integrated approaches to Omics Big Data (including genetics, epigenetics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) using computational biology tools and, thereby, has the potential to provide improvements in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of complex diseases. We discuss briefly the types of molecular data that are used in molecular network analyses, survey the analytical methods for inferring molecular networks, and review efforts to validate and visualize molecular networks. Successful applications of molecular network analysis have been reported in pulmonary arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, and drug development. Important knowledge gaps in Network Medicine include incompleteness of the molecular interactome, challenges in identifying key genes within genetic association regions, and limited applications to human diseases. This article is categorized under: Models of Systems Properties and Processes > Mechanistic Models Translational, Genomic, and Systems Medicine > Translational Medicine Analytical and Computational Methods > Analytical Methods Analytical and Computational Methods > Computational Methods.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5169, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198360

RESUMO

One quarter of individuals with Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry (PRISm) will develop airflow obstruction, but there are no established methods to identify these individuals. We examined the utility of FVC/TLC in identifying features of obstructive lung disease. The ratio of post-bronchodilator FVC and TLCCT from chest CT (FVC/TLCCT) among current and former smokers with PRISm (FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80%) in COPDGene was used to stratify subjects into quartiles: very high, high, low, and very low. We examined the associations between FVC/TLCCT quartiles and (1) baseline characteristics, (2) respiratory exacerbations, (3) progression to COPD at 5 years, and (4) all-cause mortality. Among participants with PRISm at baseline (n = 1,131), the very low FVC/TLCCT quartile was associated with increased gas trapping and emphysema, and higher rates of progression to COPD at 5 years (36% versus 17%; p < 0.001) relative to the very high quartile. The very low FVC/TLCCT quartile was associated with increased total (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI [1.07-2.54]) and severe (IRR = 2.24; 95% CI [1.29-3.89]) respiratory exacerbations. Mortality was lower in the very high FVC/TLCCT quartile relative to the other quartiles combined. Reduced FVC/TLCCT ratio in PRISm is associated with increased symptoms, radiographic emphysema and gas trapping, exacerbations, and progression to COPD.

19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 73-82, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197047

RESUMO

Rationale: The ZZ genotype of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), even among never-smokers. The SZ genotype is also considered severe; yet, its effect on lung health remains unclear.Objectives: To determine the effect of SZ-AATD on spirometry compared with a normal-risk population and to determine the effect of smoking cessation in this genotype.Methods: We prospectively enrolled 166 related individuals, removing lung index cases to reduce bias, and compared spirometry between 70 SZ and 46 MM/MS individuals (control subjects). The effect of AAT concentrations on outcomes was assessed in 82 SZ individuals (including lung index cases). Subsequently, we analyzed retrospective SZ registry data to determine the effect of smoking cessation on spirometry decline (n = 60) and plasma anti-neutrophil elastase capacity (n = 20).Measurements and Main Results: No difference between SZ and control never-smokers was seen. Ever smoking was associated with a lower FEV1% predicted (-14.3%; P = 0.0092) and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-0.075; P = 0.0041) in SZ-AATD. No association was found between AAT concentration and outcomes for SZ-AATD. Longitudinal analysis of 60 SZ individuals demonstrated that COPD at baseline, but not former smoking or AAT concentrations, predicted greater spirometry decline. Finally, anti-neutrophil elastase capacity did not differ between former smokers and never-smokers (P = 0.67).Conclusions: SZ never-smokers demonstrated no increased risk of COPD, regardless of AAT concentration. Smoking interacts with SZ-AATD to significantly increase airflow obstruction. Former smoking alone is not associated with greater spirometry decline in SZ-AATD, suggesting that cessation attenuates the obstructive process. We found no evidence that the putative protective threshold or AAT concentrations predict risk within the SZ genotype, raising further doubts over the need for intravenous AAT augmentation in this cohort.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(5): 704-713, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflamed airways are hypothesized to contribute to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis due to RA-related autoantibody production, and smoking is the strongest environmental RA risk factor. However, the role of chronic airway diseases in RA development is unclear. We undertook this study to investigate whether asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were each associated with RA. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 205,153 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1988-2014) and NHSII (1991-2015). Exposures were self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma or COPD confirmed by validated supplemental questionnaires. The primary outcome was incident RA confirmed by medical record review by 2 rheumatologists. Covariates (including smoking pack-years/status) were assessed via biennial questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for RA were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 15,148 women with confirmed asthma, 3,573 women with confirmed COPD, and 1,060 incident RA cases during 4,384,471 person-years (median 24.0 years/participant) of follow-up in the NHS and NHSII. Asthma was associated with increased RA risk (HR 1.53 [95% CI 1.24-1.88]) compared to no asthma/COPD after adjustment for covariates, including smoking pack-years/status. Asthma remained associated with increased RA risk when analyzing only never-smokers (HR 1.53 [95% CI 1.14-2.05]). COPD was also associated with increased RA risk (HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31-2.75]). The association of COPD with RA was most pronounced in the subgroup of ever-smokers age >55 years (HR 2.20 [95% CI 1.38-3.51]). CONCLUSION: Asthma and COPD were each associated with increased risk of incident RA, independent of smoking status/intensity and other potential confounders. These results provide support for the hypothesis that chronic airway inflammation may be crucial in RA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Asma/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
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