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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323981

RESUMO

Transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have gained increased attention in energy storage due to their potential applications for optimizing electrochemical performances. However, their preparation routes usually require highly toxic and flammable phosphorus sources with strict reaction conditions. The existence of multiple energetically favorable stoichiometries also makes it a challenge to achieve phase control of metal phosphides. In this work, we have successfully realized the phase-controllable framework of cobalt phosphide from Co2P to CoP by employing a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogel as a precursor. Interestingly, the semi-IPN hydrogel could serve as a self-assembly/sacrificing template to accomplish 3D space confinement, where poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) was identified as a prominent phosphorus source due to its strong metal complexation ability and high thermal stability. Furthermore, this route is successfully extended to the synthesis of other TMPs, including Fe2P, Ni2P, and Cu3P. The specific structure of cobalt phosphides gives rise to superior lithium storage performance, showing superior cycling stability (495.2 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g-1). This approach envisions a new outlook on exploitation of essential functional hydrogels for the creation of inorganic materials toward sustainable energy development.

2.
Analyst ; 145(5): 1915-1924, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989131

RESUMO

Gas sensors are important devices used to monitor the type and amount of gas present. Amperometric gas sensors - based on measuring the current upon an applied potential - have been progressing towards miniaturised designs that are smaller, lower cost, faster responding and more robust compared to commercially available sensors. In this work, a planar thin-film electrode device is employed for gas sensing with a thin layer of gel polymer electrolyte (GPE). The GPE consists of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL, with two different imidazolium cations and the tetrafluoroborate [BF4]- anion) mixed with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). The polymer acts as a scaffold, with the RTIL ions able to flow within the porous percolated channels, resulting in a highly robust gel with high conductivity. The chemical nature of the polymer allows thin-films (ca. 6 µm) to be evenly dropcast onto planar electrode devices, using minimal amounts of material. Remarkably, no significant effect of resistance was observed in the voltammetric response with such thin films. Oxygen (O2) and ammonia (NH3) gases were detected in the concentration ranges 1-20% O2 and 1-10 ppm NH3 in the two GPEs using both linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA). LTCA was the preferred detection method for both gases due to the steady-state current response compared to the sloping current response from LSV. The thin nature of the film gave fast response times for both gases - less than 10 seconds for O2 and ca. 40 seconds for NH3 - easily rivaling the commercially available porous electrode designs and allowing for continuous monitoring of gas concentrations. These materials appear to be highly promising candidates as gas detection electrolytes in miniaturised devices, with accurate and fast responses in both the cathodic and anodic potential regions.

3.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(21): 6910-6914, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638400

RESUMO

The electrochemical properties of gas molecules are of great interest for both fundamental and applied research. In this study, we introduce a novel concept to systematically alter the electrochemical behavior and, in particular, the redox potential of neutral gas molecules. The concept is based on the use of an ion-binding agent, or "ionophore", to bind and stabilize the ionic electrochemical reaction product. We demonstrate that the ionophore-assisted electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen in a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is shifted by almost 1 V toward more negative potentials in comparison to an ionophore-free electrolyte. The altered electrochemical response in the presence of the ionophore not only yields insights into the reaction mechanism but also can be used to determine the diffusion coefficient of the ionophore species. This ionophore-modulated electrochemistry of neutral gas molecules opens up new avenues for the development of highly selective electrochemical sensors.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443293

RESUMO

Microelectrodes offer higher current density and lower ohmic drop due to increased radial diffusion. They are beneficial for electroanalytical applications, particularly for the detection of analytes at trace concentrations. Microelectrodes can be fabricated as arrays to improve the current response, but are presently only commercially available with gold or platinum electrode surfaces, thus limiting the sensing of analytes that are more electroactive on other surfaces. In this work, gold (Au), copper (Cu), and palladium (Pd) are electrodeposited at two different potentials into the recessed holes of commercial microelectrode arrays to produce 3-dimensional (3D) spiky, dendritic or coral-like structures. The rough fractal structures that are produced afford enhanced electroactive surface area and increased radial diffusion due to the 3D nature, which drastically improves the sensitivity. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), carbon dioxide gas (CO2), and hydrogen gas (H2) were chosen as model analytes in room temperature ionic liquid solvents, to demonstrate improvements in the sensitivity of the modified microelectrode arrays, and, in some cases (e.g., for CO2 and H2), enhancements in the electrocatalytic ability. With the deposition of different materials, we have demonstrated enhanced sensitivity and electrocatalytic behaviour towards the chosen analytes.

5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1072: 35-45, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146863

RESUMO

From a safety perspective, it is vital to have fast responding gas sensors for toxic and explosive gases in the event of a gas leak. Amperometric gas sensors have been developed for such a purpose, but their response times are often relatively slow - on the order of 50 seconds or more. In this work, we have developed sensors for hydrogen gas that demonstrate ultra-fast response times. The sensor consists of an array of gold microchannel electrodes, electrodeposited with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) to enable hydrogen electroactivity. Very thin layers (∼9 µm) of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) result in an extremely fast response time of only 2 s, significantly faster than the other conventional electrodes examined (unmodified Pt electrode, and PtNP modified Au electrode). The RTIL layer in the microchannels is much thinner than the channel length, showing an interesting yet complex diffusion pattern and characteristic thin-layer behavior. At short times (e.g. on the timescale of cyclic voltammetry), the oxidation current is smaller and steady-state in nature, compared to macrodisk electrodes. At longer times (e.g. using long-term chronoamperometry), the diffusion layer is large for all surfaces and extends to the liquid/gas phase boundary, where the gas is continuously replenished from the flowing gas stream. Thus, the current response is the largest on the microchannel electrode, resulting in the highest sensitivity and lowest limit of detection for hydrogen. These microchannel electrodes appear to be highly promising surfaces for the ultrafast detection of hydrogen gas, particularly at relevant concentrations close to, or below, the lower explosive limit of 4 vol-% H2.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3410-3413, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839031

RESUMO

Solvated lithium closo-dodecaborate, Li2B12H12 with tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, show unexpected melting below 150 °C. This feature has been explored to melt-infiltrate Li2B12H12 in a nanoporous SiO2 scaffold. The ionic conductivity of Li2B12H12·xACN reaches 0.08 mS cm-1 in the liquid state at 150 °C making them suitable as battery electrolytes.

7.
Chemphyschem ; 20(5): 745-751, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614177

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are very promising host materials for nanoscale guest materials. However, some MOFs such as MIL-53 are known to undergo phase transitions which can complicate the guest particle size control. In this study, Pd nanoparticles embedded in Al-MIL-53 were synthesised via (a) electrodeposition and (b) gas-phase reduction. A thorough structural investigation revealed that each synthesis method most likely favoured a different phase of Al-MIL-53, presenting the possibility of MOF phase selection as a technique for size control of embedded nanoparticles. For the first time, we hereby report the use of pair distribution function analysis to successfully investigate the structure and morphology of guest particles embedded in a MOF host.

8.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1048: 12-21, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598141

RESUMO

In amperometric gas sensors, the flux of gas to electrode surfaces determines the analytical response and detection limit. For trace concentration detection, the resulting low current prevents the miniaturisation of such sensors. Therefore, in this study, we have developed repeating arrays of nanostructures which maximise flux towards their surface. Unique platinum 3D cauliflower-shaped deposits with individual floret-shaped segments have been produced in a single step electrodeposition process. The confined walls of recessed microelectrode arrays (10 µm in diameter, 90 electrodes) are utilized to produce these structures with a high surface area. Distinct segments are observed, with the gaps corresponding to electrodes adjacent in the microarray; thus the majority of the deposits face the primary diffusion zones. The sizes and shapes of the deposits are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the largest structures are found to be 22 ±â€¯1 µm in width and 7.9 ±â€¯0.2 µm in height over the microhole. These modified electrodes are employed to detect ammonia using the room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [C2mim][NTf2], as an electrolyte. Current responses on the cauliflower arrays were seven times higher for linear sweep voltammetry and ca. 12 times higher for chronoamperometry, relative to the bare microrrays, and limits of detection were less than 1 part per million of ammonia (gas phase concentration). This work highlights the use of modified microarrays with highly accessible 3D structures for enhanced electroanalytical detection of analyte species at ultra low concentrations.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(9)2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227681

RESUMO

Electrochemical gas sensors are often used for identifying and quantifying redox-active analyte gases in the atmosphere. However, for amperometric sensors, the current signal is usually dependent on the electroactive surface area, which can become small when using microelectrodes and miniaturized devices. Microarray thin-film electrodes (MATFEs) are commercially available, low-cost devices that give enhanced current densities compared to mm-sized electrodes, but still give low current responses (e.g., less than one nanoamp), when detecting low concentrations of gases. To overcome this, we have modified the surface of the MATFEs by depositing platinum into the recessed holes to create arrays of 3D structures with high surface areas. Dendritic structures have been formed using an additive, lead acetate (Pb(OAc)2) into the plating solution. One-step and two-step depositions were explored, with a total deposition time of 300 s or 420 s. The modified MATFEs were then studied for their behavior towards oxygen reduction in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [N8,2,2,2][NTf2]. Significantly enhanced currents for oxygen were observed, ranging from 9 to 16 times the current of the unmodified MATFE. The highest sensitivity was obtained using a two-step deposition with a total time of 420 s, and both steps containing Pb(OAc)2. This work shows that commercially-available microelectrodes can be favorably modified to give significantly enhanced analytical performances.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(12)2017 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186869

RESUMO

Screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs) have been used for the first time as platforms to detect oxygen gas in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Up until now, carbon-based SPEs have shown inferior behaviour compared to platinum and gold SPEs for gas sensing with RTIL solvents. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen (O2) in a range of RTILs has therefore been explored on home-made SPGEs, and is compared to the behaviour on commercially-available carbon SPEs (C-SPEs). Six common RTILs are initially employed for O2 detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV), and two RTILs ([C2mim][NTf2] and [C4mim][PF6]) chosen for further detailed analytical studies. Long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA) was also performed to test the ability of the sensor surface for real-time gas monitoring. Both CV and LTCA gave linear calibration graphs-for CV in the 10-100% vol. range, and for LTCA in the 0.1-20% vol. range-on the SPGE. The responses on the SPGE were far superior to the commercial C-SPEs; more instability in the electrochemical responses were observed on the C-SPEs, together with some breaking-up or dissolution of the electrode surface materials. This study highlights that not all screen-printed ink formulations are compatible with RTIL solvents for longer-term electrochemical experiments, and that the choice of RTIL is also important. Overall, the low-cost SPGEs appear to be promising platforms for the detection of O2, particularly in [C4mim][PF6].

11.
Anal Chem ; 89(8): 4729-4736, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337908

RESUMO

A new electrochemical method to detect and quantify the explosive compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous solutions is demonstrated. A disposable thin-film electrode modified with a droplet of a gel-polymer electrolyte (GPE) was immersed directly into samples of TNT at concentrations of 1-10 µg/mL. The GPE contained the hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([P14,6,6,6][NTf2]) and the polymer poly(hexyl methacrylate). The RTIL acted to preconcentrate TNT into the GPE and provided ionic conductivity. The polymer provided both (i) sufficient viscosity to ensure mechanical stability of the GPE and (ii) strong hydrophobicity to minimize leaching of the RTIL. Square wave voltammetry was performed on the first reduction peak of TNT-preconcentrated samples (15 min soaking with mechanical stirring), with linear plots of peak current vs cumulative concentration of TNT, giving an averaged limit of detection of 0.37 µg/mL (aqueous phase concentration). Additionally, the voltammetry of the first reduction peak of TNT in [P14,6,6,6][NTf2] was unaffected by the presence of oxygen-in contrast to that observed in an imidazolium-based RTIL-providing excellent selectivity over oxygen in real environments. The sensor device was able to quickly and easily quantify TNT concentrations at typical ground water contamination levels. The low-cost and portability of the sensor device, along with the minimal amounts of GPE materials required, make this a viable platform for the onsite monitoring of explosives, which is currently a significant operational challenge.

12.
Anal Chem ; 88(10): 5104-11, 2016 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063949

RESUMO

The demonstration of prolonged amperometric detection of oxygen in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) was achieved by the use of mechanical polishing to activate platinum screen-printed electrodes (Pt-SPEs). The RTILs studied were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) and N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4mpyrr][NTf2]). It was found that voltammetry on polished Pt-SPEs exhibited less deterioration (in terms of voltammogram shapes, stability of peak currents, and appearance of contaminant peaks) from long-term consecutive cycling under 100% vol oxygen flow in both RTILs. The detection capability of these RTIL/Pt-SPE systems, initially subjected to long-term consecutive voltammetric cycling, was also investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA). Current versus concentration plots were linear on both unpolished and polished electrodes for 10-100% vol O2 (using CV) and 0.1-5% vol O2 (using LTCA). However, sensitivities and limits of detection (LODs) from CV were found to improve significantly on polished electrodes compared to unpolished electrodes, particularly in [C2mim][NTf2], but also moderately in [C4mpyrr][NTf2]. The lowest LODs (of ca. 0.1% vol O2) were found on polished SPEs using LTCA, with the most stable responses observed in [C4mpyrr][NTf2]. Calibration graphs could not be obtained on unpolished electrodes in both RTILs using LTCA. The results show that polishing markedly improves the analytical performances of Pt-SPEs for oxygen sensing in RTILs. The reusability of such disposable Pt-SPEs, after the surfaces had been experimentally fouled, was also demonstrated through the use of polishing. Mechanical polishing of Pt-SPE devices offers a viable approach to performance improvement for amperometric gas sensing.

13.
Analyst ; 141(12): 3705-13, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931642

RESUMO

A robust, miniaturised electrochemical gas sensor for oxygen (O2) has been constructed using a commercially available Pt microarray thin-film electrode (MATFE) with a gellified electrolyte containing the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in a 50 : 50 mass ratio. Diffusion coefficients and solubilities for oxygen in mixtures of PMMA/RTIL at different PMMA doping concentrations (0-50% mass) were derived from potential step chronoamperometry (PSCA) on a Pt microdisk electrode. The MATFE was then used with both the neat RTIL and 50% (by mass) PMMA/RTIL gel, to study the analytical behavior over a wide concentration range (0.1 to 100 vol% O2). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA) techniques were employed and it was determined that the gentler CV technique is better at higher O2 concentrations (above 60 vol%), but LTCA is more reliable and accurate at lower concentrations (especially below 0.5% O2). In particular, there was much less potential shifting (from the unstable Pt quasi-reference electrode) evident in the 50% PMMA/RTIL gel than in the neat RTIL, making this a much more suitable electrolyte for long-term continuous oxygen monitoring. The mass production and low-cost of the electrode array, along with the minimal amounts of RTIL/PMMA required, make this a viable sensing device for oxygen detection on a bulk scale in a wide range of environmental conditions.

14.
Anal Chem ; 88(24): 12453-12460, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28193026

RESUMO

The voltammetric detection of less than 1 ppm of ammonia gas in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) is demonstrated using low-cost planar electrode devices. Three commercially available planar devices were employed, all with platinum (Pt) working electrodes: a thin-film electrode (TFE), a screen-printed electrode (SPE), and a microarray thin film electrode (MATFE), along with an "ideal" conventional Pt microdisk electrode for comparison. The microholes on the recessed MATFE were also "filled" with electrodeposited platinum, to improve radial diffusion characteristics to the microhole and generate higher current densities. Current density was lowest for the TFE and SPE surfaces (linear diffusion), higher for the MATFE (mixed radial and linear diffusion), and even higher for the filled MATFE (predominantly radial diffusion). Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and potential-step chronoamperometry (PSCA) at 10-100 ppm of NH3 gave linear behavior for current vs concentration. Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of ca. 1-9 ppm, lower than the minimum exposure limit (25 ppm) for NH3. The best stability, reproducibility, and the lowest LODs were observed on the recessed and filled MATFEs. These were employed to detect lower concentrations of ammonia (0.1-2 ppm), where linear behavior was also observed, and LODs of 0.11 (recessed) and 0.02 (filled) were obtained. These are believed to be the lowest LODs (to date) reported for ammonia gas in neat ionic liquids. This is highly encouraging and suggests that RTILs and low-cost miniaturized MATFEs can be combined in amperometric sensor devices to easily and cheaply detect ammonia gas at ppb concentrations.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(4): 2488-94, 2016 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26697927

RESUMO

The electrochemical behaviour of highly toxic hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas has been investigated in six room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) containing imidazolium/pyrrolidinium cations and range of anions on a Pt microelectrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). HCl gas exists in a dissociated form of H(+) and [HCl2](-) in RTILs. A peak corresponding to the oxidation of [HCl2](-) was observed, resulting in the formation of Cl2 and H(+). These species were reversibly reduced to H2 and Cl(-), respectively, on the cathodic CV scan. The H(+) reduction peak is also present initially when scanned only in the cathodic direction. In the RTILs with a tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorophosphate anion, CVs indicated a reaction of the RTIL with the analyte/electrogenerated products, suggesting that these RTILs might not be suitable solvents for the detection of HCl gas. This was supported by NMR spectroscopy experiments, which showed that the hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid underwent structural changes after HCl gas electrochemical experiments. The analytical utility was then studied in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) by utilising both peaks (oxidation of [HCl2](-) and reduction of protons) and linear calibration graphs for current vs. concentration for the two processes were obtained. The reactive behaviour of some ionic liquids clearly shows that the choice of the ionic liquid is very important if employing RTILs as solvents for HCl gas detection.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(49): 14903-6, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26489692

RESUMO

At the water-trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([P14,6,6,6][FAP]) ionic liquid interface, the unusual electrochemical transfer behavior of protons (H(+)) and deuterium ions (D(+)) was identified. Alkali metal cations (such as Li(+), Na(+), K(+)) did not undergo this transfer. H(+)/D(+) transfers were assisted by the hydrophobic counter anion of the ionic liquid, [FAP](-), resulting in the formation of a mixed capacitive layer from the filling of the latent voids within the anisotropic ionic liquid structure. This phenomenon could impact areas such as proton-coupled electron transfers, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage where ionic liquids are used as aprotic solvents.

17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 15(10): 26866-76, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26506358

RESUMO

Commercially available Pt screen printed electrodes (SPEs) have been employed as possible electrode materials for methylamine (MA) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas detection. The room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) was used as a solvent and the electrochemical behaviour of both gases was first examined using cyclic voltammetry. The reaction mechanism appears to be the same on Pt SPEs as on Pt microelectrodes. Furthermore, the analytical utility was studied to understand the behaviour of these highly toxic gases at low concentrations on SPEs, with calibration graphs obtained from 10 to 80 ppm. Three different electrochemical techniques were employed: linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), with no significant differences in the limits of detection (LODs) between the techniques (LODs were between 1.4 to 3.6 ppm for all three techniques for both gases). The LODs achieved on Pt SPEs were lower than the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limit (OSHA PEL) limits of the two gases (5 ppm for HCl and 10 ppm for MA), suggesting that Pt SPEs can successfully be combined with RTILs to be used as cheap alternatives for amperometric gas sensing in applications where these toxic gases may be released.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 42(23): 8188-91, 2013 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661108

RESUMO

The reaction of 2-pyridyltetrazolate with [Re(CO)5X] (X = Cl, Br) yielded the formation of an unexpected cyclic metallacalix[3]arene, as revealed by X-ray structural studies, characterised by aqua emission and reversible three-electron oxidation.

19.
Chem Asian J ; 7(11): 2559-61, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22829567

RESUMO

Between the phases: The globular protein lysozyme was adsorbed and desorbed under electrochemical conditions at the water/room temperature ionic liquid microinterface array; the electrochemical desorption process provides a basis for protein detection at these interfaces.


Assuntos
Líquidos Iônicos/química , Muramidase/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Muramidase/metabolismo , Temperatura
20.
Analyst ; 136(23): 4871-82, 2011 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22013585

RESUMO

Ionic Liquids are salts that are liquid at (or just above) room temperature. They possess several advantageous properties (e.g. high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows, low volatility, high thermal stability and good solvating ability), which make them ideal as non-volatile electrolytes in electrochemical sensors. This mini-review article describes the recent uses of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensing applications (covering the last 3 years) in the context of voltammetric sensing at solid/liquid, liquid/liquid interfaces and carbon paste electrodes, as well as their use in gas sensing, ion-selective electrodes, and for detecting biological molecules, explosives and chemical warfare agents. A comment on the future direction and challenges in this field is also presented.

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