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2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484212

RESUMO

Bispecific HIVxCD3 DART molecules that co-engage the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) on HIV-1-infected cells and the CD3 receptor on CD3+ T cells are designed to mediate the cytolysis of HIV-1-infected, Env-expressing cells. Using a novel ex vivo system with cells from rhesus macaques (RMs) infected with a chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) CH505 and maintained on ART, we tested the ability of HIVxCD3 DART molecules to mediate elimination of in vitro-reactivated CD4+ T cells in the absence or presence of autologous CD8+ T cells. HIVxCD3 DART molecules with the anti-HIV-1 Env specificities of A32 or 7B2 (non-neutralizing antibodies) or PGT145 (broadly neutralizing antibody) were evaluated individually or combined. DART molecule-mediated antiviral activity increased significantly in the presence of autologous CD8+ T cells. In this ex vivo system, the PGT145 DART molecule was more active than the 7B2 DART molecule, which was more active than the A32 DART molecule. A triple combination of the DART molecules exceeded the activity of the individual PGT145 DART molecule. Modified quantitative virus outgrowth assays confirmed the ability of the DART molecules to redirect RM CD3+ T cells to eliminate SHIV-infected RM CD4+ T cells as demonstrated by the decreased propagation of in vitro infection by the infected cells pre-incubated with DART molecules in presence of effector CD8+ T cells. While mediating cytotoxic activity, DART molecules did not increase proinflammatory cytokine production. In summary, combination of HIVxCD3 DART molecules that have broadly-neutralizing and non-neutralizing anti-HIV-1 Env specificities can leverage the host immune system for treatment of HIV-1 infection but will require appropriate reactivation of the latent reservoir.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4817, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376662

RESUMO

Engineered ectodomain trimer immunogens based on BG505 envelope glycoprotein are widely utilized as components of HIV vaccine development platforms. In this study, we used rhesus macaques to evaluate the immunogenicity of several stabilized BG505 SOSIP constructs both as free trimers and presented on a nanoparticle. We applied a cryoEM-based method for high-resolution mapping of polyclonal antibody responses elicited in immunized animals (cryoEMPEM). Mutational analysis coupled with neutralization assays were used to probe the neutralization potential at each epitope. We demonstrate that cryoEMPEM data can be used for rapid, high-resolution analysis of polyclonal antibody responses without the need for monoclonal antibody isolation. This approach allowed to resolve structurally distinct classes of antibodies that bind overlapping sites. In addition to comprehensive mapping of commonly targeted neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes in BG505 SOSIP immunogens, our analysis revealed that epitopes comprising engineered stabilizing mutations and of partially occupied glycosylation sites can be immunogenic.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/ultraestrutura , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/química , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/ultraestrutura , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/ultraestrutura
5.
Biomaterials ; 275: 120868, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091299

RESUMO

Antigen accumulation in lymph nodes (LNs) is critical for vaccine efficacy, but understanding of vaccine biodistribution in humans or large animals remains limited. Using the rhesus macaque model, we employed a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) and fluorescence imaging to characterize the whole-animal to tissue-level biodistribution of a subunit vaccine comprised of an HIV envelope trimer protein nanoparticle (trimer-NP) and lipid-conjugated CpG adjuvant (amph-CpG). Following immunization in the thigh, PET imaging revealed vaccine uptake primarily in inguinal and iliac LNs, reaching distances up to 17 cm away from the injection site. Within LNs, trimer-NPs exhibited striking accumulation on the periphery of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks in B cell follicles. Comparative imaging of soluble Env trimers (not presented on nanoparticles) in naïve or previously-immunized animals revealed diffuse deposition of trimer antigens in LNs following primary immunization, but concentration on FDCs in pre-immunized animals with high levels of trimer-specific IgG. These data demonstrate the capacity of nanoparticle or "albumin hitchhiking" technologies to concentrate vaccines in genitourinary tract-draining LNs, which may be valuable for promoting mucosal immunity.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Vacinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009674, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181694

RESUMO

HIV associated immune activation (IA) is associated with increased morbidity in people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy, and remains a barrier for strategies aimed at reducing the HIV reservoir. The underlying mechanisms of IA have not been definitively elucidated, however, persistent production of Type I IFNs and expression of ISGs is considered to be one of the primary factors. Plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are a major producer of Type I IFN during viral infections, and are highly immunomodulatory in acute HIV and SIV infection, however their role in chronic HIV/SIV infection has not been firmly established. Here, we performed a detailed transcriptomic characterization of pDCs in chronic SIV infection in rhesus macaques, and in sooty mangabeys, a natural host non-human primate (NHP) species that undergoes non-pathogenic SIV infection. We also investigated the immunostimulatory capacity of lymph node homing pDCs in chronic SIV infection by contrasting gene expression of pDCs isolated from lymph nodes with those from blood. We observed that pDCs in LNs, but not blood, produced high levels of IFNα transcripts, and upregulated gene expression programs consistent with T cell activation and exhaustion. We apply a novel strategy to catalogue uncharacterized surface molecules on pDCs, and identified the lymphoid exhaustion markers TIGIT and LAIR1 as highly expressed in SIV infection. pDCs from SIV-infected sooty mangabeys lacked the activation profile of ISG signatures observed in infected macaques. These data demonstrate that pDCs are a primary producer of Type I IFN in chronic SIV infection. Further, this study demonstrated that pDCs trafficking to LNs persist in a highly activated state well into chronic infection. Collectively, these data identify pDCs as a highly immunomodulatory cell population in chronic SIV infection, and a putative therapeutic target to reduce immune activation.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Animais , Cercocebus atys , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Macaca mulatta , RNA-Seq , Transcriptoma
7.
Cell Rep Med ; : 100321, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075365

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 remains poorly understood. While several studies suggest that immune dysregulation plays a central role, the key mediators of this process are yet to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that plasma from a high proportion (93%) of critically ill COVID-19 patients, but not healthy controls, contains broadly auto-reactive immunoglobulin M (IgM), and less frequently auto-reactive IgG or IgA. Importantly, these auto-IgM preferentially recognize primary human lung cells in vitro, including pulmonary endothelial and epithelial cells. By using a combination of flow cytometry, analytical proteome microarray technology, and LDH-release cytotoxicity assays, we identify high-affinity, complement-fixing, auto-reactive IgM directed against 260 candidate auto-antigens, including numerous molecules preferentially expressed on the cellular membranes of pulmonary, vascular, gastrointestinal, and renal tissues. These findings suggest that broad IgM-mediated autoimmune reactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19, thereby identifying a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

8.
Mod Pathol ; 34(9): 1614-1633, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031537

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had devastating effects on global health and worldwide economy. Despite an initial reluctance to perform autopsies due to concerns for aerosolization of viral particles, a large number of autopsy studies published since May 2020 have shed light on the pathophysiology of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This review summarizes the histopathologic findings and clinicopathologic correlations from autopsies and biopsies performed in patients with COVID-19. PubMed and Medline (EBSCO and Ovid) were queried from June 4, 2020 to September 30, 2020 and histopathologic data from autopsy and biopsy studies were collected based on 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 58 studies reporting 662 patients were included. Demographic data, comorbidities at presentation, histopathologic findings, and virus detection strategies by organ system were collected. Diffuse alveolar damage, thromboembolism, and nonspecific shock injury in multiple organs were the main findings in this review. The pathologic findings emerging from autopsy and biopsy studies reviewed herein suggest that in addition to a direct viral effect in some organs, a unifying pathogenic mechanism for COVID-19 is ARDS with its known and characteristic inflammatory response, cytokine release, fever, inflammation, and generalized endothelial disturbance. This study supports the notion that autopsy studies are of utmost importance to our understanding of disease features and treatment effect to increase our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology and contribute to more effective treatment strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2866, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001890

RESUMO

Unlike HIV infection, which progresses to AIDS absent suppressive anti-retroviral therapy, nonpathogenic infections in natural hosts, such African green monkeys, are characterized by a lack of gut microbial translocation and robust secondary lymphoid natural killer cell responses resulting in an absence of chronic inflammation and limited SIV dissemination in lymph node B-cell follicles. Here we report, using the pathogenic model of antiretroviral therapy-treated, SIV-infected rhesus macaques that sequential interleukin-21 and interferon alpha therapy generate terminally differentiated blood natural killer cells (NKG2a/clowCD16+) with potent human leukocyte antigen-E-restricted activity in response to SIV envelope peptides. This is in contrast to control macaques, where less differentiated, interferon gamma-producing natural killer cells predominate. The frequency and activity of terminally differentiated NKG2a/clowCD16+ natural killer cells correlates with a reduction of replication-competent SIV in lymph node during antiretroviral therapy and time to viral rebound following analytical treatment interruption. These data demonstrate that African green monkey-like natural killer cell differentiation profiles can be rescued in rhesus macaques to promote viral clearance in tissues.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucinas/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico
10.
J Virol ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568515

RESUMO

Inducing latency reversal to reveal infected cells to the host immune system represents a potential strategy to cure HIV infection. In separate studies, we have previously shown that CD8+ T cells may contribute to the maintenance of viral latency and identified a novel SMAC mimetic/IAP inhibitor (AZD5582) capable of reversing HIV/SIV latency in vivo by activating the non-canonical (nc) NF-κB pathway. Here, we use AZD5582 in combination with antibody-mediated depletion of CD8α+ cells to further evaluate the role of CD8+ T cells in viral latency maintenance. Six rhesus macaques (RM) were infected with SIVmac239 and treated with ART starting at week 8 post-infection. After 84-85 weeks of ART, all animals received a single dose of the anti-CD8α depleting antibody (Ab), MT807R1 (50mg/kg, s.c.), followed by 5 weekly doses of AZD5582 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.). Following CD8α depletion + AZD5582 combined treatment, 100% of RMs experienced on-ART viremia above 60 copies per ml of plasma. In comparator groups of ART-suppressed SIV-infected RMs treated with AZD5582 only or CD8α depletion only, on-ART viremia was experienced by 56% and 57% of the animals respectively. Furthermore, the frequency of increased viremic episodes during the treatment period was greater in the CD8α depletion + AZD5582 group as compared to other groups. Mathematical modeling of virus reactivation suggested that, in addition to viral dynamics during acute infection, CD8α depletion influenced the response to AZD5582. This work suggests that the latency reversal induced by activation of the ncNF-κB signaling pathway with AZD5582 can be enhanced by CD8α+ cell depletion.

11.
Cell ; 184(2): 460-475.e21, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278358

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2-induced hypercytokinemia and inflammation are critically associated with COVID-19 severity. Baricitinib, a clinically approved JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, is currently being investigated in COVID-19 clinical trials. Here, we investigated the immunologic and virologic efficacy of baricitinib in a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral shedding measured from nasal and throat swabs, bronchoalveolar lavages, and tissues was not reduced with baricitinib. Type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses remained similar between the two groups. Animals treated with baricitinib showed reduced inflammation, decreased lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, reduced NETosis activity, and more limited lung pathology. Importantly, baricitinib-treated animals had a rapid and remarkably potent suppression of lung macrophage production of cytokines and chemokines responsible for inflammation and neutrophil recruitment. These data support a beneficial role for, and elucidate the immunological mechanisms underlying, the use of baricitinib as a frontline treatment for inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Purinas/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Degranulação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
J Virol ; 95(2)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087463

RESUMO

Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to cause new pediatric cases of infection through breastfeeding, a setting where it is not always possible to initiate early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Without novel interventions that do not rely on daily ART, HIV-1-infected children face lifelong medications to control infection. A detailed analysis of virus persistence following breast milk transmission of HIV-1 and ART has not been performed. Here, we used infant rhesus macaques orally infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) (SHIV.C.CH505) to identify cellular and anatomical sites of virus persistence under ART. Viral DNA was detected at similar levels in blood and tissue CD4+ T cells after a year on ART, with virus in blood and lymphoid organs confirmed to be replication competent. Viral RNA/DNA ratios were elevated in rectal CD4+ T cells compared to those of other sites (P ≤ 0.0001), suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract is an active site of virus transcription during ART-mediated suppression of viremia. SHIV.C.CH505 DNA was detected in multiple CD4+ T cell subsets, including cells with a naive phenotype (CD45RA+ CCR7+ CD95-). While the frequency of naive cells harboring intact provirus was lower than in memory cells, the high abundance of naive cells in the infant CD4+ T cell pool made them a substantial source of persistent viral DNA (approximately 50% of the total CD4+ T cell reservoir), with an estimated 1:2 ratio of intact provirus to total viral DNA. This viral reservoir profile broadens our understanding of virus persistence in a relevant infant macaque model and provides insight into targets for cure-directed approaches in the pediatric population.IMPORTANCE Uncovering the sanctuaries of the long-lived HIV-1 reservoir is crucial to develop cure strategies. Pediatric immunity is distinct from that of adults, which may alter where the reservoir is established in infancy. Thus, it is important to utilize pediatric models to inform cure-directed approaches for HIV-1-infected children. We used an infant rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 infection via breastfeeding to identify key sites of viral persistence under antiretroviral therapy (ART). The gastrointestinal tract was found to be a site for low-level viral transcription during ART. We also show that naive CD4+ T cells harbored intact provirus and were a major contributor to blood and lymphoid reservoir size. This is particularly striking, as memory CD4+ T cells are generally regarded as the main source of latent HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of adult humans and rhesus macaques. Our findings highlight unique features of reservoir composition in pediatric infection that should be considered for eradication efforts.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/veterinária , Macaca mulatta , Doenças dos Macacos/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , DNA Viral/análise , Reservatórios de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1 , Masculino , Doenças dos Macacos/imunologia , Doenças dos Macacos/transmissão , RNA Viral/análise , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Carga Viral
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008821, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941545

RESUMO

MHC-I-restricted, virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) may control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication via the recognition and killing of productively infected CD4+ T cells. Several studies in SIV-infected macaques suggest that CD8+ T cells may also decrease virus production by suppressing viral transcription. Here, we show that non-HIV-specific, TCR-activated non-cytolytic CD8+ T cells suppress HIV transcription via a virus- and MHC-independent immunoregulatory mechanism that modulates CD4+ T cell proliferation and activation. We also demonstrate that this CD8+ T cell-mediated effect promotes the survival of infected CD4+ T cells harboring integrated, inducible virus. Finally, we used RNA sequencing and secretome analyses to identify candidate cellular pathways that are involved in the virus-silencing mediated by these CD8+ T cells. This study characterizes a previously undescribed mechanism of immune-mediated HIV silencing that may be involved in the establishment and maintenance of the reservoir under antiretroviral therapy and therefore represent a major obstacle to HIV eradication.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Macaca
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008753, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866207

RESUMO

The induction of broad and potent immunity by vaccines is the key focus of research efforts aimed at protecting against HIV-1 infection. Soluble native-like HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins have shown promise as vaccine candidates as they can induce potent autologous neutralizing responses in rabbits and non-human primates. In this study, monoclonal antibodies were isolated and characterized from rhesus macaques immunized with the BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer to better understand vaccine-induced antibody responses. Our studies reveal a diverse landscape of antibodies recognizing immunodominant strain-specific epitopes and non-neutralizing neo-epitopes. Additionally, we isolated a subset of mAbs against an epitope cluster at the gp120-gp41 interface that recognize the highly conserved fusion peptide and the glycan at position 88 and have characteristics akin to several human-derived broadly neutralizing antibodies.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/genética , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/genética , HIV-1/genética , Macaca mulatta , Multimerização Proteica/genética , Multimerização Proteica/imunologia
16.
J Virol ; 94(21)2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817214

RESUMO

The "shock-and-kill" human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cure strategy involves latency reversal followed by immune-mediated clearance of infected cells. We have previously shown that activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway using an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), AZD5582, reverses HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) latency. Here, we combined AZD5582 with bispecific HIVxCD3 DART molecules to determine the impact of this approach on persistence. Rhesus macaques (RMs) (n = 13) were infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIV.C.CH505.375H.dCT, and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated after 16 weeks. After 42 weeks of ART, 8 RMs received a cocktail of 3 HIVxCD3 DART molecules having human A32, 7B2, or PGT145 anti-HIV-1 envelope (Env) specificities paired with a human anti-CD3 specificity that is rhesus cross-reactive. The remaining 5 ART-suppressed RMs served as controls. For 10 weeks, a DART molecule cocktail was administered weekly (each molecule at 1 mg/kg of body weight), followed 2 days later by AZD5582 (0.1 mg/kg). DART molecule serum concentrations were well above those considered adequate for redirected killing activity against Env-expressing target cells but began to decline after 3 to 6 weekly doses, coincident with the development of antidrug antibodies (ADAs) against each of the DART molecules. The combination of AZD5582 and the DART molecule cocktail did not increase on-ART viremia or cell-associated SHIV RNA in CD4+ T cells and did not reduce the viral reservoir size in animals on ART. The lack of latency reversal in the model used in this study may be related to low pre-ART viral loads (median, <105 copies/ml) and low preintervention reservoir sizes (median, <102 SHIV DNA copies/million blood CD4+ T cells). Future studies to assess the efficacy of Env-targeting DART molecules or other clearance agents to reduce viral reservoirs after latency reversal may be more suited to models that better minimize immunogenicity and have a greater viral burden.IMPORTANCE The most significant barrier to an HIV-1 cure is the existence of the latently infected viral reservoir that gives rise to rebound viremia upon cessation of ART. Here, we tested a novel combination approach of latency reversal with AZD5582 and clearance with bispecific HIVxCD3 DART molecules in SHIV.C.CH505-infected, ART-suppressed rhesus macaques. We demonstrate that the DART molecules were not capable of clearing infected cells in vivo, attributed to the lack of quantifiable latency reversal in this model with low levels of persistent SHIV DNA prior to intervention as well as DART molecule immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Alcinos/farmacologia , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/imunologia , Macaca mulatta , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Vírus Reordenados/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus Reordenados/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/genética , Viremia/imunologia , Viremia/virologia , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5: 72, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802411

RESUMO

Following immunization, high-affinity antibody responses develop within germinal centers (GCs), specialized sites within follicles of the lymph node (LN) where B cells proliferate and undergo somatic hypermutation. Antigen availability within GCs is important, as B cells must acquire and present antigen to follicular helper T cells to drive this process. However, recombinant protein immunogens such as soluble human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope (Env) trimers do not efficiently accumulate in follicles following traditional immunization. Here, we demonstrate two strategies to concentrate HIV Env immunogens in follicles, via the formation of immune complexes (ICs) or by employing self-assembling protein nanoparticles for multivalent display of Env antigens. Using rhesus macaques, we show that within a few days following immunization, free trimers were present in a diffuse pattern in draining LNs, while trimer ICs and Env nanoparticles accumulated in B cell follicles. Whole LN imaging strikingly revealed that ICs and trimer nanoparticles concentrated in as many as 500 follicles in a single LN within two days after immunization. Imaging of LNs collected seven days postimmunization showed that Env nanoparticles persisted on follicular dendritic cells in the light zone of nascent GCs. These findings suggest that the form of antigen administered in vaccination can dramatically impact localization in lymphoid tissues and provides a new rationale for the enhanced immune responses observed following immunization with ICs or nanoparticles.

18.
J Virol ; 94(19)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669328

RESUMO

The "shock and kill" strategy predicates that virus reactivation in latently infected cells is required to eliminate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir. In a recent study, we showed robust and persistent induction of plasma viremia in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques (RMs) undergoing CD8α depletion and treated with the interleukin-15 (IL-15) superagonist N-803 (J. B. McBrien et al., Nature 578:154-159, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-1946-0). Of note, in that study we used an antibody targeting CD8α, thereby depleting NK cells, NKT cells, and γδ T cells, in addition to CD8+ T cells. In the current proof-of-concept study, we tested whether virus reactivation can be induced by administration of N-803 to simian-human chimeric immunodeficiency virus-infected, ART-treated RMs that are selectively depleted of CD8+ T cells via the CD8ß-targeting antibody CD8b255R1. CD8ß depletion was performed in five SHIVSF162P3-infected RMs treated with ART for 12 months and with plasma viremia consistently below 3 copies/ml. All animals received four weekly doses of N-803 starting at the time of CD8b255R1 administration. The induction of detectable plasma viremia was observed in three out of five RMs, with the level of virus reactivation seemingly correlated with the frequency of CD8+ T cells following CD8ß depletion as well as the level of virus reactivation observed when the same animals underwent CD8α depletion and N-803 administration after 24 weeks of ART. These data indicate that CD8ß depletion and N-803 administration can induce virus reactivation in SHIVSF162P3-infected RMs despite suboptimal depletion of CD8+ T cells and profound ART-induced suppression of virus replication, confirming a critical role for these cells in suppressing virus production and/or reactivation in vivo under ART.IMPORTANCE The "shock and kill" HIV cure strategy attempts to reverse and eliminate the latent viral infection that prevents eradication of the virus. Latency-reversing agents tested in clinical trials to date have failed to affect the HIV viral reservoir. IL-15 superagonist N-803, currently involved in a clinical trial for HIV cure, was recently shown by our laboratory to induce robust and persistent induction of plasma viremia during ART in three in vivo animal models of HIV infection. These results suggest a substantial role for CD8+ lymphocytes in suppressing the latency reversal effect of N-803 by promoting the maintenance of viral latency. In this study, we tested whether the use of a CD8ß-targeting antibody, which would specifically deplete CD8+ T cells, would yield similar levels of virus reactivation. We observed the induction of plasma viremia, which correlated with the efficacy of the CD8 depletion strategy.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Antígenos CD8/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Depleção Linfocítica , Macaca mulatta , Carga Viral , Viremia/virologia , Latência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Virol ; 94(19)2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669339

RESUMO

Brain injury occurs within days in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and some recovery may occur within weeks. Inflammation and oxidative stress associate with such injury, but what drives recovery is unknown. Chronic HIV infection associates with reduced brain frontal cortex expression of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and increased neuroinflammation in individuals with cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that acute regional brain injury and recovery associate with differences in regional brain HO-1 expression. Using SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we analyzed multiple brain regions through acute and chronic infection (90 days postinfection [dpi]) and quantified viral (SIV gag RNA), synaptic (PSD-95; synaptophysin), axonal (neurofilament/neurofilament light chain [NFL]), inflammatory, and antioxidant (enzymes, including heme oxygenase isoforms [HO-1, HO-2]) markers. PSD-95 was reduced in the brainstem, basal ganglia, neocortex, and cerebellum within 13 dpi, indicating acute synaptic injury throughout the brain. All areas except the brainstem recovered. Unchanged NFL was consistent with no acute axonal injury. SIV RNA expression was highest in the brainstem throughout infection, and it associated with neuroinflammation. Surprisingly, during the synaptic injury and recovery phases, HO-2, and not HO-1, progressively decreased in the brainstem. Thus, acute SIV synaptic injury occurs throughout the brain, with spontaneous recovery in regions other than the brainstem. Within the brainstem, the high SIV load and inflammation, along with reduction of HO-2, may impair recovery. In other brain regions, stable HO-2 expression, with or without increasing HO-1, may promote recovery. Our data support roles for heme oxygenase isoforms in modulating recovery from synaptic injury in SIV infection and suggest their therapeutic targeting for promoting neuronal recovery.IMPORTANCE Brain injury induced by acute simian (or human) immunodeficiency virus infection may persist or spontaneously resolve in different brain regions. Identifying the host factor(s) that promotes spontaneous recovery from such injury may reveal targets for therapeutic drug strategies for promoting recovery from acute neuronal injury. The gradual recovery from such injury observed in many, but not all, brain regions in the rhesus macaque model is consistent with the possible existence of a therapeutic window of opportunity for intervening to promote recovery, even in those regions not showing spontaneous recovery. In persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection, such neuroprotective treatments could ultimately be considered as adjuncts to the initiation of antiretroviral drug therapy.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/metabolismo , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Inflamação , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade
20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612608

RESUMO

T follicular helper (TFH) cells are powerful regulators of affinity matured long-lived plasma cells. Eliciting protective, long-lasting antibody responses to achieve persistent immunity is the goal of most successful vaccines. Thus, there is potential in manipulating TFH cell responses. Herein, we describe an HIV vaccine development approach exploiting the cytokine activin A to improve antibody responses against recombinant HIV Envelope (Env) trimers in non-human primates. Administration of activin A improved the magnitude of Env-specific antibodies over time and promoted a significant increase in Env-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow. The boost in antibody responses was associated with reduced frequencies of T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells and increased germinal center T follicular helper (GC-TFH) to TFR cell ratios. Overall, these findings suggest that adjuvants inducing activin A production could potentially be incorporated in future rational design vaccine strategies aimed at improving germinal centers, long-lived plasma cells, and sustained antibody responses.


Assuntos
Ativinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunofenotipagem , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Multimerização Proteica/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química
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