Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 30
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420313

RESUMO

Delayed sternal closure after pediatric cardiac surgery is a management option for the treatment of patients with severely impaired heart function. The optimal antimicrobial treatment strategy for this condition is unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current antibiotic administration attitudes in pediatric cardiac surgery patients needing an open chest in terms of infection with a focus on surgical site infection rate. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all articles, which described the antibiotic administration strategy and surgical site infection rate in pediatric patients with an open chest after cardiac surgery. The authors performed a subgroup analysis on "standard" versus "non-standard" (defined as any antimicrobial drugs different from the adult guidelines recommendations) therapy for one-proportion meta-analysis with a random effect model. The authors identified 12 studies published from January 1, 2000 to July 1, 2019 including a total of 2,203 patients requiring an open chest after cardiac surgery, 350 of whom (15.9%) developed infections and 182 (8.3%) developed a surgical site infection. The surgical site infection rate in patients with "non-standard" strategy was higher than in patients with "standard" strategy: 8.8% (140 reported infections/1,582 patients) versus 6.8% (42 reported infections/621 patients), p = 0.001. The "standard" antibiotic management proposed by guidelines for adult cardiac surgery patients could be used an acceptable strategy to treat pediatric patients with an open chest after cardiac surgery.

2.
Perfusion ; : 267659119854246, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Low-weight (<10 kg) children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass are prone to dilution and consumption of soluble coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Low levels of fibrinogen may represent a possible cause of severe postoperative chest drain blood loss. The present study investigates the association between post-cardiopulmonary bypass fibrinogen levels and postoperative chest drain blood loss and severe bleeding, aiming to identify possible cut-off values to trigger specific interventions. METHODS: Prospective cohort study on 77 patients weighing <10 kg undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Haemostasis and coagulation data were collected before surgery (standard tests and thromboelastometry), after protamine (thromboelastometry) and at the arrival in the intensive care unit (standard tests). The primary outcome variable was severe bleeding (chest drain blood loss >30 ml kg-1/24h). RESULTS: Factors being independently associated with severe bleeding were the international normalized ratio and the fibrinogen levels at the arrival in the intensive care unit. Once corrected for other confounders, fibrinogen levels had an odds ratio of 0.2 (95% confidence interval = 0.011-0.54) per 1 gL-1 for severe bleeding. The discrimination power was fair (area under the curve = 0.770). The best cut-off value was identified at a fibrinogen level of 150 mg dL-1, with a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 85% and a positive predictive value of 60% for severe bleeding. CONCLUSION: Both a prolonged international normalized ratio and low fibrinogen levels were predictive for severe bleeding, underscoring the role of coagulation factors dilution and consumption in this specific patient population.

3.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
5.
Int J Artif Organs ; 42(6): 299-306, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537880

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after heart surgery is a relatively common procedure. It is easily applicable but associated with a number of complications, including bloodstream infections. The aim of this study is to determine the current rate and the risk factors related to bloodstream infections acquired during post-cardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. METHODS: Single-center retrospective study. From the overall population receiving any kind of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from March 2013 through December 2017, the post-cardiotomy patient population was extracted, with a final sample of 92 veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenations. The risk of developing bloodstream infections as a function of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation exposure was analyzed with appropriate statistical analyses, including a Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 14 (15.2%) patients developed a bloodstream infection during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or within the first 48 h after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation removal. The total extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration in the population was 567 days, and the incidence of bloodstream infections was 24.7 bloodstream infections/1000 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation days. There was a progressive increase in the cumulative hazard ratio during the first 7 days, reaching a value of 20% on day 7; from day 7 and day 15, the hazard ratio remained stable, with a second increase after day 15. The independent risk factors associated with bloodstream infections were adult age, pre-implantation serum total bilirubin level, and the amount of chest drain blood loss. DISCUSSION: Infections acquired during veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are common. Identify the risk factors that may improve strategies for treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Thorac Dis ; 10(Suppl 26): S3278-S3280, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370137
7.
Trials ; 19(1): 329, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placement of central venous catheters (CVCs) is essential and routine practice in the management of children with congenital heart disease. The purpose of the present protocol is to evaluate the risk for infectious complications in terms of catheter colonization, catheter line-associated bloodstream infections, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs), and the mechanical complications from different central venous access sites in infants and newborns undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: One hundred sixty patients under 1 year of age and scheduled for cardiac surgery will be included in this randomized controlled trial (RCT); patients will be randomly allocated to the jugular or femoral vein arms. CVC insertion will be performed by one of three selected expert operators. DISCUSSION: The choice of the insertion site for central venous catheterization can influence the incidence and type of infectious complications in adults but this is not unanimously evidenced in the pediatric setting. The experimental hypothesis of this RCT is that the jugular insertion site is less likely to induce catheter colonization and CRBSI than the femoral site. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03282292 . Registered on 12 September 2017.

8.
Anesth Analg ; 127(1): 146-150, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have compared success and complication rates for central line insertion sites with and without ultrasound, few have examined the use of the brachiocephalic vein for central venous access. The aim of this study was to describe the brachiocephalic vein as an alternative site for elective ultrasound vascular cannulation in adults, and to compare it with the more commonly used internal jugular vein site in terms of procedural difficulties, first pass failure rate, overall failure rate, and safety. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, clinical data from consecutive adult patients undergoing elective ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization of upper body were retrieved from the department database. All of these central venous catheters were requested by department team, none was positioned for surgery. Seven hundred nine patients underwent central venous catheterization via the internal jugular approach and 285 patients via the brachiocephalic route. Patients catheterized via the brachiocephalic vein approach were then compared with those catheterized via the internal jugular vein in terms of ease of catheterization, success rate, and complications. Differences between approaches were assessed by univariate analyses and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 994 patients underwent central venous catheterization. A total of 87% had a successful catheter implantation at the first attempt, 6.7% of insertions were difficult, 5.7% were complicated, and 3.4% failed. Procedural difficulty was more frequent with the internal jugular than with the brachiocephalic approach (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.76; P = .007) after correction for potential confounders. Differences between groups in complication rate (6.3% vs 4.1%) or failure rate (3.4% vs 3.5%) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Brachiocephalic cannulation is a reasonable alternative to ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization.

9.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.(AU)


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/métodos
11.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 21(9): 613-615, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970665

RESUMO

The Janus mask is a full face mask designed for providing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during any kind of upper endoscopies (e.g., fiber-optic bronchoscopy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, and transesophageal echocardiography). Due to its unique conformation, its use can be considered for both elective and urgent endoscopic procedures in high-risk patients. In this case report, we present a patient with acute respiratory failure who underwent two consecutive different endoscopic procedures (fiber-optic bronchoscopy and gastrointestinal endoscopy) during continuous positive airway pressure support by means of this novel NIV mask, thus avoiding tracheal intubation and at the same time, improving his respiratory condition.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 249: 96-100, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28986056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) thrombocytopenia is a relatively common pattern which may trigger postoperative bleeding. The purpose of this study is to verify if the endogenous fibrinogen levels are independent determinants of chest drain blood loss and need for allogeneic blood products transfusions in a clinical model of post-CPB thrombocytopenia. METHODS: Retrospective analysis on 445 consecutive patients having a platelet count <100×1000cells/µL after CPB. Based on the fibrinogen levels the patients were divided into three groups with similar platelet count and low (LF, median 170mg/dL), intermediate (IF, median 215mg/dL), and high (HF, median 280mg/dL), fibrinogen levels. Chest drain blood loss (mL/12h), transfusion rate of red blood cells (RBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates were assessed and compared between groups. RESULTS: There was a significant (P=0.001) difference in chest drain blood loss with higher values in the LF group (487mL/12h, IQR 300-600mL/12h) than in the IF group (350mL/12h, IQR 200-500mL/12h) and the HF group (300mL/12h, IQR 200-475mL/12h). Transfusion rates of FFP significantly (P=0.014) differed between groups (LF: 18.4%, IF: 7.9%, HF: 9.2%) and platelet concentrate transfusions significantly (P=0.020) differed between groups (LF: 23.5%, IF: 16.5%, HF: 10.7%). In multivariable models, these differences were confirmed. Thromboelastography parameters showed an effective compensation of clot firmness in group HF vs. IF and LF. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of fibrinogen >240mg/dL compensate the decrease in clot firmness observed in thrombocytopenic patients following CPB, and reduce bleeding and transfusion needs.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/sangue , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/prevenção & controle
13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(5): 1588-1594, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hemodilution has been associated with both hypocoagulability and hypercoagulability in studies based on thromboelastography (TEG). Severe hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a risk factor for morbidity in cardiac surgery. This study investigated the effects of different degrees of hemodilution with CPB on post-CPB TEG parameters and coagulation-related outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University research hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 793 cardiac surgery patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The patient population was divided into low (LH), moderate (MH), and severe (SH) hemodilution groups based on the hemodilution degree on CPB. Differences in TEG parameters and coagulation-related outcomes were assessed. Patients with SH experienced significantly (p = 0.019) prolonged clotting times (median r-time 6.1 min, interquartile range 5.1-7.4 min) with respect to patients with MH (median r-time 5.8 min, interquartile range 4.8-7 min) and LH (median r-time 5.9 min, interquartile range 4.8-7.2 min). Clot firmness was significantly (p = 0.001) lower in patients with SH (median maximum amplitude 63 mm, interquartile range 57-68 mm) compared with patients with MH (median maximum amplitude 65 mm, interquartile range 61-71 mm) and LH (median maximum amplitude 67 mm, interquartile range 62-74 mm). Patients with SH had higher chest drain blood loss and required more fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrate transfusions than did patients with MH or LH. Postoperative thromboembolic complications were significantly (p = 0.006) more common in patients with SH (2.6%) than in patients with MH (0%) or LH (0.4%). CONCLUSIONS: SH on CPB is associated with hypocoagulation, bleeding, and thrombosis-associated worse outcomes.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/tendências , Hemodiluição/tendências , Tromboelastografia/tendências , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/tendências , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Soluções Cristaloides , Feminino , Hemodiluição/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Soluções Isotônicas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 4(4): 595-604, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834396

RESUMO

AIMS: Intermittent levosimendan administration has been suggested to improve survival in patients with advanced heart failure (AdHF). Quality of life is a key issue for AdHF patients and is negatively affected by frequent hospitalizations. METHODS AND RESULTS: CENTRAL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of clinical trials (updated 15/1/2017) were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of intermittent levosimendan administration in patients with AdHF. The primary outcome was the number of patients requiring rehospitalization 3 months after the end of treatment. A total of 319 patients from six trials were included. Overall pooled analysis showed that the use of levosimendan was associated with a significant reduction in the number of rehospitalizations at 3 months: 33/207 (16%) vs. 39/113 (35%), risk ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.59, P < 0.001, I2  = 0%. This result was confirmed by sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this meta-analysis including also studies in which endpoints were not independently adjudicated and not clearly specified, repetitive or intermittent administration of levosimendan for patients with AdHF was associated with a reduction in the rehospitalization rate at 3 months. Large, high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Causas de Morte/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Simendana , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
15.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 27(8): 849-855, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital heart defects are frequently hospitalized before surgery. This exposes them to a high risk for pathogen colonization. There are limited data on colonization prevalence in the pediatric cardiac population, and limited data concerning its potential role in the risk of developing infections after cardiac surgery. AIM: This study aimed to verify the impact of preoperative colonization on postoperative infections in a population of pediatric cardiac surgery patients coming from Italy and developing countries. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in all the patients aged ≤18 years who underwent pediatric open-heart surgery in the year 2015. Clinical data were retrieved from the institutional database for cardiac surgery patients. Data on swab cultures were retrieved from the laboratory database. Swab colonization was tested for association with infection and other outcomes. RESULTS: Among 169 children who performed the screening for pathogen colonization, 50% had at least one positive swab. Italian patients were (P=.001) less likely to be colonized with respect to foreign patients (relative risk 0.17, 95% CI 0.09-0.35). Postoperative infections in colonized patients occurred at a similar rate as in noncolonized patients (relative risk 1.24, 95% CI 0.64-2.39; P=.532). Colonized patients had a preoperative stay (P=.021) longer than noncolonized patients (mean difference 2 days, 95% CI 0.3-3.8 days). CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that the impact of preoperative colonization on outcome and postoperative infections may be negligible; larger series are required to clearly define this issue.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/microbiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cuidados Críticos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27932426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We report the experience in a cohort of consecutive patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during catheter ablation of unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT) at our center. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 2010 to 2015, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated in 64 patients (average age: 63±15 years; left ventricular ejection fraction in 27±9%; cardiogenic shock in 23%, and electrical storm in 62% of patients) undergoing 74 unstable VT catheter ablation procedures. At least one VT was terminated in 81% of procedures with baseline inducible VT, and VT noninducibility was achieved in 69%. Acute heart failure occurred in 5 patients: 3 underwent emergency heart transplantation, 1 had left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, and 1 patient eventually died because of subsequent mesenteric ischemia. All other patients were discharged alive. After a median follow-up of 21 months (13-28 months), VT recurrence was 33%; overall survival was 56 out of 64 patients (88%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported ablation was the bridge to LVAD in 6.9% and to heart transplantation in 3.5% of patients. VT recurrence was related to ablation success (after 180 days of follow up: 19% when VT was noninducible, 42% if nonclinical VT was inducible, 75% when clinical VT was inducible, and 75% in untested patients, P<0.001). Incidence of all-cause death, heart transplantation, and LVAD was independently related to ablation outcome (at 180 days of follow-up: 9% when noninducibility was achieved, 50% in case of inducible VT, and 75% in untested patients, P<0.001). At multivariable analyses, noninducibility (hazard ratio 0.198; P=0.001) and left ventricular ejection fraction (hazard ratio 0.916; P=0.008) correlated with all-cause death, LVAD, and heart transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Ablation of unstable VTs can be safely supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, which allows rhythm stabilization with low procedure mortality, bridging decompensated patients to permanent LVAD or heart transplantation. Successful ablation is associated with better outcomes than unsuccessful ablation.

18.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 30(5): 1386-95, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27499346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Democracy-based medicine is a combination of evidence-based medicine (systematic review), expert assessment, and worldwide voting by physicians to express their opinions and self-reported practice via the Internet. The authors applied democracy-based medicine to key trials in critical care medicine. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of literature followed by web-based voting on findings of a consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 555 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature review (via searching MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Embase) and selected all multicenter randomized clinical trials in critical care that reported a significant effect on survival and were endorsed by expert clinicians. Then they solicited voting and self-reported practice on such evidence via an interactive Internet questionnaire. Relationships among trial sample size, design, and respondents' agreement were investigated. The gap between agreement and use/avoidance and the influence of country origin on physicians' approach to interventions also were investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: According to 24 multicenter randomized controlled trials, 15 interventions affecting mortality were identified. Wide variabilities in both the level of agreement and reported practice among different interventions and countries were found. Moreover, agreement and reported practice often did not coincide. Finally, a positive correlation among agreement, trial sample size, and number of included centers was found. On the contrary, trial design did not influence clinicians' agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' clinical practice and agreement with the literature vary among different interventions and countries. The role of these interventions in affecting survival should be further investigated to reduce both the gap between evidence and clinical practice and transnational differences.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Internacionalidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Médicos
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 202: 138-43, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced heart failure is a malignant disease characterized by a debilitating late course, with increasingly frequent hospitalisations and high rate of mortality. Levosimendan, an inodilator developed for the treatment of acutely decompensated chronic heart failure, has been recently proposed also as a repetitive treatment of advanced heart failure. Several studies on the use of levosimendan in this settings report mortality data. Independent meta-analyses on the effect on mortality of repetitive or intermittent levosimendan administration in advanced heart failure has been published but were criticized in regard to the selection of the studies. Meanwhile new data became available. We therefore updated the selection of studies and re-analyzed all the available data. METHODS & RESULTS: Data from seven randomized trial and a total of 438 adult patients using intermittent levosimendan in a cardiological setting were included in the present analysis. The average follow-up period was 8±3.8 months. The use of levosimendan was associated with a significant reduction in mortality at the longest follow-up available [41 of 257 (16%) in the levosimendan group vs. 39 of 181 (21.5%) in the control arm, OR=0.54 (95% CI 0.32-0.91), p for effect=0.02, p for heterogeneity=0.64, I2=0%]. CONCLUSIONS: The updated results suggest that repetitive or intermittent levosimendan administration in advanced heart failure is associated with a significant reduction in mortality at the longest follow-up available. There is therefore a strong rationale for a randomized clinical trial with adequate power on mortality.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrazonas/administração & dosagem , Piridazinas/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Simendana , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0142605, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26558621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypotensive state is frequently observed in several critical conditions. If an adequate mean arterial pressure is not promptly restored, insufficient tissue perfusion and organ dysfunction may develop. Fluids and catecholamines are the cornerstone of critical hypotensive states management. Catecholamines side effects such as increased myocardial oxygen consumption and development of arrhythmias are well known. Thus, in recent years, interest in catecholamine-sparing agents such as vasopressin, terlipressin and methylene blue has increased; however, few randomized trials, mostly with small sample sizes, have been performed. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of randomized trials to investigate the effect of non-catecholaminergic vasopressors on mortality. METHODS: PubMed, BioMed Central and Embase were searched (update December 31st, 2014) by two independent investigators. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to treatment, at least one group receiving a non-catecholaminergic vasopressor, patients with or at risk for vasodilatory shock. Exclusion criteria were: crossover studies, pediatric population, non-human studies, studies published as abstract only, lack of data on mortality. Studied drugs were vasopressin, terlipressin and methylene blue. Primary endpoint was mortality at the longest follow-up available. RESULTS: A total of 1,608 patients from 20 studies were included in our analysis. The studied settings were sepsis (10/20 studies [50%]), cardiac surgery (7/20 [35%]), vasodilatory shock due to any cause (2/20 [19%]), and acute traumatic injury (1/20 [5%]). Overall, pooled estimates showed that treatment with non-catecholaminergic agents improves survival (278/810 [34.3%] versus 309/798 [38.7%], risk ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.79 to 0.98, p = 0.02). None of the drugs was associated with significant reduction in mortality when analyzed independently. Results were not confirmed when analyzing studies with a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Catecholamine-sparing agents in patients with or at risk for vasodilatory shock may improve survival. Further researches on this topic are needed to confirm the finding.


Assuntos
Choque/etiologia , Vasoconstritores/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lipressina/efeitos adversos , Lipressina/análogos & derivados , Lipressina/uso terapêutico , Azul de Metileno/efeitos adversos , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Terlipressina , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Vasopressinas/efeitos adversos , Vasopressinas/uso terapêutico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA