Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420591

RESUMO

By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus , Adulto , Aedes , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , América Latina , Masculino , Microcefalia/etiologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Espanha , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177575

RESUMO

A mediados del 2015 se detectó en el noroeste de Brasil un incremento en el número de casos de microcefalia en recién nacidos y de alteraciones neurológicas, que se asociaron con una posible infección por el virus Zika y que más adelante comenzaría a observarse en otros países de Latinoamérica. En febrero de 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró esta situación como una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional (ESPII) y desde ese momento se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas para el control de la epidemia tanto a nivel internacional, como nacional en los diferentes países. La OMS lanzó un Plan de respuesta estratégico basado en la detección de casos, control de la infección y tratamiento, así como en la investigación y desarrollo de herramientas para el control de mosquitos, test diagnósticos y vacunas. En Europa se reforzaron los sistemas de vigilancia así como de control de los vectores, siendo los países que más casos notificaron: Francia, España y el Reino Unido. En España debido a la alta probabilidad de importación de casos por la estrecha relación con Latinoamérica, se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas que permitieron una rápida respuesta y un óptimo control, que incluyeron: la puesta en marcha de una vigilancia activa en la que colaboraron diversos profesionales, organismos y sociedades científicas; el refuerzo de actividades de vigilancia entomológica; el desarrollo de actividades de comunicación y la elaboración de recomendaciones dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y a la población general


By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , Saúde do Viajante , Complicações na Gravidez , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 912017 Jan 09.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28053304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The purpose was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. METHODS: An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. RESULTS: During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). CONCLUSIONS: Although crude OD rates were lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates were adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Razão de Chances , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 91: 0-0, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159019

RESUMO

Fundamentos: Según las estadísticas oficiales, los hombres sufren más enfermedades profesionales (EEPP) que las mujeres. No obstante, hay que tener presente su desigual distribución y participación en el mundo laboral. El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar cómo afecta el sexo al reconocimiento de EEPP en España, identificando posibles factores de interacción/confusión. Métodos: Se estudió la incidencia de las EEPP declaradas a través del Parte Oficial durante el período de 1999 al 2009, proporcionados por la Subdirección General de Estadísticas Sociales y Laborales del Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social. Las variables incluidas fueron: año de declaración, sexo, edad, ocupación y actividad económica de la empresa. Se calcularon tasas y riesgos relativos (RR) crudos de EEPP por cada variable. Se estimaron los RR ajustados mediante análisis bivariable y multivariante de Poisson. Resultados: Durante 1999-2009 se notificaron en España 243.310 EEPP, con una razón de tasas hombres/mujeres de 1,07. Hubo correlación entre la ocupación y la actividad de la empresa, por lo que se analizaron las EEPP según estas variables por separado. Por ocupación, los hombres presentaron un RR crudo de 1,067 (IC95%:1,058-1,076) frente a las mujeres, mientras que al ajustar por todas las variables del modelo el RR fue de 0,507 (IC95%:0,502-0,512). Por actividad, el sentido del riesgo también se invirtió en el análisis ajustado para el sexo (RRc=1,065, IC95%:1,056-1,074 frente a 0,632, IC95%:0,626-0,638). Conclusiones: Aunque las tasas crudas de EEPP son inferiores en mujeres que en hombres durante el periodo 1999-2009 en España, al ajustar estas tasas por la actividad de la empresa o la ocupación del trabajador, la edad y el año de declaración, los RR pasan a ser casi un 50% superiores en mujeres que en hombres para la mayoría de ocupaciones y tipos de actividad de la empresa (AU)


Background: According to official statistics, men suffer more occupational diseases (OD) than women. Nevertheless, the unequal distribution and participation in the labor markets between men and women should be kept in mind. The aim was to assess the gender impact in the recognition of OD in Spain, examining interaction and confounding factors. Methods: An incidence study of the occupational diseases declared through the official OD reporting forms from 1999 to 2009, provided by the General Subdirectorate of Social and Labor Statistics of the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, was conducted. The variables included were: reporting year, sex, age, occupation and economic activity of the company. Rates and crude relative risks (cRR) by these variables were calculated. Adjusted RR were also computed by using multivariate Poisson regression. Results: During the study period a total of 243,310 OD were reported in Spain, with a sex ratio of men to women of 1.07. Correlation existed between occupation and business activity, thus the OD rates and RR were computed by these variables separately. By occupation, men had a crude RR of 1.067 (95%CI:1.058 to 1.076) versus women, while wen the analysis was adjusted by all the variables, the RR was 0.507 (95%CI:0.502 to 0.512). By economic activity of the company, the sense of risk was reversed too in the adjusted analysis (cRR=1.065, 95%CI:1.056 to 1.074 versus 0.632, 95%CI:0.626 to 0.638). Conclusions: Although crude OD rates are lower in women than in men during the period 1999-2009 in Spain, when these rates are adjusted by company activity or worker occupation, age and year of OD declaration, RRs become almost 50% higher in women than in men for the majority of occupations and types of company activity (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , Espanha , Ocupações , Incidência , Risco , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 88(5): 555-67, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25327266

RESUMO

Dengue has become a major public health problem worldwide. Ae. albopictus, vector responsible for transmission, was first detected in Catalonia in 2004. Since then, it has established along Mediterranean coast. The aim of this paper is to describe the risk of importation and possible autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in Spain, qualitatively reviewing factors that could influence the emergence of dengue in our country, and the implications for public health. No autochthonous transmission has occurred in our country to date, but infected travelers coming from endemic countries are arriving to Spain constantly. The transmission of this disease could occur on the Mediterranean coast. Transmission would be more likely in the warmer months due to cultural habits and higher vector densities. While most of the population would be susceptible, given the characteristics of the disease, the impact on health's population would be low. The main public health strategy to reduce the risk of importation and possible dengue transmission should focus on primary prevention, to prevent interaction of the virus, vector and human. These three components must be addressed in a comprehensive and multisectoral plan of action, intensifying some activities in the areas of greatest risk. Coordination of public health from all sectors involved is essential for the proper functioning of this integrated response plan for vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Risco , Espanha , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 88(5): 555-567, sept.-oct. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-124320

RESUMO

El dengue se ha convertido en un importante problema de salud pública mundial. Ae. albopictus, vector competente para su transmisión, se detectó por primera vez en Cataluña en 2004. Desde entonces se ha establecido por la costa Mediterránea. El objetivo del artículo es describir el riesgo de importación y posible transmisión del dengue en España, revisando cualitativamente los factores que podrían influir en su emergencia en nuestro país, así como las implicaciones que tendría a nivel de salud pública. Aunque el virus no circula actualmente en España, constantemente llegan personas infectadas procedentes de países endémicos. La transmisión de esta enfermedad podría ocurrir en la costa mediterránea. Sería más probable en los meses más cálidos por los hábitos socioculturales y las mayor presencia del vector.Aunque la mayoría de la población es susceptible, el impacto en la salud de la población sería bajo dadas las características de la enfermedad. La estrategia fundamental de salud pública para reducir el riesgo de importación y posible transmisión del dengue debe enfocarse a la prevención primaria para evitar la interacción del virus, el vector y los seres humanos. Estos tres componentes deben abordarse dentro de un plan de acción integral y multisectorial, intensificando algunas actividades en las zonas de mayor riesgo. La coordinación desde salud pública de todos los sectores implicados es imprescindible para el correcto funcionamiento de este plan integral de respuesta ante enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (AU)


Dengue has become a major public health problem worldwide. Ae. albopictus, vector responsible for transmission, was first detected in Catalonia in 2004. Since then, it has established along Mediterranean coast. The aim of this paper is to describe the risk of importation and possible autochthonous transmission of dengue virus in Spain, qualitatively reviewing factors that could influence the emergence of dengue in our country, and the implications for public health. No autochthonous transmission has occurred in our country to date, but infected travelers coming from endemic countries are arriving to Spain constantly. The transmission of this disease could occur on the Mediterranean coast. Transmission would be more likely in the warmer months due to cultural habits and higher vector densities. While most of the population would be susceptible, given the characteristics of the disease, the impact on health’s population would be low. The main public health strategy to reduce the risk of importation and possible dengue transmission should focus on primary prevention, to prevent interaction of the virus, vector and human. These three components must be addressed in a comprehensive and multisectoral plan of action, intensifying some activities in the areas of greatest risk. Coordination of public health from all sectors involved is essential for the proper functioning of this integrated response plan for vector-borne diseases (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Dengue/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Risco Ajustado , Vetores de Doenças , Espanha , Controle Sanitário de Viajantes , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
9.
Eur J Public Health ; 24(4): 637-40, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24503376

RESUMO

Emergence and re-emergence of arboviral disease in new areas of southern Europe is becoming a public health problem. Since Aedes albopictus was first detected in 2004 in Catalonia, it has spread along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Results of an entomological surveillance carried out by the Spanish Ministry of Health to monitor the expansion of Ae. albopictus along the Spanish Mediterranean coast between 2009 and 2012 are presented. Besides the new locations in Valencia and Murcia regional communities, it was identified in five municipalities in the Balearic Islands in 2012. A comprehensive plan aiming the control of invasive vector-borne diseases including entomological surveillance should be considered.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Ecossistema , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 84(5): 589-596, sept.-oct. 2010. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-82401

RESUMO

Fundamento: El sistema español de monitorización de la mor-talidad y el «Programa Europeo de monitorización de excesos de mortalidad para la acción en salud pública» detectaron dos excesos de mortalidad en España en noviembre y diciembre de 2009. El obje-tivo de este trabajo es valorar su posible asociación con la transmi-sión de gripe pandémica. Métodos: Se analizó la evolución de la mortalidad en España en los meses citados utilizando métodos de análisis de series temporales basados en las series históricas de mortalidad y se comparó en el tiempo con la transmisión de gripe. Resultados: La mortalidad observada en la población total fue mayor de lo esperado en dos periodos: semanas 46-47/2009 con 5,75% de exceso y las semanas 51-52/2009 con 7,35% de exceso. También se registró un exceso de mortalidad en niños de 5 a 14 años en las semanas 46-48/2009 con 41 defunciones vs las 21 esperadas. El exceso de mortalidad en noviembre fue concomitante con las mayores tasas de gripe. El exceso de diciembre se observó 5 semanas después del pico de gripe y coincidió con un descenso dramático de las temperaturas. El virus sincitial respiratorio y los accidentes de tráfico fueron descartados como factores asociados. Conclusiones: Mientras que las temperaturas podrían explicar la mayoría del exceso de mortalidad observado en diciembre, ningún factor por si solo podría explicar el exceso de noviembre(AU)


Background: The Spanish daily mortality monitoring system and the program «European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action» found two excesses of mortality in Spain in November and December 2009. Methods: We analyzed the evolution of mortality in Spain during those months using time-series analysis methods based on historical mortality series and compared it in the time with influenza transmission. Results: Observed mortality for the total population was higher than expected in two periods: weeks 46-47/2009 with 5.75% excess and weeks 51-52/2009 with 7.35% excess. Observed mortality hig-her than expected, was also observed in children 5-14 years old during weeks 46-48/2009 with 41 deaths vs 21 expected. Exces mor-tality in November occurred before or was concomitant with highest influenza incidence rates. Excess mortality in December occurred five weeks after the influenza incidence peak and along with drama-tic drop in temperatures. RSV and traffic accidents were ruled out as factor associated to these excesses. Conclusions: While temperatures could explain most of the excess mortality observed in December, no single factor could be associated with observed excess mortality in November(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Clima Frio/efeitos adversos , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/imunologia , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano/imunologia
11.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 84(5): 589-96, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21203721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Spanish daily mortality monitoring system and the program «European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action¼ found two excesses of mortality in Spain in November and December 2009. METHODS: We analyzed the evolution of mortality in Spain during those months using time-series analysis methods based on historical mortality series and compared it in the time with influenza transmission. RESULTS: Observed mortality for the total population was higher than expected in two periods: weeks 46-47/2009 with 5.75% excess and weeks 51-52/2009 with 7.35% excess. Observed mortality higher than expected, was also observed in children 5-14 years old during weeks 46-48/2009 with 41 deaths vs 21 expected. Exces mortality in November occurred before or was concomitant with highest influenza incidence rates. Excess mortality in December occurred five weeks after the influenza incidence peak and along with dramatic drop in temperatures. RSV and traffic accidents were ruled out as factor associated to these excesses. CONCLUSIONS: While temperatures could explain most of the excess mortality observed in December, no single factor could be associated with observed excess mortality in November.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 83(5): 737-744, sept.-oct. 2009. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-74754

RESUMO

Fundamentos: La incidencia de tuberculosis (TB) se haasociado a factores, epidemiológicos y sociales. En España, laTB es una enfermedad de declaración obligatoria e individualizada.Las tasas de TB respiratoria experimentan un descensoconstante en los últimos años. El objetivo es valorar la asociaciónentre la morbilidad por TB respiratoria y variables socioeconómicasy epidemiológicas así como su distribución espacialmediante métodos geoestadísticos.Método: Las tasas de incidencia se estandarizaron poredad y sexo con datos de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia (2006).Las variables socioeconómicas incluidas son: condiciónsocioeconómica, nivel de estudios, tasa de hacinamiento, densidadde población, tasa de inmigración estandarizada porsexo, tasa de analfabetismo, tasa de paro, gasto medio en eurospor persona. Las variables epidemiológicas incluidas han sidola tasa de SIDA y la tasa de incidencia de gripe. Se realizó unanálisis multivariable mediante un Modelo Lineal Generalizadopoisson. Se aplicó la técnica geoestadística Cokringingajustada por las variables estadísticamente significativas paraver la distribución espacial de riesgo.Resultados: Las variables estadísticamente significativasson la tasa de hacinamiento, tasa de inmigración, tasa de analfabetismo,tasa de paro, gasto medio euros por persona, tasa degripe y tasa de sida. La técnica geoestadística muestra unavariabilidad espacial del riesgo y una concentración del riesgoen el noroeste y sureste de la península.Conclusiones: Los resultados permiten afirmar que elmétodo Cokriging es una herramienta útil para representar ladistribución espacial del riesgo. Existe asociación entre variablessocioeconómicas , epidemiológicas y TB en España(AU)


Background: Tuberculosis incidence has been associatedwith many factors, both epidemiological and social. In Spain,tuberculosis is a statutorily notifiable disease requiringindividualised reporting. During the last few years rates ofrespiratory tuberculosis show a steady decline. This study soughtto assess respiratory tuberculosis morbidity and mortality inassociation to socio-economic and epidemiological covariatesand estimate its spatial distribution across the country, using geostatisticalmethods.Methods: Respiratory tuberculosis incidence rates werestandardised by age and sex with the data of the NationalEpidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE, RedNacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica) for 2006. Thefollowing socio-economic variables were included in thestudy: socio-economic status, educational level, overcrowdingrate, population density, standardised immigration rate by sex,unemployment rate and average spending per person in euros.The epidemiological variables included were, such as, AIDSrate and the influenza incidence rate. To assess the associationof covariables a multivariate analysis was performed using aGeneralised Linear Model assuming Poisson distribution. Thegoestatistical method Co-kriging was adjusted with thesignificant variables to built the spatial distribution of risk.Results: The statistically significant covariates wereovercrowding rate, standardised immigration rate by sex,educational level, unemployment rate, average spending perperson in euros, AIDS rate and the influenza incidence rate. Thegeostatistical method shows spatial variability of the risk withhigher risks in the northwest and southeast of the peninsula.Conclusion: Results prove that the Co-kriging method is auseful tool to show the spatial distribution of risk. Alternatively,tuberculosis is associated with both social and epidemiologicalcovariates(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Localização Geográfica de Risco , Demografia , Análise Multivariada , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Gac Sanit ; 23(1): 58-61, 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19231725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the weeks of high rotavirus circulation in Valladolid (Spain) and to compare the characteristics of hospitalizations and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods. METHODS: The information sources consisted of the weekly notifications to the Microbiological Information System, the Minimum Data Set, and the Emergency Registry. Expected cases for 2006 were calculated using a previously developed model. Weeks with observed cases over the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for expected cases were considered epidemic periods. Hospitalization and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods were compared. RESULTS: The number of cases in 2006 was 42% less than the expected number. The mean number of daily admissions was higher in epidemic periods (d=1.49; p=0.01) and the length of admissions was longer. CONCLUSION: The activity of the paediatric service increased during the epidemic period. Consequently, implementation of surveillance activities and prevention and control programs for rotavirus in hospitals would seem advisable.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 23(1): 58-61, ene.-feb. 2009. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-59400

RESUMO

Introducción: Este estudio pretende determinar las semanas de alta circulación de rotavirus en valladolid, y comparar las características de los ingresos y urgencias en período epidémico con respecto al período no epidémico.Métodos: Se utilizaron las declaraciones al sistema de información microbiológica, el conjunto mínimo básico de datos y el registro de urgencias. Se calcularon los casos esperados para 2006 a partir de un modelo elaborado previamente. Si los casos observados superaban el umbral superior del 95% de los esperados, la semana se consideró epidémica. Se compararon las características de los ingresos y urgencias en ambos períodos.Resultados: En 2006 se diagnosticaron un 42% menos de los casos esperados. La media de ingresos diarios fue superior en período epidémico (diferencia=1,49; p=0,01), y también fue mayor la duración media del ingreso.Conclusión: La actividad del servicio de pediatría se incrementó en período epidémico, por lo que es oportuna la implantación de actividades de vigilancia, programas de prevención y control frente a rotavirus en el ámbito hospitalario(AU)


Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the weeks of high rotavirus circulation in Valladolid (Spain) and to compare the characteristics of hospitalizations and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods.Methods: The information sources consisted of the weekly notifications to the Microbiological Information System, the Minimum Data Set, and the Emergency Registry. Expected cases for 2006 were calculated using a previously developed model. Weeks with observed cases over the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for expected cases were considered epidemic periods. Hospitalization and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods were compared.Results: The number of cases in 2006 was 42% less than the expected number. The mean number of daily admissions was higher in epidemic periods (d=1.49; p=0.01) and the length of admissions was longer.Conclusion: The activity of the paediatric service increased during the epidemic period. Consequently, implementation of surveillance activities and prevention and control programs for rotavirus in hospitals would seem advisable(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 83(5): 737-44, 2009.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20111821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis incidence has been associated with many factors, both epidemiological and social. In Spain, tuberculosis is a statutorily notifiable disease requiring individualised reporting. During the last few years rates of respiratory tuberculosis show a steady decline. This study sought to assess respiratory tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in association to socio-economic and epidemiological covariates and estimate its spatial distribution across the country, using geo-statistical methods. METHODS: Respiratory tuberculosis incidence rates were standardised by age and sex with the data of the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network (RENAVE, Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica) for 2006. The following socio-economic variables were included in the study: socio-economic status, educational level, overcrowding rate, population density, standardised immigration rate by sex, unemployment rate and average spending per person in euros. The epidemiological variables included were, such as, AIDS rate and the influenza incidence rate. To assess the association of covariables a multivariate analysis was performed using a Generalised Linear Model assuming Poisson distribution. The goestatistical method co-kriging was adjusted with the significant variables to built the spatial distribution of risk. RESULTS: The statistically significant covariates were overcrowding rate, standardised immigration rate by sex, educational level, unemployment rate, average spending per person in euros, AIDS rate and the influenza incidence rate. The geostatistical method shows spatial variability of the risk with higher risks in the northwest and southeast of the peninsula. CONCLUSION: Results prove that the co-kriging method is a useful tool to show the spatial distribution of risk. Alternatively, tuberculosis is associated with both social and epidemiological covariates.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gac Sanit ; 22 Suppl 1: 65-70, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18405554

RESUMO

The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the development of surveillance methods and operational research in public health.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Espanha
17.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 22(supl.1): 65-70, abr. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-71577

RESUMO

El mundo está cambiando más deprisa que nunca. Emergen enfermedades cada año, antiguas enfermedades reemergen como amenazas potenciales y desastres naturales o generados por el hombre afectan crecientemente a la salud. El Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005) plasma la adaptación de la respuesta sanitaria a esta situación. La vigilancia de enfermedades específicas y las respuestas predeterminadas cambian por la vigilancia de eventos de salud pública de interés internacional y medidas de control adaptadas a cada situación. Los eventos de interés se determinan por su gravedad, previsibilidad, potencial de diseminación e impacto en el movimiento de personas y mercancías. El desarrollo del sistema europeo de alerta y respuesta precoz desde 1998 y la creación del ECDC en 2005 muestran el compromiso político en la Unión Europea con la detección precoz, evaluación y respuesta ante amenazas para la salud pública. Sin embargo, para una evaluación de riesgos y una respuesta oportunas a escala nacional se debe iniciar el proceso de informatización y accesibilidad a los datos, la automatización de la notificación, el análisis y la distribución de información, la combinación de información de diferentes fuentes y la adecuación de servicios de salud pública. En España, las comunidades autónomas han iniciado el proceso, pero la interoperabilidad entre los sistemas desarrollados y la elaboración de guías de actuación y coordinación debería impulsarse desde el Consejo Interterritorial y coordinarse desde el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Los sistemas de alerta y respuesta eficaces ante amenazas para la salud, mejorando la oportunidad de las acciones y reduciendo la incertidumbre de la información, minimizarían el riesgo de crisis sanitarias. Las amenazas sanitarias tienen un perfil inespecífico. Su detección requiere un acceso a información multidisciplinario y una correcta evaluación de riesgo. El apoyo al desarrollo metodológico y la investigación en salud pública son fundamentales para mejorar la respuesta ante amenazas sanitarias


The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The ¿International Health Regulations (2005)¿ reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the development of surveillance methods and operational research in public health (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Defesa Civil , Saúde Pública , Espanha
18.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 22(supl.1): 65-70, abr. 2008.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-62003

RESUMO

El mundo está cambiando más deprisa que nunca. Emergenenfermedades cada año, antiguas enfermedades reemergencomo amenazas potenciales y desastres naturaleso generados por el hombre afectan crecientemente a la salud.El Reglamento Sanitario Internacional (2005) plasma la adaptaciónde la respuesta sanitaria a esta situación. La vigilanciade enfermedades específicas y las respuestas predeterminadascambian por la vigilancia de eventos de salud públicade interés internacional y medidas de control adaptadas a cadasituación. Los eventos de interés se determinan por su gravedad,previsibilidad, potencial de diseminación e impacto enel movimiento de personas y mercancías.El desarrollo del sistema europeo de alerta y respuesta precozdesde 1998 y la creación del ECDC en 2005 muestran el compromisopolítico en la Unión Europea con la detección precoz,evaluación y respuesta ante amenazas para la salud pública. Sinembargo, para una evaluación de riesgos y una respuesta oportunasa escala nacional se debe iniciar el proceso de informatizacióny accesibilidad a los datos, la automatización de la notificación,el análisis y la distribución de información, la combinaciónde información de diferentes fuentes y la adecuación de serviciosde salud pública. En España, las comunidades autónomashan iniciado el proceso, pero la interoperabilidad entre los sistemasdesarrollados y la elaboración de guías de actuación y coordinacióndebería impulsarse desde el Consejo Interterritorialy coordinarse desde el Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo.Los sistemas de alerta y respuesta eficaces ante amenazaspara la salud, mejorando la oportunidad de las accionesy reduciendo la incertidumbre de la información, minimizaríanel riesgo de crisis sanitarias(AU)


Las amenazas sanitarias tienen un perfil inespecífico. Su detecciónrequiere un acceso a información multidisciplinario y unacorrecta evaluación de riesgo. El apoyo al desarrollo metodológicoy la investigación en salud pública son fundamentales paramejorar la respuesta ante amenazas sanitarias(AU)


The world is changing more and faster than ever before. Newdiseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseasesare reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-madedisasters are increasingly affecting human health.The “International Health Regulations (2005)” reflect the changesin the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillanceof specific diseases and predefined control measureshave been replaced by surveillance of public health events ofinternational concern and control measures adapted to eachsituation. The public health events of international interest arecharacterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of internationalspread and potential for travel or trade restrictions.The development of the European Early Warning and ResponseSystem in 1998 and the creation of the European Centerfor Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstratepolitical commitment in Europe, with early detection of and responseto public health threats. However, timely risk evaluationand response at a national level requires improved datadigitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes,data analysis and dissemination of information, the combinationof information from multiple sources and adaptationof public health services. The autonomous regions in Spainare initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability betweensystems and the development of guidelines for a coordinatedresponse should be steered by the National InterregionalHealth Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health.Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allowfor a timely response and reduce uncertainty about informationwould help to minimize the risk of public health crises(AU)


The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detectionof threats requires access to information from multiplesources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improvingthe response to public health threats are thedevelopment of surveillance methods and operational researchin public health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Vigilância Sanitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Vigilância Sanitária/normas , Legislação como Assunto , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/tendências , Alerta , Assistência Ambulatorial , Espanha/epidemiologia , Vigilância Sanitária/tendências , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/normas , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
19.
Gac Sanit ; 18 Suppl 1: 250-8, 2004 May.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15171888

RESUMO

The effect of the elevated temperatures experimented in Europe during the summer 2003 on mortality was observed in several countries. This study, carried out in Spain, describes the mortality between the 1st June and the 31st August and evaluates the effect of the heat wave on mortality. Observed deaths were obtained from official vital Registers of the capital city of the 50 provinces. Deaths from 107 randomly selected rural villages were also obtained from the same source. Observed deaths were compared with expected estimated applying a Poisson regression model to historical mortality series adjusting for the upwards trend and seasonality observed. Meteorological information was provided by the National Institute of Meteorology. Spain experienced three heat waves. Total excess deaths associated was 8% (43,212 observed compared with 40,046 expected). Excess deaths were only observed among 65 years old and over (15%). The increased mortality was also observed in rural villages. This phenomenon is becoming an emerging public health problem because of its increasing attributable risk because of the aging of Spanish population. Alert and response systems based on monitoring of climate related risks, emergency rooms activity and mortality and the strengthening of social and health services response capacity should be considered.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor/mortalidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , População Rural , Estações do Ano
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA