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1.
Psychiatr Q ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350748

RESUMO

Effective and prompt medication treatment is essential for schizophrenia patients to alleviate psychotic symptoms and improve prognosis. The treatment rate of schizophrenia usually varies greatly across studies. This is a meta-analysis that examined the overall treatment rate of schizophrenia in China. Both international (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science) and Chinese (CNKI, WanFang and Sinomed) databases were searched. The random effects model was used to analyze the data. Fifteen studies with 1,219,472 patients were included. This meta-analysis found that 73% (95%CI: 66%, 80%) of schizophrenia patients received treatment in any type of medical institutions, while 31.0% (95%CI = 21.0%, 41.0%) received treatment in psychiatric institutions. Studies conducted in middle region of China (76.8% for any type of medical institutions; 42.6% for psychiatric institutions) and those published before 2007 (74.6% for any type of medical institutions; 31.3% for psychiatric institutions) reported significantly higher treatment rates. Studies using combined diagnostic instruments had a higher treatment rate of schizophrenia (72.0%) in any type of medical institutions, while using the Chinese classification of Mental Disorders (47.7%) and including both rural and urban areas (35.7%) had higher treatment rates of schizophrenia in psychiatric institutions. The treatment rate of schizophrenia was relatively high in China, but most treatments were delivered in non-psychiatric medical institutions. Greater efforts should be made to improve the provision of accessible mental health services for schizophrenia patients in this part of the world.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32435900

RESUMO

The considerable clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia makes elucidation of its neurobiology challenging. Subtyping the disorder is one way to reduce this heterogeneity and deficit status is one such categorization based on the prominence of negative symptoms. We aimed to utilize diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify unique white matter cerebral changes in deficit schizophrenia (DS) compared with non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS) and healthy controls (HC) in an Asian sample. A total of 289 subjects (111 HC, 133 NDS and 45 DS) underwent DTI and completed rating scales which assessed the severity of psychopathology, psychosocial functioning and premorbid intelligence.We found that DS patients had fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in the Body of the Corpus Callosum (BCC) and right Posterior Thalamic Radiation (PTR) regions relative to HCs, and FA reductions in the right PTR relative to NDS patients. NDS patients had FA reductions of the BCC and right PTR relative to HCs. Binomial logistic regression analyses revealed that FA reductions of the right PTR FA was an independent predictor of deficit status. The identified brain white matter changes especially in the PTR relate to deficits of cognitive control and emotional awareness, which may underlie psychopathology associated with deficit status like inattention and affective blunting. These potential biomarkers of DS warrant further examination to determine their utility for monitoring illness progression and intervention response in schizophrenia.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 117, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327628

RESUMO

Antipsychotic-induced dyslipidemia could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This is a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive metformin for dyslipidemia induced by antipsychotics in schizophrenia. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) and risk ratios (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model with the RevMan 5.3 version software. The primary outcome was the change of serum lipid level. Twelve studies with 1215 schizophrenia patients (592 in metformin group and 623 in placebo group) were included and analyzed. Adjunctive metformin was significantly superior to placebo with regards to low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [SMD: -0.37 (95%CI:-0.69, -0.05), P = 0.02; I2 = 78%], total cholesterol [SMD: -0.47 (95%CI:-0.66, -0.29), P < 0.00001; I2 = 49%], triglyceride [SMD: -0.33 (95%CI:-0.45, -0.20), P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%], and high density lipoprotein cholesterol [SMD: 0.29 (95%CI:0.02, 0.57), P = 0.03; I2 = 69%]. The superiority of metformin in improving LDL-C level disappeared in a sensitivity analysis and 80% (8/10) of subgroup analyses. Metformin was significantly superior to placebo with regards to decrease in body weight, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin A1c, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.002-0.01), but not regarding changes in waist circumference, waist-to-hip rate, leptin, fasting glucose, and blood pressure (P = 0.07-0.33). The rates of discontinuation due to any reason [RR: 0.97 (95%CI: 0.66, 1.43), P = 0.89; I2 = 0%] was similar between the two groups. Adjunctive metformin could be useful to improve total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, but it was not effective in improving LDL-C level in schizophrenia.

6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317108

RESUMO

Cognitive remediation (CR) is predicated on principles of neuroplasticity, but the actual molecular and neurocircuitry changes underlying cognitive change in individuals with impaired neuroplastic processes is poorly understood. The present study examined epigenetic-neurocircuitry-behavioral outcome measures in schizophrenia, before and after participating in a CR program that targeted higher-order cognitive functions. Outcome measures included DNA methylation of genes central to synaptic plasticity (CpG sites of Reelin promoter and BDNF promoter) from buccal swabs, resting-state functional brain connectivity and topological network efficiency, and global scores of a cognitive battery from 35 inpatients in a rehabilitative ward (18 CR, 17 non-CR) with similar premorbid IQ to 15 healthy controls. Baseline group differences between healthy controls and schizophrenia, group-by-time effects of CR in schizophrenia, and associations between the outcome measures were tested. Baseline functional connectivity abnormalities within the frontal, fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal regions, and trending decreases in global efficiency, but not DNA methylation, were found in schizophrenia; the frontal and fronto-temporal connectivity, and global efficiency correlated with global cognitive performance across all individuals. Notably, CR resulted in differential changes in Reelin promoter CpG methylation levels, altered within-frontal and fronto-temporal functional connectivity, increasing global efficiency and improving cognitive performance in schizophrenia, when compared to non-CR. In the CR inpatients, positive associations between the micro to macro measures: Reelin methylation changes, higher global efficiency and improving global cognitive performance were found. Present findings provide a neurobiological insight into potential CR-led epigenetics-neurocircuitry modifications driving cognitive plasticity.

7.
Singapore Med J ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Disordered eating in psychiatric patients is considerably high, yet few studies have investigated the relevant factors that affect the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the local context. Our study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of depression and anxiety levels on the body dissatisfaction-disordered eating link in a multicultural Asian context. METHODS: After written informed consent was obtained, participants completed a set of questionnaires, which included various scales pertaining to eating behaviours, body image, psychological distress (depression and anxiety) and quality of life. All study procedures and materials were approved by the relevant ethics and institutional review boards. RESULTS: 329 participants recruited from the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, were diagnosed with schizophrenia (47.4%), depression (46.8%) and substance use disorders (5.8%). Moderation analyses revealed that depression (F(9,251) = 18.50, p < 0.001, R2 change = 0.021) and anxiety levels (F(9,268) = 19.54, p < 0.001, R2 change = 0.014) were significant moderators of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating scores. Subsequent multivariate linear logistic regression analyses showed that high disordered eating scores were significantly associated with lower physical (F(8,273) = 9.59, R2 = 0.22, p < 0.001, ß = -0.27, p < 0.001), psychological (F(8,273) = 10.51, R2 = 0.49, p < 0.001, ß = -0.27, p < 0.001), social (F(8,256) = 6.78, R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001, ß = -0.18, p = 0.004) and environment (F(8,273) = 5.29, R2 = 0.13, p < 0.001, ß = -0.19, p = 0.001) quality of life scores after controlling for sociodemographic covariates. CONCLUSION: Taken together, greater efforts should be dedicated to the screening of disordered eating behaviours in psychiatric outpatients presenting with greater psychological distress.

8.
Singapore Med J ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241071

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging infectious disease outbreaks, such as the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, often have a psychological impact on the well-being of the general population, including survivors and caregivers. Our study aimed to synthesise extant literature regarding the combined psychological responses and coping methods used by the general population in past outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a narrative synthesis of the published literature over the last two decades with a quality appraisal of included articles that reported both psychological responses and coping strategies within infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: A total of 144 papers were identified from the search, 24 of which were included in the review. Overall, 18 studies examined the psychosocial responses of the general population towards the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, four studies focused on the Ebola epidemic and two studies covered the H1N1 outbreak. Common themes in psychological responses included anxiety/fears, depression, anger, guilt, grief and loss, post-traumatic stress, and stigmatisation, but also a greater sense of empowerment and compassion towards others. Coping strategies adopted included problem-focused coping (seeking alternatives, self- and other-preservation), seeking social support, avoidance, and positive appraisal of the situation. CONCLUSION: Amid the range of psychosocial responses seen in past infectious disease outbreaks, practical considerations for the current COVID-19 pandemic need to focus on the individual in the context of the larger social environment, with an emphasis on raising awareness of the range of possible psychosocial responses, access to psychological help, self- care, empowering self-support groups and sustained engagement with updated, reliable information about the outbreak.

9.
Eur Psychiatry ; 63(1): e40, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND.: Earlier studies examining structural brain abnormalities associated with cognitively derived subgroups were mainly cross-sectional in design and had mixed findings. Thus, we obtained cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize the extent and trajectory of brain structure abnormalities underlying distinct cognitive subtypes ("preserved," "deteriorated," and "compromised") seen in psychotic spectrum disorders. METHODS.: Data from 364 subjects (225 patients with psychotic conditions and 139 healthy controls) were first used to determine the relationship of cognitive subtypes with cross-sectional measures of subcortical volume and cortical thickness. To probe neurodevelopmental abnormalities, brain structure laterality was examined. To examine whether neuroprogressive abnormalities persist, longitudinal brain structural changes over 5 years were examined within a subset of 101 subjects. Subsequent discriminant analysis using the identified brain measures was performed on an independent subject group. RESULTS.: Cross-sectional comparisons showed that cortical thinning and limbic volume reductions were most widespread in "deteriorated" cognitive subtype. Laterality comparisons showed more rightward amygdala lateralization in "compromised" than "preserved" subtype. Longitudinal comparisons revealed progressive hippocampal shrinkage in "deteriorated" compared with healthy controls and "preserved" subtype, which correlated with worse negative symptoms, cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Post-hoc discrimination analysis on an independent group of 52 subjects using the identified brain structures found an overall accuracy of 71% for classification of cognitive subtypes. CONCLUSION.: These findings point toward distinct extent and trajectory of corticolimbic abnormalities associated with cognitive subtypes in psychosis, which can allow further understanding of the biological course of cognitive functioning over illness course and with treatment.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048773

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the network structures of depressive symptoms using network analysis and evaluated the geographic regional differences in theses network structures among Asian patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD), the network of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode was estimated from 1174 Asian patients with depressive disorders. The node strength centrality of all ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for a depressive episode was estimated using a community-detection algorithm. In addition, networks of depressive symptoms were estimated separately among East Asian patients and South or Southeast Asian patients. Moreover, networks were estimated separately among Asian patients from high-income countries and those from middle-income countries. RESULTS: Persistent sadness, fatigue, and loss of interest were the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms in Asian patients with depressive disorders overall. A community-detection algorithm estimated that when excluding psychomotor disturbance as an outlier, the other nine symptoms formed the largest clinically meaningful cluster. Geographic and economic variations in networks of depressive symptoms were evaluated. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that the typical symptoms of the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for depressive episode are the most centrally situated within the network of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, our findings suggested that cultural influences related to geographic and economic distributions of participants could influence the estimated depressive symptom network in Asian patients with depressive disorders.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 267: 123-130, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the efficacy and safety of adjunctive folate for three major mental disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD)). METHODS: Review Manager Program Version 5.3 was used to analyze data. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with 16 RCTs (n = 1,520) on folate for schizophrenia (4 RCTs, n = 210), mood disorders (i.e., unipolar and bipolar depression) (1 RCT, n = 60), bipolar disorder (2 RCTs, n = 189) and MDD (9 RCTs, n = 1,061) were analyzed separately by diagnosis. For schizophrenia, adjunctive folate was not superior to placebo in terms of total psychopathology (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.14, 95% confidential interval (CI): -0.67, 0.39; I2 = 30%, P = 0.60), and positive (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.44, 0.62; I2 = not applicable, P = 0.74), negative (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI:-0.84, 0.05; I2 = 50%, P = 0.08), and general symptom scores (SMD = -0.33, 95%CI:-0.87, 0.20; I2 = not applicable, P = 0.22). For bipolar and unipolar depression, adjunctive folate was significantly superior to placebo in improving depressive symptoms. For bipolar disorder, adjunctive folate was effective in treating the acute phase of mania in bipolar disorder, but not in the acute phase of depression. For MDD, adjunctive folate was significantly superior to placebo in improving depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.66, -0.09; I2 = 71%, P = 0.01), which was confirmed in 5 of the 10 subgroups. Discontinuation due to any reason and adverse drug reactions were similar between folate and placebo in each diagnostic category. CONCLUSION: This systematic review found adjunctive folate appeared to be effective and safe for MDD and bipolar manic episode, but it was not effective in treating schizophrenia.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 265: 63-70, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled-placebo trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of intranasal esketamine in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Standardized mean difference (SMD), risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using RevMan version 5.3. RESULTS: Four RCTs with 7 active arms covering 708 patients with MDD on intranasal esketamine (n = 419) and placebo (n = 289) were included. Compared with placebo, adjunctive intranasal esketamine was associated with significantly greater study-defined response (RR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.18 to 1.64, P<0.0001) and remission (RR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.72, P = 0.0004) at endpoint assessment. Intranasal esketamine had greater study-defined response starting at 2 h (RR= 2.77, 95%CI: 1.62 to 4.76, P = 0.0002), peaking at 24 h (RR=5.42, 95%CI: 1.38 to 21.20, P = 0.02), and at least lasting for 28 days (RR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.16 to 1.58, P = 0.0001). Similarly, intranasal esketamine had significantly greater study-defined remission starting at 2 h (RR=7.71, 95%CI: 2.16 to 27.55, P = 0.002), peaking at 24 h (RR=6.87, 95%CI: 1.55 to 30.35, P = 0.01), and lasting for 28 days (RR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.11 to 1.72, P = 0.004). Intranasal esketamine had a significantly higher rate of discontinuation due to intolerability (RR=3.50, 95%CI: 1.38 to 8.86, P = 0.008). Discontinuation due to any reasons and inefficacy were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Intranasal esketamine appears to have an ultra-rapid antidepressant effect for MDD, at least lasting for 28 days. The long-term therapeutic effect and safety of intranasal esketamine need to be further examined in large-scale RCTs.

13.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(3): 282-293, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disentangling psychopathological heterogeneity in schizophrenia is challenging, and previous results remain inconclusive. We employed advanced machine learning to identify a stable and generalizable factorization of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and used it to identify psychopathological subtypes as well as their neurobiological differentiations. METHODS: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale data from the Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey cohort (1545 patients; 586 followed up after 1.35 ± 0.70 years) were used for learning the factor structure by an orthonormal projective non-negative factorization. An international sample, pooled from 9 medical centers across Europe, the United States, and Asia (490 patients), was used for validation. Patients were clustered into psychopathological subtypes based on the identified factor structure, and the neurobiological divergence between the subtypes was assessed by classification analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity patterns. RESULTS: A 4-factor structure representing negative, positive, affective, and cognitive symptoms was identified as the most stable and generalizable representation of psychopathology. It showed higher internal consistency than the original Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscales and previously proposed factor models. Based on this representation, the positive-negative dichotomy was confirmed as the (only) robust psychopathological subtypes, and these subtypes were longitudinally stable in about 80% of the repeatedly assessed patients. Finally, the individual subtype could be predicted with good accuracy from functional connectivity profiles of the ventromedial frontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus. CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning applied to multisite data with cross-validation yielded a factorization generalizable across populations and medical systems. Together with subtyping and the demonstrated ability to predict subtype membership from neuroimaging data, this work further disentangles the heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030619, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have reported high burnout rates among residents, including psychiatry. There is a paucity of studies examining the relationship between burnout and learning context, stress levels, resilience, stigma in healthcare providers and coping methods concurrently within the same cohort. OBJECTIVE: We examined the rate of burnout among our psychiatry residents in a cross-sectional study and hypothesised that burnout is associated with poorer perception of learning environment, greater perceived stress, stigma levels, lower resilience and specific coping strategies during training. METHODS: Ninety-three out of 104 psychiatry residents (89.4%) within our National Psychiatry Residency Programme participated in the study from June 2016 to June 2018. Relevant scales were administered to assess the perception of learning environment, burnout, stress, resilience, stigma levels and coping methods, respectively. We performed comparisons of the above measures between groups (burnout vs no burnout) and within-group correlations for these same measures. RESULTS: Overall, 54.8% of the sample met criteria for burnout. Residents with burnout had poorer perception of the learning environment, greater stress levels (both p<0.001), were less willing to disclose/seek help and employed greater active-avoidance coping strategies. Within the burnout group, greater perceived stress was correlated with poorer perception of learning environment (rs=-0.549) and greater use of active-avoidance coping (rs=0.450) versus additional use of problem-focussed coping within the non-burnout group. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout was related to both environment and learner factors. These findings viewed within the transactional, sequential and imbalance models of burnout suggest the need to address stressors, beef up coping, provide continual support and develop resilience among our learners.

15.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 32(6): 304-311, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is a controversial topic in the treatment of older adults with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the use of APP in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia and its associated demographic and clinical factors. METHODS: This study was based on the fourth survey of the consortium known as the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antipsychotics. Fifteen Asian countries/territories participated in this survey, including Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standardized data collection form. RESULTS: Among the 879 older adults with schizophrenia included in the survey, the rate of APP was 40.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic doses (P < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003), longer duration of illness (P = .02, OR = 1.845, 95% CI: 1.087-3.132), and the prescription of anticholinergics (P < .001, OR = 1.871, 95% CI: 1.329-2.635), second-generation antipsychotics (P = .001, OR = 2.264, 95% CI: 1.453-3.529), and first-generation antipsychotics (P < .001, OR = 3.344, 95% CI: 2.307-4.847) were significantly associated with APP. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy was common in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the use of APP showed a declining trend over time. Considering the general poor health status of older patients with schizophrenia and their increased risk of drug-induced adverse events, the use of APP in this population needs careful consideration.

17.
GMS J Med Educ ; 36(4): Doc37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544137

RESUMO

Background: It is unavoidable for learners undergoing health professions training to encounter different complex clinical scenarios related to diagnoses, treatment and ethical dilemmas. The lack of standard answers to such clinical challenges can cause uncertainty in the process of teaching, learning and assessment as learners grapple with the need to critically appraise the specific context, past practices and extant literature to arrive at a thoughtful decision. In this aspect, debate can be a useful pedagogical tool to consider multiple, different perspectives regarding these issues. As the use of debate within the health professions education has not been reviewed, we conducted a systematic review of the current literature on the adoption of debate as a pedagogical tool to clarify the specific context of use as well as its effectiveness in the learning of skills and content within the health professions education. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on relevant published literature in English within journal databases until September 2018 that employed debate as a pedagogical tool within health professions education. Results: Out of 626 screened articles, 12 studies were finally included based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The 12 studies (9 undergraduate, 3 postgraduate) covered a diverse range of disciplines and debate in health professions education was adopted for acquisition of skills (such as critical thinking, communication skills, teamwork), or learning of specific topics (such as patient safety, ethical issues, teaching of new topics) as well as to examine evidence based practice. In the majority of studies (10 of 12 studies, 83.3%), debate has been deemed by the learners to be effective in facilitating the learning of new content and skills such as communication and critical thinking, which are related to processes aligned with adult learning, motivational, reflective and social learning theories. Conclusion: Overall, sparse studies to date with relatively low risk of bias found debate to be effective in enabling the learning of skills and content within health professions education. Future studies may want to incorporate more objective measures of the learning outcomes of learners following the adoption of debate as a teaching tool as well as to examine the combinatorial use of debate with other pedagogical tools and their longitudinal impact on learners and learning.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Comunicação , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Pensamento , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
18.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 45: 74-80, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regular surveys are important to monitor the use of psychotropic medications in clinical practice. This study examined the psychotropic prescription patterns in adult Asian schizophrenia patients based on the data of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) 2016 survey. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey across 15 Asian countries/territories collected socio-demographic and clinical data with standardized procedures between March and May 2016. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded with a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Altogether 3,537 adult patients with schizophrenia were consecutively screened and enrolled in the survey. The mean age was 38.66 ±â€¯11.55 years and 59.7% of the sample were male. The mean dose of antipsychotics in chlorpromazine equivalents (CPZeq) was 424 ±â€¯376 mg/day; 31.3% and 80.8% received first- and second- generation antipsychotics, respectively and 42.6% had antipsychotic polypharmacy, 11.7% had antidepressants, 13.7% had mood stabilizers, 27.8% had benzodiazepines, and 45.6% had anticholinergics. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic prescription patterns in Asian adult patients with schizophrenia varied across countries. Regular surveys on psychotropic medications for schizophrenia are important to monitor pharmacotherapy practice in Asia.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 267, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of clinicians and healthcare workers providing treatment to patients with psychiatric disorders, has shifted over time from focusing on the symptoms alone towards functional improvement. In this study, we aimed to compare the subjective quality of life (QoL) among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: QoL scores were collected using 36-item Short Form Survey Instrument. QoL scores were compared between 203 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 185 outpatients with MDD using analysis of covariance. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was administered to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms among patients with schizophrenia and Personal Health Questionnaire-8 items was utilized to assess the severity of depressive symptoms among patients with MDD. The correlation coefficient (r) of socio-demographic factors and core psychiatric symptoms with QoL were analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS: As compared to patients with MDD, patients with schizophrenia reported better health scores in all QoL subdomains, except for physical function (PF). Among patients with schizophrenia, old age was correlated with better mental health (MH, r = 0.35) and PF (r = 0.37). Compared to those of Chinese ethnicity, those of Malay, Indian and other ethnicity were correlated with worse PF (r = - 0.43 for Malays; r = - 0.30 for Indians and r = - 0.34 for other ethnicities). Longer duration of mental illness was correlated with worse MH (r = - 0.30), worse PF (r = - 0.38) and worse scores on role limitations due to physical health problems (RP, r = - 0.30). Among patients with MDD, older age was correlated with worse PF (r = - 0.33) and patients without comorbid physical illness reported less bodily pain (r = 0.45) and better general health (r = 0.34). Moreover, all psychiatric symptoms among patients with schizophrenia were negatively correlated with QoL, but the strength of the correlation was less than that between depressive symptoms and QoL among patients with MDD. CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia generally reported better QoL as compared to patients with MDD. The correlates of QoL differed between patients with schizophrenia and patients with MDD. This study adds to the understanding of QoL among patients with mental illnesses and may aid in better management of these patients with different psychiatric diagnoses.

20.
Int J Med Educ ; 10: 149-160, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381505

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to systematically review extant data on the prevalence of burnout amongst psychiatry residents, examine the contributory factors, and consider potential ways to manage burnout. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted on all relevant articles within Pubmed/OVID Medline and ScienceDirect digital databases from January 2000 till March 2019 that investigated burnout in psychiatry residents. Variables of interest included questionnaires used to assess burnout, the prevalence of burnout, and its clinical correlates. Articles were included if they were observational or experimental studies and involved a sample consisting solely of or a subsample of psychiatry residents. The data are summarised and presented as a narrative synthesis. Results: Twenty-two studies were included. The overall prevalence of burnout among psychiatry residents was 33.7%, which was associated with certain demographic (non-parental status), training (juniors years of training, lower priority of psychiatry as career choice, lack of clinical supervision, discontinuation from training), work (high workload, long hours, insufficient rest), and learner factors (more stressors, greater anxiety, and depressive symptoms, low self-efficacy, decreased empathic capacity, poor coping, self- medication, and use of mental health services). Conclusions: These findings suggest that interventions such as refining candidate selection, enforcement of work hour limits, enhancement of support and supervision, and equipping of stress coping skills may ameliorate burnout related to training, work, and learner factors respectively. These findings and suggestions may apply to other residency programs. However, future studies should examine burnout longitudinally and evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions in reducing burnout within psychiatry residents.

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