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1.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 53: 102536, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058532

RESUMO

The moose is a highly prized game species in North America and is often the target of illegal harvesting. Forensic DNA analysis can be used to assist in investigations into wildlife crime by providing the link between the illegal incidents and suspects. In this study, we present the development and validation of a short-tandem repeat (STR) based forensic DNA test for the individualization of moose in Alberta and Yukon, Canada. We show that the markers used in the test are appropriate for forensic use and are sufficiently specific to moose. We also demonstrate the limit of detection and quantitation of the moose STR test on the ABI 3500 genetic analyzer. Lastly, we describe the population genetic structure of moose present in our forensic population database and make recommendations regarding the calculation of appropriately conservative forensic statistics.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , Cervos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Alberta , Amelogenina/genética , Animais , Eletroforese Capilar , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Yukon
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
3.
Front Genet ; 10: 959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681413

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic basis of fitness-related trait variation has long been of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as horns in bovids, are particularly intriguing since they can be potentially affected by both natural and sexual selection. Until recently, however, the study of fitness-related quantitative trait variation in wild species has been hampered by a lack of genomic resources, pedigree, and/or phenotype data. Recent innovations in genomic technologies have enabled wildlife researchers to perform marker-based relatedness estimation and acquire adequate loci density, enabling both the "top-down" approach of quantitative genetics and the "bottom-up" approach of association studies to describe the genetic basis of fitness-related traits. Here we combine a cross species application of the OvineHD BeadChip and horn measurements (horn length, base circumference, and volume) from harvested thinhorn sheep to examine the heritability and to perform a genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism association study of horn size in the species. Thinhorn sheep are mountain ungulates that reside in the mountainous regions of northwestern North America. Thinhorn sheep males grow massive horns that determine the social rank and mating success. We found horn length, base circumference, and volume to be moderately heritable and two loci to be suggestively associated with horn length.

4.
Mol Ecol ; 25(15): 3696-705, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27272944

RESUMO

Past glaciation events have played a major role in shaping the genetic diversity and distribution of wild sheep in North America. The advancement of glaciers can isolate populations in ice-free refugia, where they can survive until the recession of ice sheets. The major Beringian refugium is thought to have held thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli) populations during times of glacial advance. While isolation in the major refugium can account for much of the genetic and morphological diversity seen in extant thinhorn sheep populations, mounting evidence suggests the persistence of populations in smaller minor refugia. We investigated the refugial origins of thinhorn sheep using ~10 000 SNPs obtained via a cross-species application of the domestic sheep ovine HD BeadChip to genotype 52 thinhorn sheep and five bighorn sheep (O. canadensis) samples. Phylogenetic inference revealed a distinct lineage of thinhorn sheep inhabiting British Columbia, which is consistent with the survival of a group of thinhorn sheep in a minor refugium separate from the Beringian refugium. Isolation in separate glacial refugia probably mediated the evolution of the two thinhorn sheep subspecies, the white Dall's sheep (O. d. dalli), which persisted in Beringia, and the dark Stone's sheep (O. d. stonei), which utilized the minor refugium. We also found the first genetic evidence for admixture between sheep from different glacial refugia in south-central Yukon as a consequence of post glacial expansion and recolonization. These results show that glaciation events can have a major role in the evolution of species inhabiting previously glaciated habitats and the need to look beyond established refugia when examining the evolutionary history of such species.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Filogenia
5.
PLoS One ; 7(6): e39077, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22720034

RESUMO

When faced with rapidly changing environments, wildlife species are left to adapt, disperse or disappear. Consequently, there is value in investigating the connectivity of populations of species inhabiting different environments in order to evaluate dispersal as a potential strategy for persistence in the face of climate change. Here, we begin to investigate the processes that shape genetic variation within American pika populations from the northern periphery of their range, the central Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. At these latitudes, pikas inhabit sharp elevation gradients ranging from sea level to 1500 m, providing an excellent system for studying the effects of local environmental conditions on pika population genetic structure and gene flow. We found low levels of neutral genetic variation compared to previous studies from more southerly latitudes, consistent with the relatively recent post-glacial colonization of the study location. Moreover, significant levels of inbreeding and marked genetic structure were detected within and among sites. Although low levels of recent gene flow were revealed among elevations within a transect, potentially admixed individuals and first generation migrants were identified using discriminant analysis of principal components between populations separated by less than five kilometers at the same elevations. There was no evidence for historical population decline, yet there was signal for recent demographic contractions, possibly resulting from environmental stochasticity. Correlative analyses revealed an association between patterns of genetic variation and annual heat-to-moisture ratio, mean annual precipitation, precipitation as snow and mean maximum summer temperature. Changes in climatic regimes forecasted for the region may thus potentially increase the rate of population extirpation by further reducing dispersal between sites. Consequently, American pika may have to rely on local adaptations or phenotypic plasticity in order to survive predicted climate changes, although additional studies are required to investigate the evolutionary potential of this climate change sensitive species.


Assuntos
Altitude , Mudança Climática , Lagomorpha/fisiologia , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Lagomorpha/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Controle de Qualidade
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