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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586400

RESUMO

While biallelic mutations in the PALB2 tumor suppressor cause Fanconi anemia subtype FA-N, monoallelic mutations predispose to breast and familial pancreatic cancer. Although hundreds of missense variants in PALB2 have been identified in patients to date, only a few have clear functional and clinical relevance. Herein, we investigate the effects of 44 PALB2 variants of uncertain significance found in breast cancer patients and provide detailed analysis by systematic functional assays. Our comprehensive functional analysis reveals two hotspots for potentially deleterious variations within PALB2, one at each terminus. PALB2 N-terminus variants p.P8L [c.23C>T], p.Y28C [c.83A>G], and p.R37H [c.110G>A] compromised PALB2-mediated homologous recombination. At the C-terminus, PALB2 variants p.L947F [c.2841G>T], p.L947S [c.2840T>C], and most strikingly p.T1030I [c.3089C>T] and p.W1140G [c.3418T>C], stood out with pronounced PARP inhibitor sensitivity and cytoplasmic accumulation in addition to marked defects in recruitment to DNA damage sites, interaction with BRCA2 and homologous recombination. Altogether, our findings show that a combination of functional assays is necessary to assess the impact of germline missense variants on PALB2 function, in order to guide proper classification of their deleteriousness.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265136

RESUMO

A small number of circulating proteins have been reported to be associated with breast cancer risk, with inconsistent results. Herein, we attempted to identify novel protein biomarkers for breast cancer via the integration of genomics and proteomics data. In the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European descendants, we evaluated the associations of the genetically predicted concentrations of >1,400 circulating proteins with breast cancer risk. We used data from a large-scale protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) analysis as our study instrument. Summary statistics for these pQTL variants related to breast cancer risk were obtained from the BCAC and used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each protein using the inverse-variance weighted method. We identified 56 proteins significantly associated with breast cancer risk by instrumental analysis (false discovery rate <0.05). Of these, the concentrations of 32 were influenced by variants close to a breast cancer susceptibility locus (ABO, 9q34.2). Many of these proteins, such as insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 and other membrane receptors (OR: 0.82-1.18, p values: 6.96 × 10-4 -3.28 × 10-8 ), are linked to insulin resistance and estrogen receptor signaling pathways. Proteins identified at other loci include those involved in biological processes such as alcohol and lipid metabolism, proteolysis, apoptosis, immune regulation and cell motility and proliferation. Consistent associations were observed for 22 proteins in the UK Biobank data (p < 0.05). The study identifies potential novel biomarkers for breast cancer, but further investigation is needed to replicate our findings.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation plays a critical role in breast cancer development. Previous studies have identified DNA methylation marks in white blood cells as promising biomarkers for breast cancer. However, these studies were limited by low statistical power and potential biases. Utilizing a new methodology, we investigated DNA methylation marks for their associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: Statistical models were built to predict levels of DNA methylation marks using genetic data and DNA methylation data from HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from the Framingham Heart Study (N=1,595). The prediction models were validated using data from the Women's Health Initiative (N=883). We applied these models to genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls to evaluate if the genetically predicted DNA methylation levels at CpGs are associated with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Of the 62,938 CpG sites (CpGs) investigated, statistically significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for 450 CpGs at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P<7.94 × 10-7, including 45 CpGs residing in 18 genomic regions which have not previously been associated with breast cancer risk. Of the remaining 405 CpGs located within 500 kilobase flaking regions of 70 GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants, the associations for 11 CpGs were independent of GWAS-identified variants. Integrative analyses of genetic, DNA methylation and gene expression data found that 38 CpGs may affect breast cancer risk through regulating expression of 21 genes. CONCLUSION: Our new methodology can identify novel DNA methylation biomarkers for breast cancer risk and can be applied to other diseases.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823486

RESUMO

Genetic variants affecting the regulation of gene expression are among the main causes of human diversity. The potential importance of regulatory polymorphisms is underscored by results from Genome Wide Association Studies, which have already implicated such polymorphisms in the susceptibility to complex diseases such as breast cancer. In this study, we re-sequenced the promoter regions of 24 genes involved in pathways related to breast cancer including sex steroid action, DNA repair, and cell cycle control in 60 unrelated Caucasian individuals. We constructed haplotypes and assessed the functional impact of promoter variants using gene reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We identified putative functional variants within the promoter regions of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), ESR2, forkhead box A1 (FOXA1), ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1 (UIMC1) and cell division cycle 7 (CDC7). The functional polymorphism on CDC7, rs13447455, influences CDC7 transcriptional activity in an allele-specific manner and alters DNA⁻protein complex formation in breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium show a marginal association between rs13447455 and breast cancer risk (p=9.3x10-5), thus warranting further investigation. Furthermore, our study has helped provide methodological solutions to some technical difficulties that were encountered with gene reporter assays, particularly regarding inter-clone variability and statistical consistency.

9.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(6): 591-600, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737679

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest that higher birth weight (BW) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in adult life. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to assess whether this association is causal. Sixty independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated at P < 5 × 10-8 with BW were used to construct (1) a 41-SNP instrumental variable (IV) for univariable MR after removing SNPs with pleiotropic associations with other breast cancer risk factors and (2) a 49-SNP IV for multivariable MR after filtering SNPs for data availability. BW predicted by the 41-SNP IV was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in inverse-variance weighted (IVW) univariable MR analysis of genetic association data from 122,977 breast cancer cases and 105,974 controls (odds ratio = 0.86 per 500 g higher BW; 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.01). Sensitivity analyses using four alternative methods and three alternative IVs, including an IV with 59 of the 60 BW-associated SNPs, yielded similar results. Multivariable MR adjusting for the effects of the 49-SNP IV on birth length, adult height, adult body mass index, age at menarche, and age at menopause using IVW and MR-Egger methods provided estimates consistent with univariable analyses. Results were also similar when all analyses were repeated after restricting to estrogen receptor-positive or -negative breast cancer cases. Point estimates of the odds ratios from most analyses performed indicated an inverse relationship between genetically-predicted BW and breast cancer, but we are unable to rule out an association between the non-genetically-determined component of BW and breast cancer. Thus, genetically-predicted higher BW was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in adult life in our MR study.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
11.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 44(3): 226-240, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638972

RESUMO

Partner and Localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) has emerged as an important and versatile player in genome integrity maintenance. Biallelic mutations in PALB2 cause Fanconi anemia (FA) subtype FA-N, whereas monoallelic mutations predispose to breast, and pancreatic familial cancers. Herein, we review recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms of regulation of the tumor suppressor PALB2 and its functional domains. Regulation of PALB2 functions in DNA damage response and repair occurs on multiple levels, including homodimerization, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation. With a molecular emphasis, we present PALB2-associated cancer mutations and their detailed analysis by functional assays.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Ubiquitinação/genética , Ubiquitinação/fisiologia
12.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1708-1718, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643217

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Breast cancer (BC) risk prediction allows systematic identification of individuals at highest and lowest risk. We extend the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) risk model to incorporate the effects of polygenic risk scores (PRS) and other risk factors (RFs). METHODS: BOADICEA incorporates the effects of truncating variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, and ATM; a PRS based on 313 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explaining 20% of BC polygenic variance; a residual polygenic component accounting for other genetic/familial effects; known lifestyle/hormonal/reproductive RFs; and mammographic density, while allowing for missing information. RESULTS: Among all factors considered, the predicted UK BC risk distribution is widest for the PRS, followed by mammographic density. The highest BC risk stratification is achieved when all genetic and lifestyle/hormonal/reproductive/anthropomorphic factors are considered jointly. With all factors, the predicted lifetime risks for women in the UK population vary from 2.8% for the 1st percentile to 30.6% for the 99th percentile, with 14.7% of women predicted to have a lifetime risk of ≥17-<30% (moderate risk according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] guidelines) and 1.1% a lifetime risk of ≥30% (high risk). CONCLUSION: This comprehensive model should enable high levels of BC risk stratification in the general population and women with family history, and facilitate individualized, informed decision-making on prevention therapies and screening.

13.
Biostatistics ; 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590388

RESUMO

In this work, we propose a single nucleotide polymorphism set association test for survival phenotypes in the presence of a non-susceptible fraction. We consider a mixture model with a logistic regression for the susceptibility indicator and a proportional hazards regression to model survival in the susceptible group. We propose a joint test to assess the significance of the genetic variant in both logistic and survival regressions simultaneously. We adopt the spirit of SKAT and conduct a variance-component test treating the genetic effects of multiple variants as random. We derive score-type test statistics, and we investigate several approaches to compute their $p$-values. The finite-sample properties of the proposed tests are assessed and compared to existing approaches by simulations and their use is illustrated through an application to ovarian cancer data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2.

14.
EMBO Mol Med ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377213

RESUMO

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi) are effective in cancers with defective homologous recombination DNA repair (HRR), including BRCA1/2-related cancers. A test to identify additional HRR-deficient tumors will help to extend their use in new indications. We evaluated the activity of the PARPi olaparib in patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) from breast cancer (BC) patients and investigated mechanisms of sensitivity through exome sequencing, BRCA1 promoter methylation analysis, and immunostaining of HRR proteins, including RAD51 nuclear foci. In an independent BC PDX panel, the predictive capacity of the RAD51 score and the homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) score were compared. To examine the clinical feasibility of the RAD51 assay, we scored archival breast tumor samples, including PALB2-related hereditary cancers. The RAD51 score was highly discriminative of PARPi sensitivity versus PARPi resistance in BC PDXs and outperformed the genomic test. In clinical samples, all PALB2-related tumors were classified as HRR-deficient by the RAD51 score. The functional biomarker RAD51 enables the identification of PARPi-sensitive BC and broadens the population who may benefit from this therapy beyond BRCA1/2-related cancers.

15.
Cancer Res ; 78(21): 6329-6338, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385609

RESUMO

Genetic variants that increase breast cancer risk can be rare or common. This study tests whether the genetic risk stratification of breast cancer by rare and common variants in established loci can discriminate tumors with different biology, patient survival, and mode of detection. Multinomial logistic regression tested associations between genetic risk load [protein-truncating variant (PTV) carriership in 31 breast cancer predisposition genes-or polygenic risk score (PRS) using 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms], tumor characteristics, and mode of detection (OR). Ten-year breast cancer-specific survival (HR) was estimated using Cox regression models. In this unselected cohort of 5,099 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in Sweden between 2001 and 2008, PTV carriers (n = 597) were younger and associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes (ER-negative, large size, high grade, high proliferation, luminal B, and basal-like subtype) and worse outcome (HR, 1.65; 1.16-2.36) than noncarriers. After excluding 92 BRCA1/2 carriers, PTV carriership remained associated with high grade and worse survival (HR, 1.76; 1.21-2.56). In 5,007 BRCA1/2 noncarriers, higher PRS was associated with less aggressive tumor characteristics (ER-positive, PR-positive, small size, low grade, low proliferation, and luminal A subtype). Among patients with low mammographic density (<25%), non-BRCA1/2 PTV carriers were more often interval than screen-detected breast cancer (OR, 1.89; 1.12-3.21) than noncarriers. In contrast, higher PRS was associated with lower risk of interval compared with screen-detected cancer (OR, 0.77; 0.64-0.93) in women with low mammographic density. These findings suggest that rare and common breast cancer susceptibility loci are differentially associated with tumor characteristics, survival, and mode of detection.Significance: These findings offer the potential to improve screening practices for breast cancer by providing a deeper understanding of how risk variants affect disease progression and mode of detection. Cancer Res; 78(21); 6329-38. ©2018 AACR.

16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277539

RESUMO

Background: In addition to the established association between general obesity and breast cancer risk, central obesity and circulating fasting insulin and glucose have been linked to the development of this common malignancy. Findings from previous studies, however, have been inconsistent, and the nature of the associations is unclear. Methods: We conducted Mendelian randomization analyses to evaluate the association of breast cancer risk, using genetic instruments, with fasting insulin, fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, body mass index (BMI) and BMI-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHRadj BMI). We first confirmed the association of these instruments with type 2 diabetes risk in a large diabetes genome-wide association study consortium. We then investigated their associations with breast cancer risk using individual-level data obtained from 98 842 cases and 83 464 controls of European descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Results: All sets of instruments were associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Associations with breast cancer risk were found for genetically predicted fasting insulin [odds ratio (OR) = 1.71 per standard deviation (SD) increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-2.31, p = 5.09 × 10-4], 2-h glucose (OR = 1.80 per SD increase, 95% CI = 1.3 0-2.49, p = 4.02 × 10-4), BMI (OR = 0.70 per 5-unit increase, 95% CI = 0.65-0.76, p = 5.05 × 10-19) and WHRadj BMI (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79-0.91, p = 9.22 × 10-6). Stratified analyses showed that genetically predicted fasting insulin was more closely related to risk of estrogen-receptor [ER]-positive cancer, whereas the associations with instruments of 2-h glucose, BMI and WHRadj BMI were consistent regardless of age, menopausal status, estrogen receptor status and family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: We confirmed the previously reported inverse association of genetically predicted BMI with breast cancer risk, and showed a positive association of genetically predicted fasting insulin and 2-h glucose and an inverse association of WHRadj BMI with breast cancer risk. Our study suggests that genetically determined obesity and glucose/insulin-related traits have an important role in the aetiology of breast cancer.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175445

RESUMO

Breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2-driven tumors may benefit from targeted therapy. It is not clear whether current BRCA screening guidelines are effective at identifying these patients. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of inherited BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants in a large, clinically representative breast cancer cohort and to estimate the proportion of BRCA1/2 carriers not detected by selectively screening individuals with the highest probability of being carriers according to current clinical guidelines. The study included 5,122 unselected Swedish breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2008. Target sequence enrichment (48.48 Fluidigm Access Arrays) and sequencing were performed (Illumina Hi-Seq 2,500 instrument, v4 chemistry). Differences in patient and tumor characteristics of BRCA1/2 carriers who were already identified as part of clinical BRCA1/2 testing routines and additional BRCA1/2 carriers found by sequencing the entire study population were compared using logistic regression models. Ninety-two of 5,099 patients with valid variant calls were identified as BRCA1/2 carriers by screening all study participants (1.8%). Only 416 study participants (8.2%) were screened as part of clinical practice, but this identified 35 out of 92 carriers (38.0%). Clinically identified carriers were younger, less likely postmenopausal and more likely to be associated with familiar ovarian cancer compared to the additional carriers identified by screening all patients. More BRCA2 (34/42, 81.0%) than BRCA1 carriers (23/50, 46%) were missed by clinical screening. In conclusion, BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence in unselected breast cancer patients was 1.8%. Six in ten BRCA carriers were not detected by selective clinical screening of individuals.

18.
BMJ Open ; 8(2): e016662, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify common and specific individual factors that favour or impede women's interest in and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for breast cancer susceptibility testing (BCST) and to identify the most impactful factors on both outcome measures. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used a self-administered cross-sectional Web-based questionnaire that included hypothetical scenarios about the availability of a new genetic test for breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: French-speaking women of the general population of Québec (Canada), aged between 35 and 69 years, were identified from a Web-based panel (2410 met the selection criteria, 1160 were reached and 1031 completed the survey). MEASURES: The outcomes are the level of interest in and the range of WTP for BCST. Three categories of individual factors identified in the literature were used as potential explanatory factors, that is, demographic, clinical and psychosocial. RESULTS: Descriptive statistics indicated that the vast majority of sampled women are interested in BCST (90%). Among those, more than half of them are willing-to-pay for such a test (57%). The regression models pointed out several factors associated with both outcomes (eg, age, income, family history, locus of control-powerful others) and marginal effects were used to highlight the most impactful factors for each outcome. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a proxy of the readiness of women of the general population to use and to pay for BCST. They also offer insights for developing inclusive and specific strategies to foster informed decision-making and guide the services offered by health organisations corresponding to women's preferences and needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Financiamento Pessoal , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 97-103, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28993434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is offered typically to selected women based on age of onset and family history of cancer. However, current internationally accepted genetic testing referral guidelines are built mostly on data from cancer genetics clinics in women of European descent. To evaluate the appropriateness of such guidelines in Asians, we have determined the prevalence of germ line variants in an unselected cohort of Asian patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. METHODS: Germ line DNA from a hospital-based study of 2575 unselected patients with breast cancer and 2809 healthy controls were subjected to amplicon-based targeted sequencing of exonic and proximal splice site junction regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 using the Fluidigm Access Array system, with sequencing conducted on a Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. Variant calling was performed with GATK UnifiedGenotyper and were validated by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Fifty-five (2.1%) BRCA1 and 66 (2.6%) BRCA2 deleterious mutations were identified among patients with breast cancer and five (0.18%) BRCA1 and six (0.21%) BRCA2 mutations among controls. One thousand one hundred and eighty-six (46%) patients and 97 (80%) carriers fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for genetic testing. CONCLUSION: Five per cent of unselected Asian patients with breast cancer carry deleterious variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. While current referral guidelines identified the majority of carriers, one in two patients would be referred for genetic services. Given that such services are largely unavailable in majority of low-resource settings in Asia, our study highlights the need for more efficient guidelines to identify at-risk individuals in Asia.

20.
Oncotarget ; 8(45): 78691-78712, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108258

RESUMO

Approximately 25% of hereditary breast cancer cases are associated with a strong familial history which can be explained by mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and other lower penetrance genes. The remaining high-risk families could be classified as BRCAX (non-BRCA1/2) families. Gene expression involving alternative splicing represents a well-known mechanism regulating the expression of multiple transcripts, which could be involved in cancer development. Thus using RNA-seq methodology, the analysis of transcriptome was undertaken to potentially reveal transcripts implicated in breast cancer susceptibility and development. RNA was extracted from immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines of 117 women (affected and unaffected) coming from BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX families. Anova analysis revealed a total of 95 transcripts corresponding to 85 different genes differentially expressed (Bonferroni corrected p-value <0.01) between those groups. Hierarchical clustering allowed distinctive subgrouping of BRCA1/2 subgroups from BRCAX individuals. We found 67 transcripts, which could discriminate BRCAX from BRCA1/BRCA2 individuals while 28 transcripts discriminate affected from unaffected BRCAX individuals. To our knowledge, this represents the first study identifying transcripts differentially expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines from major classes of mutation-related breast cancer subgroups, namely BRCA1, BRCA2 and BRCAX. Moreover, some transcripts could discriminate affected from unaffected BRCAX individuals, which could represent potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.

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