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1.
Phys Med ; 80: 308-316, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Image-guided radiation therapy could benefit from implementing adaptive radiation therapy (ART) techniques. A cycle-generative adversarial network (cycle-GAN)-based cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-to-synthetic CT (sCT) conversion algorithm was evaluated regarding image quality, image segmentation and dosimetric accuracy for head and neck (H&N), thoracic and pelvic body regions. METHODS: Using a cycle-GAN, three body site-specific models were priorly trained with independent paired CT and CBCT datasets of a kV imaging system (XVI, Elekta). sCT were generated based on first-fraction CBCT for 15 patients of each body region. Mean errors (ME) and mean absolute errors (MAE) were analyzed for the sCT. On the sCT, manually delineated structures were compared to deformed structures from the planning CT (pCT) and evaluated with standard segmentation metrics. Treatment plans were recalculated on sCT. A comparison of clinically relevant dose-volume parameters (D98, D50 and D2 of the target volume) and 3D-gamma (3%/3mm) analysis were performed. RESULTS: The mean ME and MAE were 1.4, 29.6, 5.4 Hounsfield units (HU) and 77.2, 94.2, 41.8 HU for H&N, thoracic and pelvic region, respectively. Dice similarity coefficients varied between 66.7 ± 8.3% (seminal vesicles) and 94.9 ± 2.0% (lungs). Maximum mean surface distances were 6.3 mm (heart), followed by 3.5 mm (brainstem). The mean dosimetric differences of the target volumes did not exceed 1.7%. Mean 3D gamma pass rates greater than 97.8% were achieved in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: The presented method generates sCT images with a quality close to pCT and yielded clinically acceptable dosimetric deviations. Thus, an important prerequisite towards clinical implementation of CBCT-based ART is fulfilled.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Algoritmos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Humanos , Masculino , Radiometria , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
2.
Surg Oncol ; 34: 109-112, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local recurrence (LR) of retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RPS) is a common and life-threatening event. The evaluation of the exact anatomical patterns of local recurrence might help to improve local treatment in RPS. METHODS: Of our local database we extracted ten patients with LR of RPS with axial MRI and/or CT datasets of the primary tumor (PT) and the LR. Using the Osirix DICOM viewer Version v.3.9.4 64-bit (Pixmeo, Geneva, Switzerland) we performed a three-step fusion algorithm consisting of: a) 3-point co-registration of the axial datasets depicting the PT and the LR using three abdominal landmarks b) re-orientation of the datasets and c) image fusion. We evaluated the feasibility of this technique with regard to categorizing the localization of LR as within or distant from the PT. RESULTS: Fusion imaging was feasible in seven out of ten patients. In the other three patients anatomical shifting of organs after surgery led to a relevant mismatch of anatomical landmarks and impeded interpretation of the fused images. In five of seven patients with successful fusion imaging, local recurrences were located within the anatomical borders of the primary tumor, in two out of seven patients local recurrences were distant to the primary. CONCLUSIONS: Fusion imaging of primary tumors and local recurrences is feasible in most patients with RPS. Most local recurrences occurred within the anatomical localization of the primary tumor. For further investigations validation of the technique in larger patient cohorts is required.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/cirurgia
3.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(3): 280-285, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CINSARC (Complexity INdex in SARComas) is a prognostic signature for soft tissue sarcoma that determines the risk for recurrence and may serve to guide the decision for adjuvant chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to compare the CINSARC signature of pre- and posttreatment biopsies of sarcoma patients treated within a phase I trial evaluating preoperative sunitinib and irradiation. METHODS: We retrieved 14 pairs of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from pretreatment biopsies and posttreatment resection specimens and performed expression profiling of the 67 CINSARC signature genes. RESULTS: In 5/14 patients, both probes were unsuitable for expression analysis because there was no (vital) tissue left in biopsies or resection specimens. Comparing the CINSARC risk classification before and after treatment in the remaining patients, 2/9 shifted from a high- to a low-risk classification for metastatic disease after preoperative treatment with radiation therapy plus sunitinib and 7/9 pairs of pre- and posttreatment biopsies revealed identical results. CONCLUSION: Concurrent radiation therapy and sunitinib leads to diverging results of prognostic gene array testing in a relevant proportion of sarcoma patients. These changes may reflect tumor heterogeneity, local treatment effects, or prognostic changes of the disease. Caution is advised in the selection of samples and interpretation of test results.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma/genética , Sarcoma/terapia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Transcriptoma
4.
Radiother Oncol ; 129(3): 441-448, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Craniocaudal motion during image-guided abdominal SBRT can be reduced by computer-controlled deep-inspiratory-breath-hold (DIBH). However, a residual motion can occur in the DIBH-phases which can only be detected with intrafractional real-time-monitoring. We assessed the intra-breath-hold residual motion of DIBH and compared residual motion of target structures during DIBH detected by ultrasound (US). US data were compared with residual motion of the diaphragm-dome (DD) detected in the DIBH-CBCT-projections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: US-based monitoring was performed with an experimental US-system simultaneously to DIBH-CBCT acquisition. A total of 706 DIBHs during SBRT-treatments of metastatic lesions (liver, spleen, adrenal) of various primaries were registered in 13 patients. Residual motion of the target structure was documented with US during each DIBH. Motion of the DD was determined by comparison to a reference phantom-scan taking the individual geometrical setting at a given projection angle into account. Residual motion data detected by US were correlated to those of the DD (DIBH-CBCT-projection). RESULTS: US-based monitoring could be performed in all cases and was well tolerated by all patients. Additional time for daily US-based setup required 8 ±â€¯4 min. 385 DIBHs of 706 could be analyzed. In 59% of all DIBHs, residual motion was below 2 mm. In 36%, residual motion of 2-5 mm and in 4% of 5-8 mm was observed. Only 1% of all DIBHs and 0.16% of all readings revealed a residual motion of >8 mm during DIBH. For DIBHs with a residual motion over 2 mm, 137 of 156 CBCT-to-US curves had a parallel residual motion and showed a statistical correlation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Soft-tissue monitoring with ultrasound is a fast real-time method without additional radiation exposure. Computer-controlled DIBH has a residual motion of <5 mm in >95% which is in line with the published intra-breath-hold-precision. Larger intrafractional deviations can be avoided if the beam is stopped at an US-defined threshold.


Assuntos
Suspensão da Respiração , Diafragma/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico Espiral/métodos , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fígado/fisiologia , Movimento (Física) , Movimento/fisiologia , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia
5.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 194(9): 815-823, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In this retrospective treatment planning study, the effect of a uniform and non-uniform planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage as well as a coplanar and non-coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery approach for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) were compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 46 patients with lesions in the peripheral lungs, three different treatment plans were generated: First, a coplanar 220° VMAT sequence with a uniform PTV dose prescription (UC). Second, a coplanar 220° VMAT treatment plan with a non-uniform dose distribution in the PTV (nUC). Third, a non-coplanar VMAT dose delivery with four couch angles (0°, ±35°, 90°) and a non-uniform prescription (nUnC) was used. All treatment plans were optimized for pareto-optimality with respect to PTV coverage and ipsilateral lung dose. Treatment sequences were delivered on a flattening-filter-free linear accelerator and beam-on times were recorded. Dosimetric comparison between the three techniques was performed. RESULTS: For the three scenarios (UC, nUC, nUnC), median gross tumor volume (GTV) doses were 63.4 ± 2.5, 74.4 ± 3.6, and 77.9 ± 3.8 Gy, and ipsilateral V10Gy lung volumes were 15.7 ± 6.1, 13.9 ± 4.7, and 12.0 ± 5.1%, respectively. Normal tissue complication probability of the ipsilateral lung was 3.9, 3.1, and 2.8%, respectively. The number of monitor units were 5141 ± 1174, 4104 ± 786, and 3657 ± 710 MU and the corresponding beam-on times were 177 ± 54, 143 ± 29, and 148 ± 26 s. CONCLUSION: For SBRT treatments in DIBH, a non-uniform dose prescription in the PTV, combined with a non-coplanar VMAT arc arrangement, significantly spares the ipsilateral lung while increasing dose to the GTV without major treatment time increase.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Adulto , Idoso , Suspensão da Respiração , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
6.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 194(9): 855-860, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In radiation therapy, the computer-assisted deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique is one approach to deal with respiratory motion of tumors in the lung, liver, or upper abdomen. However, inter- and intra-breath-hold deviations from an optimal static tumor position might occur. A novel method is presented to noninvasively measure the diaphragm position and thus estimate its residual deviation (as surrogate for the tumor position) based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projection data using active breathing control during acquisition. METHODS: The diaphragm dome (DD) position relative to the isocenter of a linear accelerator is known from the static (DIBH) planning CT. A ball-bearing phantom (BB) is placed at this position, a CBCT dataset is acquired, and in each projection the position of the projected BB is determined automatically based on thresholding. The position of the DD is determined manually in CBCT projections of a patient. The distance between DD and BB (ideal static setting) in craniocaudal direction is calculated for a given angle based on the distance in the projection plane and the relative position of the BB referring to the source and the detector. An angle-dependent correction factor is introduced which takes this geometrical setting into account. The accuracy of the method is assessed. RESULTS: The method allows a CBCT projection-based estimation of the deviation between the DD and its optimal position as defined in the planning CT, i.e., the residual motion of the DD can be assessed. The error of this estimation is 2.2 mm in craniocaudal direction. CONCLUSIONS: The developed method allows an offline estimation of the inspiration depth (inter- and intra-breath-hold) over time. It will be useful as a reference for comparison to other methods of residual motion estimation, e.g., surface scanning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Abdominais/radioterapia , Suspensão da Respiração , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Diafragma , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Movimentos dos Órgãos , Humanos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Imagens de Fantasmas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 192(9): 641-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393400

RESUMO

AIM: CT morphologic and histopathologic alterations have been reported after SBRT. We analyzed the correlation of MRI morphologic alterations with radiation doses to assess the potential for MRI-based dose-effect correlation in healthy liver tissue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRI data of 24 patients with liver metastases 7±3 weeks after image-guided SBRT in deep-inspiration breath-hold were retrospectively analyzed. MRI images were intermodally matched to the planning CT and corresponding dose distribution. Absolute doses were converted to EQD2,α/ß =x with α/ß values of 2, 3 for healthy liver tissue, 8 Gy for modelled predamaged liver tissue and 10 Gy for tumor tissue. RESULTS: A central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 48.2 ± 15.2 Gy, EQD2Gy/α/ß =10 92.5 ± 27.7 Gy. Contrast-enhancement around the central nonenhancing area was observed within the isodose lines of nominally 46.9 ± 15.3 Gy, EQD2Gy/α/ß =10 90.5 ± 28.3 Gy. Outside the high-dose volume, in the beam path, characteristic sharply defined, nonblurred MRI morphologic alterations were observed that corresponded with the following isodose lines: T1-intensity changes occurred at isodose lines of nominally 21.9 ± 6.7 Gy (EQD2,α/ß =2 42.5 ± 8.7 Gy, EQD2,α/ß =3 38.5 ± 7.6 Gy, EQD2,α/ß =8 30.2 ±6.3 Gy). T2-hyper/hypointensity was observed within isodose lines of nominally 22.4 ± 6.6 Gy (EQD2,α/ß=2 42.7 ± 8.1 Gy, EQD2,α/ß=3 38.7 ± 7 Gy; EQD2,α/ß=8 30.5 ± 5.9 Gy). CONCLUSIONS: Using deformable matching, direct spatial/dosimetric correlation of SBRT-induced changes in liver tissue was possible. In the PTV high-dose region, a central nonenhancing area and peripheral contrast medium accumulation was observed. Beam path doses of 38-42 Gy (EQD2,α/ß =2-3) induce characteristic MRI morphologic alterations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/efeitos da radiação , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 192(5): 312-21, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26864049

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Combined kV-MV cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a promising approach to accelerate imaging for patients with lung tumors treated with deep inspiration breath-hold. During a single breath-hold (15 s), a 3D kV-MV CBCT can be acquired, thus minimizing motion artifacts and increasing patient comfort. Prior to clinical implementation, positioning accuracy was evaluated and compared to clinically established imaging techniques. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An inhomogeneous thorax phantom with four tumor-mimicking inlays was imaged in 10 predefined positions and registered to a planning CT. Novel kV-MV CBCT imaging (90° arc) was compared to clinically established kV-chest CBCT (360°) as well as nonclinical kV-CBCT and low-dose MV-CBCT (each 180°). Manual registration, automatic registration provided by the manufacturer and an additional in-house developed manufacturer-independent framework based on the MATLAB registration toolkit were applied. RESULTS: Systematic setup error was reduced to 0.05 mm by high-precision phantom positioning with optical tracking. Stochastic mean displacement errors were 0.5 ± 0.3 mm in right-left, 0.4 ± 0.4 mm in anteroposterior and 0.0 ± 0.4 mm in craniocaudal directions for kV-MV CBCT with manual registration (maximum errors of no more than 1.4 mm). Clinical kV-chest CBCT resulted in mean errors of 0.2 mm (other modalities: 0.4-0.8 mm). Similar results were achieved with both automatic registration methods. CONCLUSION: The comparison study of repositioning accuracy between novel kV-MV CBCT and clinically established volume imaging demonstrated that registration accuracy is maintained below 1 mm. Since imaging time is reduced to one breath-hold, kV-MV CBCT is ideal for image guidance, e.g., in lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/instrumentação , Técnica de Subtração , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Integração de Sistemas
9.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 94(3): 478-92, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867877

RESUMO

Several recent developments in linear accelerator-based radiation therapy (RT) such as fast multileaf collimators, accelerated intensity modulation paradigms like volumeric modulated arc therapy and flattening filter-free (FFF) high-dose-rate therapy have dramatically shortened the duration of treatment fractions. Deliverable photon dose distributions have approached physical complexity limits as a consequence of precise dose calculation algorithms and online 3-dimensional image guided patient positioning (image guided RT). Simultaneously, beam quality and treatment speed have continuously been improved in particle beam therapy, especially for scanned particle beams. Applying complex treatment plans with steep dose gradients requires strategies to mitigate and compensate for motion effects in general, particularly breathing motion. Intrafractional breathing-related motion results in uncertainties in dose delivery and thus in target coverage. As a consequence, generous margins have been used, which, in turn, increases exposure to organs at risk. Particle therapy, particularly with scanned beams, poses additional problems such as interplay effects and range uncertainties. Among advanced strategies to compensate breathing motion such as beam gating and tracking, deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) gating is particularly advantageous in several respects, not only for hypofractionated, high single-dose stereotactic body RT of lung, liver, and upper abdominal lesions but also for normofractionated treatment of thoracic tumors such as lung cancer, mediastinal lymphomas, and breast cancer. This review provides an in-depth discussion of the rationale and technical implementation of DIBH gating for hypofractionated and normofractionated RT of intrathoracic and upper abdominal tumors in photon and proton RT.


Assuntos
Suspensão da Respiração , Inalação , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Coração/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Movimento , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radiografia , Respiração , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/radioterapia
10.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 192(3): 166-73, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-dose radiotherapy of lung cancer is challenging. Tumors may move by up to 2 cm in craniocaudal and anteroposterior directions as a function of breathing cycle. Tumor displacement increases with treatment time, which consequentially increases the treatment uncertainty. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed whether automatically gated cone-beam-CT (CBCT)-controlled intensity modulated fast deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in flattening filter free (FFF) technique and normofractionated lung DIBH intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments delivered with a flattening filter can be applied with sufficient accuracy within a clinically acceptable timeslot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plans of 34 patients with lung tumors were analyzed. Of these patients, 17 received computer-controlled fast DIBH SBRT with a dose of 60 Gy (5 fractions of 12 Gy or 12 fractions of 5 Gy) in an FFF VMAT technique (FFF-SBRT) every other day and 17 received conventional VMAT with a flattening filter (conv-VMAT) and 2-Gy daily fractional doses (cumulative dose 50-70 Gy). RESULTS: FFF-SBRT plans required more monitor units (MU) than conv-VMAT plans (2956.6 ± 885.3 MU for 12 Gy/fraction and 1148.7 ± 289.2 MU for 5 Gy/fraction vs. 608.4 ± 157.5 MU for 2 Gy/fraction). Total treatment and net beam-on times were shorter for FFF-SBRT plans than conv-VMAT plans (268.0 ± 74.4 s vs. 330.2 ± 93.6 s and 85.8 ± 25.3 s vs. 117.2 ± 29.6 s, respectively). Total slot time was 13.0 min for FFF-SBRT and 14.0 min for conv-VMAT. All modalities could be delivered accurately despite multiple beam-on/-off cycles and were robust against multiple interruptions. CONCLUSION: Automatically gated CBCT-controlled fast DIBH SBRT in VMAT FFF technique and normofractionated lung DIBH VMAT can be applied with a low number of breath-holds in a short timeslot, with excellent dosimetric accuracy. In clinical routine, these approaches combine optimally reduced lung tissue irradiation with maximal delivery precision for patients with small and larger lung tumors.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Respiratória/métodos , Suspensão da Respiração , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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