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Dermatol Ther ; 33(1): e13171, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750979


Both epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the crucial connection between air pollution exposure and skin disorders. The exact mechanisms by which air pollutants mediate skin damage remain largely unknown. Therefore, it is very necessary to investigate the mechanism of air pollution-induced skin damage and explore some potential protective and therapeutic methods. In this review, we focus on the qualitative and quantitative skin exposure assessment methodologies-a relatively new field of interdisciplinary research.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci ; 6(8): 1458-1461, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159077


BACKGROUND: Hydroxyurea (HU) is an antimetabolite agent that interferes with the S-phase of cellular replication and inhibits DNA synthesis, with little or no effect on RNA or protein synthesis. It is used in the treatment of many myeloproliferative disorders (MD) and is particularly a first line treatment drug for intermediate to high-risk essential thrombocythemia. Although safe and very well tolerated by the patients suffering from MD, there have been numerous reports of a broad palette of cutaneous side effects associated with prolonged intake of the medication. These may include classical symptoms such as xerosis, diffuse hyperpigmentation, brown-nail discolouration, stomatitis and scaling of the face, hands, and feet or more serious side effects such as actinic keratosis lesions, leg ulcers and multiple skin carcinomas. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 52-year-old man, on long-term therapy with HU for essential thrombocytosis, with several concurrent skin lesions. Despite the perennial use of HU, the cutaneous changes were neglected. The local dermatological examination revealed oval perimalleolar ulcer on the right leg, with dimensions 6 x 4 cm, clearly demarcated from the surroundings with regular margins, periulcerous erythema, with very deep and highly fibrinous bed of the ulcer, positive for bacterial infection. The ulcer was treated with topical wound therapy with alginate and parenteral antibiotics. The extended dermatological screening also showed two nummular lesions in the right brachial region, presenting as erythematous papules with sharp margins from the surrounding skin, gritty desquamation and dotted hyperpigmentations inside the lesion. Further dermoscopy and biopsy investigations confirmed a diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Nasal actinic keratosis was also noted. The patient was advised for discontinuing or substituting the HU therapy. CONCLUSION: We present this case to draw attention to the various cutaneous side effects that occur with perennial HU use and suggest an obligatory reference to a dermatological consult.

Open Access Maced J Med Sci ; 6(3): 511-518, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610610


BACKGROUND: In the past several decades, the increasing frequency of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the world has become a public health problem. It has contributed significantly to the already high tide of diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. AIM: To investigate the frequency of insulin resistance and to evaluate the metabolic profile of insulin resistant and non-insulin resistant obese children and adolescents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 96 (45 boys, 51 girls) obese children and adolescents aged 4-17 years old (10.50 ± 2.87 years). Only participants with Body Mass Index ≥ 95 percentile were included. We analysed sera for fasting insulin levels (FI), fasting serum triglycerides (TG), total serum cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and plasma glucose 2 hours after the performance of the oral glucose tolerance test (2-h G). Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated as fasting insulin concentration (microunits per millilitre) x fasting glucose concentration (millimolar)/22.5. The value of HOMA-IR above 3.16 was used as a cut-off value for both genders. RESULTS: Insulin resistance was determined in 58.33% of study participants. Insulin resistant participants had significantly higher level of 2-h G (p = 0.02), FI level (p = 0.000) as well as TG levels (p = 0.01), compared to non-insulin resistant group. Strikingly, 70.73% of the pubertal adolescents were insulin resistant in comparison to 49.09% of the preadolescents (p = 0.03). Significantly higher percentage of insulin-resistant participants were girls (p = 0.009). Moreover, a higher percentage of the girls (70.59%) than boys (44.44%) had HOMA-IR above 3.16 and had elevated FI levels (70.59% vs 48.89%). The difference in the frequency of insulin resistance among obese versus severely obese children and adolescents was not significant (p = 0.73, p > 0.05). Our study results also showed positive, but weak, correlation of HOMA-IR with age, FPG, TG and BMI of the participants (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher percentage of insulin-resistant participants was of female gender and was adolescents. In general, insulin resistant obese children and adolescents tend to have a worse metabolic profile in comparison to individuals without insulin resistance. It is of note that the highest insulin resistance was also linked with the highest concentrations of triglycerides.