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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1213-e1222, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regimens for palliation in patients with head and neck cancer recommended by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have low applicability (less than 1-3%) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) because of their cost. In a previous phase 2 study, patients with head and neck cancer who received metronomic chemotherapy had better outcomes when compared with those who received intravenous cisplatin, which is commonly used as the standard of care in LMICs. We aimed to do a phase 3 study to substantiate these findings. METHODS: We did an open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial at the Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Center, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India. We enrolled adult patients (aged 18-70 years) who planned to receive palliative systemic treatment for relapsed, recurrent, or newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and who had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0-1 and measurable disease, as defined by the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to receive either oral metronomic chemotherapy, consisting of 15 mg/m2 methotrexate once per week plus 200 mg celecoxib twice per day until disease progression or until the development of intolerable side-effects, or 75 mg/m2 intravenous cisplatin once every 3 weeks for six cycles. Randomisation was done by use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence, with a block size of four, and patients were stratified by primary tumour site and previous cancer-directed treatment. The primary endpoint was median overall survival. Assuming that 6-month overall survival in the intravenous cisplatin group would be 40%, a non-inferiority margin of 13% was defined. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were done. All patients who completed at least one cycle of the assigned treatment were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry-India, CTRI/2015/11/006388, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between May 16, 2016, and Jan 17, 2020, 422 patients were randomly assigned: 213 to the oral metronomic chemotherapy group and 209 to the intravenous cisplatin group. All 422 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis, and 418 patients (211 in the oral metronomic chemotherapy group and 207 in the intravenous cisplatin group) were included in the per-protocol analysis. At a median follow-up of 15·73 months, median overall survival in the intention-to-treat analysis population was 7·5 months (IQR 4·6-12·6) in the oral metronomic chemotherapy group compared with 6·1 months (3·2-9·6) in the intravenous cisplatin group (unadjusted HR for death 0·773 [95% CI 0·615-0·97, p=0·026]). In the per-protocol analysis population, median overall survival was 7·5 months (4·7-12·8) in the oral metronomic chemotherapy group and 6·1 months (3·4-9·6) in the intravenous cisplatin group (unadjusted HR for death 0·775 [95% CI 0·616-0·974, p=0·029]). Grade 3 or higher adverse events were observed in 37 (19%) of 196 patients in the oral metronomic chemotherapy group versus 61 (30%) of 202 patients in the intravenous cisplatin group (p=0·01). INTERPRETATION: Oral metronomic chemotherapy is non-inferior to intravenous cisplatin with respect to overall survival in head and neck cancer in the palliative setting, and is associated with fewer adverse events. It therefore represents a new alternative standard of care if current NCCN-approved options for palliative therapy are not feasible. FUNDING: Tata Memorial Center Research Administration Council. TRANSLATIONS: For the Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Telugu, Oriya, Bengali, and Punjabi translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/economia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Metronômica , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Cancer Med ; 9(13): 4676-4685, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relapsed high-grade glioma has dismal outcomes. Mebendazole has shown promising activity against glioma in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Hence, we undertook a phase 1 study to repurpose mebendazole in the treatment of glioblastoma. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 study (accelerated titrated design 4) of mebendazole in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Patients eligible for re-irradiation were enrolled in arm A1 (radiation with concurrent temozolomide 75 mg/m2 daily during the course of radiation+mebendazole) while patients who were ineligible were enrolled in either arm B1 (CCNU 110 mg/m2 day 1, every 6 weekly + mebendazole) or arm C1 (temozolomide 200 mg/m2 day 1-5, every 4 weekly + mebendazole). The primary endpoint of phase 1 was to identify the MTD of mebendazole in each combination. FINDINGS: 11 patients were enrolled in the whole study. MTD of mebendazole was not reached in arm A1 and C1 and hence the recommended dose for phase 2 was 1600 mg TDS (4800 mg) per day. The MTD of mebendazole in combination with CCNU was 1600 mg TDS (4800 mg) per day and the dose recommended for phase 2 was 800 mg TDS (2400 mg) per day. The three most common adverse events seen in the study were anemia (n = 9, 81.8%), nausea (n = 7, 63.6%), and fatigue (n = 6, 55.5%). INTERPRETATION: The recommended phase 2 dose of mebendazole is 1600 mg TDS with temozolomide and temozolomide-radiation combination while the dose of 800 mg TDS needs to be used with single-agent CCNU.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Feminino , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Humanos , Lomustina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Mebendazol/efeitos adversos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Reirradiação , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem
3.
South Asian J Cancer ; 9(4): 209-212, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268260

RESUMO

Background Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a rare group of cancers with limited data with respect to advanced unresectable cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Materials and Methods The study is a retrospective study of patients with advanced unresectable/metastatic CCA, who received first-line palliative chemotherapy (CT1) from January 2014 to March 2019 at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai. Baseline clinical characteristics, chemotherapeutic regimens, and toxicities were evaluated. Results One hundred and forty patients satisfied criteria for evaluation. Median age of the entire cohort was 57 years (range: 32-80). There were 87 patients (62.1%) with intrahepatic CCA, 35 patients (25%) with perihilar CCA, and 14 patients (10%) with distal CCA. One hundred and twelve patients (80%) had metastatic disease at presentation. Commonest CT1 regimens were gemcitabine-cisplatin (GC) in 89 patients (63.5%) and gemcitabine-oxaliplatin (GO) in 34 patients (24.3%). Sixty-three patients (45%) received second-line chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 27 months, median progression-free survival for the entire cohort was 7.56 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.23-8.88), and median OS was 12.16 months (95% CI: 10.08-14.24). Common chemotherapy-related grade 3/4 side effects included vomiting in 25 patients (17.9%), diarrhea in 23 patients (16.4%), and thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (15.7%). Conclusion The current study in advanced CCAs is the largest of its nature from India. The common regimens used as first line were GC and GO. Tolerance and overall survival appear similar to previously published data.

4.
Oncotarget ; 10(59): 6297-6307, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695838

RESUMO

Background: We planned to compare pemetrexed maintenance with erlotinib maintenance in non squamous non Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutated non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The null hypothesis for this study was that there would be no difference in quality of life (QOL) between pemetrexed and erlotinib maintenance. Results: The QL2 scores at 3 months were 63.35 (SD 24.99) in pemetrexed arm and 63.01(SD 23.04) in erlotinib arm (p-0.793). Except in 1 domain, the scores were statistically similar between the 2 arms. In the domain of diarrhea, the score was higher as expected in the erlotinib arm (p-0.048). The median progression free survival was 4.5 months (95%CI 4.1-4.9 months) in pemetrexed arm versus 4.5 months (95%CI 3.8-5.2 months) in erlotinib arm (p-0.94). The median overall survival was 16.6 months (15.2-17.9 months) in pemetrexed arm versus 18.3 months (95% CI 13.75-22.91 months) in erlotinib arm (p-0.49). Methods: The study was an open label, single centre, parallel, phase 3 randomized study with 1:1 randomization between maintenance pemetrexed arm and erlotinib arm. Adult patients (age > or = 18 years), with non squamous EGFR mutation, treated with first line palliative therapy, with non progressive disease post 4-6 cycles of pemetrexed-carboplatin were randomized. Primary outcome was change in the score of QOL (Global health status {QL2}) at 3 months. We estimated that with 200 patients, the study had 80% power to detect a significant difference between the two groups in the change in the global health status score at 3 months with an alpha error of 5%, with an effect size of 0.3 SD. Conclusions: Maintenance pemetrexed post pemetrexed-platinum chemotherapy fails to improve QOL or time to event outcomes over maintenance erlotinib in EGFR mutation negative NSCLC.

5.
South Asian J Cancer ; 8(3): 173-177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489292

RESUMO

Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare malignancy. We conducted an audit of systemic therapies received in palliative setting in carcinoma nasopharynx and studied their outcomes. Methods: Patients who underwent first-line palliative systemic chemotherapy between January 2014 and April 2017 for carcinoma nasopharynx at the department of medical oncology at authors' institute were selected for this analysis. Toxicities, responses, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. In addition, a Quality-Adjusted Time without Symptoms or Toxicity analysis with threshold utility analysis was performed. Results: Fifty-one patients were included in this analysis. The indication of palliative chemotherapy was locoregionally recurrent disease in 25 (49.0%) patients and metastatic disease in 26 (51.0%) patients. The overall response rate was 62.0% (n = 33). The median PFS was 225 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 164-274 days) and median OS was 513 days (95% CI: 286-931 days). The restricted mean TOX state duration was 2.6 days (95% CI: 0.3-4.9), restricted mean TWiST duration was 219.2 days (95% CI: 184.0-254.4), and restricted mean REL duration was 74.3 days (95% CI: 38.1-110.4). Conclusion: Systemic cytotoxic therapy in nasopharyngeal cancers is associated with high response rates and clinically meaningful PFS; with low duration of time spent in adverse events.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(32): 3032-3041, 2019 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Platinum-resistant oral cancer has a dismal outcome with limited treatment options. We conducted a phase I/II study to identify the optimal biologic dose (OBD) of methotrexate when given along with erlotinib and celecoxib and to assess the efficacy of this three-drug regimen in advanced oral cancer. METHODS: Patients with platinum-resistant or early-failure squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity were eligible for this study. They were orally administered erlotinib 150 mg once per day, celecoxib 200 mg twice per day, and methotrexate per week. The primary end point of phase I was to determine the OBD of methotrexate, and that of phase II was to determine the 3-month progression-free survival. The OBD of methotrexate was determined on the basis of the clinical benefit rate at 2 months and circulating endothelial cell level at day 8, using a de-escalation model. Pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed during phase I. Phase II consisted of an expansion cohort of 76 patients. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were recruited in phase I, and 9 mg/m2 methotrexate was identified as the OBD. A total of 91 patients were recruited, and the median follow-up was 6.8 months (range, 0 to 16.8 months). The 3-month progression-free survival rate was 71.1% (95% CI, 60.5% to 79.3%), the 6-month overall survival rate was 61.2% (95% CI, 49.2% to 67.8%), and the response rate was 42.9% (95% CI, 33.2% to 53.1%; n = 39). The mean Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Trial Outcome Index score at day 8 was improved by 6.1 units (standard deviation, 13.6 units) and was maintained around this magnitude (P = .001). CONCLUSION: Triple oral metronomic chemotherapy with erlotinib, methotrexate, and celecoxib is efficacious in platinum-refractory oral cavity cancers and represents a new therapeutic option in patients with poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Metronômica , Adulto , Idoso , Celecoxib/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
7.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3184-3197, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because the addition of nimotuzumab to chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer improved outcomes in a phase 2 study, the authors conducted a phase 3 study to confirm these findings. METHODS: This open-label, investigator-initiated, phase 3, randomized trial was conducted from 2012 to 2018. Adult patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer who were fit for radical chemoradiation were randomized 1:1 to receive either radical radiotherapy (66-70 grays) with concurrent weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m2 ) (CRT) or the same schedule of CRT with weekly nimotuzumab (200 mg) (NCRT).The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); key secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), duration of locoregional control (LRC), and overall survival (OS). An intent-to-treat analysis also was performed. RESULTS: In total, 536 patients were allocated equally to both treatment arms. The median follow-up was 39.13 months. The addition of nimotuzumab improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53-0.89; P = .004), LRC (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50-0.89; P = .006), and DFS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P = .008) and had a trend toward improved OS (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.08; P = .163). Grade 3 through 5 adverse events were similar between the 2 arms, except for a higher incidence of mucositis in the NCRT arm (66.7% vs 55.8%; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of nimotuzumab to concurrent weekly CRT improves PFS, LRC, and DFS. This combination provides a novel alternative therapeutic option to a 3-weekly schedule of 100 mg/m2 cisplatin in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer who are treated with radical-intent CRT.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosite/etiologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27877, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of osteosarcoma is challenging especially in lower-income and middle-income countries, and there is an unmet need to evolve efficient and sustainable chemotherapy regimens. METHODS: We compared the outcomes in nonmetastatic osteosarcoma patients treated with three sequential non-high-dose methotrexate-based combination chemotherapy protocols at a single tertiary care center over two decades. The first protocol, OGS-99, involved dose-intense, alternating dyads of three drugs: doxorubicin (Dox), cisplatin (CDDP), and ifosfamide (Ifo). The second protocol, OGS-99 enhanced, included OGS-99 drugs with etoposide and enhanced supportive care. The OGS-12 protocol involved dose-dense administration of eight sequential dyads of Dox, CDDP and Ifo, universal growth factor prophylaxis and targeted nutritional support. Event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity were reported using a retrospective chart review in the OGS-99 and OGS-99 enhanced protocols and prospectively in the OGS-12 protocol. RESULTS: A total of 41, 94, and 385 treatment-naïve, consecutive, nonmetastatic patients with extremity osteosarcoma were treated with the OGS-99 (2000-2005), OGS-99 enhanced (2010), and OGS-12 (2011-2016), respectively. At a median follow-up of 19, 86, and 39 months, the five-year EFS rates were 38%, 50%, and 62% in the OGS-99, OGS-99 enhanced, and OGS-12, respectively. The corresponding rates of five-year OS were nonevaluable, 60% and 77%, respectively, with acceptable rates of grade 3-4 toxicities: febrile neutropenia (40%), thrombocytopenia (36%), anemia (51%), and 1% deaths related to toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential selection of an intelligent, dose-dense chemotherapy regimen together with enhanced supportive care resulted in marked improvement in outcomes of nonmetastatic osteosarcoma and this "small steps-big changes" model deserves wider recognition and usage.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ósseas , Osteossarcoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Criança , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ifosfamida/efeitos adversos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
South Asian J Cancer ; 7(4): 219-222, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430086

RESUMO

Background: Modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) is a commonly used combination second-line chemotherapeutic regimen in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with AGC, receiving biweekly mFOLFIRI between July 2013 and June 2016, as second-line chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed for tolerance, prognostic factors, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Overall, 91 patients were administered a median of 6 cycles of therapy. Response rate was 29.7% and clinical benefit rate was 57.2%. With a median follow-up of 11.5 months, median EFS was 3.98 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.54-5.41) and median OS was 7.73 months (95% CI: 5.30-10.15). Common Grade 3 and Grade 4 adverse events were neutropenia (18.7%), febrile neutropenia (9.9%), thrombocytopenia (7.7%), and vomiting (4.4%). Nearly 33% of patients required dose modification during therapy. Conclusions: mFOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy in AGCs appears feasible and efficacious in clinical practice.

10.
J Glob Oncol ; 4: 1-10, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241240

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Metastatic osteosarcoma is largely treated with high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based therapy, especially in the pediatric population. This mandates complex pharmacokinetic monitoring in a costly inpatient setting to mitigate unpredictable serious toxicities. Hence, a non-HDMTX-based regimen is worth exploring, especially in India and low- and middle-income countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive treatment-naïve patients with metastatic osteosarcoma were prospectively treated on the novel OGS-12 protocol consisting of sequential doublets of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide. Four cycles were administered as neoadjuvant therapy followed by planned curative intent surgery and metastasectomy when feasible, followed by four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Baseline characteristics, histologic response, event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity data were prospectively collected. RESULTS: Three hundred seventeen patients were enrolled onto the OGS-12 protocol from 2011 to 2014, of whom 80 (25%) had metastatic disease; median age was 17 years. The majority of patients were nutritionally challenged with high-risk features. At presentation, 83% of patients (66 patients) had lung metastases. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 57% of patients were histologically good responders. Four-year EFS and OS rates were 24% and 27%, respectively, in the intent-to-treat population and 27% and 29%, respectively, in the per-protocol analysis. Significant grade 3 or 4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (51%), thrombocytopenia (36%), and anemia (54%). Histologic response was an independent predictor for EFS and OS in patients who underwent surgery. Surgical intervention was found to be significant for survival in univariable analysis. CONCLUSION: The novel, low-cost, non-HDMTX-based, dose-dense OGS-12 regimen has shown comparable outcomes to international standards in metastatic osteosarcomas and is worthy of wider clinical application. An aggressive multimodality approach may result in long-term survival in a select group of patients and, hence, is worth considering.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Brachytherapy ; 17(2): 345-351, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term disease control and toxicity to the organs at risk after dose-escalated image-based adaptive brachytherapy (BT) in cervical cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty patients of cervical cancer were treated with external radiotherapy 46 Gy in 23 fractions with weekly cisplatin and MRI-guided BT 7 Gy × 4 fractions with a minimum dose of 85.7 Gy (EQD2) to the high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV). The BT dose was initially prescribed to point A and plans were optimized to ensure coverage of both point A and HRCTV while maintaining doses to the organs at risk within the recommended constraints. Patients were followed up clinically every three months for the first two years and six months thereafter. Toxicity scoring for urinary and bowel symptoms was done using CTCAE version 3.0. RESULTS: The mean doses to the point A and D90 HRCTV were 85.5 (±2.75) Gy and 98.4 (±9.6) Gy EQD2 respectively. The mean 2 cc EQD2, the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 90.6 Gy, 70.2 Gy, and 74.2 Gy respectively. The overall survival at a median followup of 49.8 months was 91.66%. Six (10%) patients developed grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. One patient developed grade 3 bladder toxicity. The incidence of bladder, rectal, and sigmoid toxicity increased significantly with doses >85 Gy, 66 Gy, and >71 Gy EQD2 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While the incidence of grade 3-4 toxicity was low (8.3% for gastrointestinal toxicity and 1.6% for bladder), the threshold for development of grade 1-2 bladder and rectal toxicity was lower than the doses recommended by the GEC-ESTRO group. By adhering to volume-based prescriptions, there is scope of further reduction in toxicity to organs at risk.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Colo Sigmoide/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética Intervencionista , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Taxa de Sobrevida , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 85: 49-58, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based regimens are widely used in osteosarcoma. However, mandatory in-patient treatment with complex pharmacokinetic monitoring requirement precludes its use, especially in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: All treatment naive consecutive patients of osteosarcoma were prospectively treated on a novel institutional regimen (named OGS-12) comprising of eight sequential doublets of the following drugs: doxorubicin, cisplatin and ifosfamide in four courses each, given in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings. Data were prospectively collected on baseline characteristics, histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), toxicity, event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2014, 317 treatment naive patients with extremity osteosarcoma were seen, of whom 237 (75%) were non-metastatic. Majority had high tumour burden, with mean tumour size of 10.45 cm, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) in 71% and 88% respectively. A significant number (34%) were nutritionally challenged. Two-hundred ten of 237 patients were analysable for histological response of which 58% had good response (viable cells ≤10%). At the median follow-up of 34.31 (2-60) months, in intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, the 5-year EFS and OS were 56% and 75% respectively; the same were 60% and 80% in per-protocol analysis. There was febrile neutropenia (FN) in 56%, grade 3/4 thrombocytopaenia in 22% and anaemia in 47% with two chemotoxic deaths. Ten percent of the patients had grade 3/4 diarrhoea and stomatitis and one patient developed grade 4 acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. Baseline SAP (per-protocol) for EFS and performance status (ITT) for OS were found to be independent variables. Histological response was an independent predictor for EFS and OS in both the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In treatment naive patients with non-metastatic osteosarcoma, OGS-12 protocol, a dose-dense, non-HDMTX-based, novel, economic and easy to administer regimen produces comparable outcomes to international standards, with acceptable toxicity and is worthy of wider clinical application.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Criança , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Países em Desenvolvimento , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Índia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28138587

RESUMO

Recurrences of colon cancer occurs in 30-40% of the patients after successful initial therapy and most commonly occur at distant sites like liver, lungs and lymph nodes. Here we present a patient who presented with localized metachronous recurrences of colonic cancer over a span of 20 years; each time presenting in stage II and was successfully salvaged with surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Recurrences were detected on screening colonoscopy at each instance. We also discuss the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II colon cancer, current indications of chemotherapy and the role of gene assays. The independent survival benefit conferred by screening treated patients with colon cancer is also highlighted.

14.
J Contemp Brachytherapy ; 7(2): 142-6, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26034495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy of oral tongue and to evaluate the possible causes of neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty one patients who underwent interstitial brachytherapy for early cancer of oral tongue were evaluated. The patients either underwent primary brachytherapy (42-48 Gy at 3-4 Gy/fraction) or a boost (18-24 Gy at 3 Gy/fraction) after external radiation to 40 Gy. Lingual nerve was the nerve concerned and the sublingual space (SLS) was contoured as its surrogate. Dosimetric parameters were correlated with onset of pain. RESULTS: Ten patients out of 21 (47.61%) developed painful neuropathy. Five patients of six (5/6) who underwent primary brachytherapy developed neuropathy. Five out of 15 (5/15) patients who underwent brachytherapy as a boost developed neuropathy. The patients who underwent primary brachytherapy were ten times more likely to develop neuropathy. Among the patients receiving boost treatment, the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) to 2 cc of SLS was higher (39.25 Gy) in the patients who developed pain compared to those without pain (10.29 Gy). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to recognize neuropathic pain as a complication of HDR brachytherapy of oral tongue. Patients undergoing primary brachytherapy were more likely to develop pain. Among other factors like dose to SLS, number of catheters, size of the primary tumor, and the dose rate, only dose to 2 cc of the SLS correlated with onset of pain. The SLS (containing the lingual nerve) may be considered an organ at risk to prevent the occurrence of this complication.

16.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 5(4): 276-9, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25083301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) is a distinct pathological entity associated with poor outcome. Due to different biological behavior, the response to neoadjuvant chemo-radiation (NACRT) may be inferior compared to non-mucinous tumours. In this study we compare the pathological response of mucinous tumours after NACRT. METHODS: A total of 183 patients who underwent NACRT for rectal cancer were classified as mucinous and non-MAs. The dose of radiation was 45 Gy (at 1.8 Gy per fraction) delivered over five weeks with weekly 5-flourouracil (5-FU) (325 mg/m(2)) and leucovorin (20 mg/m(2)). After surgery, the pathological specimens were evaluated and staged. The data are reported as descriptive statistics and chi-square test used to determine difference in proportions. RESULTS: The two varieties were comparable on the basis of the computed tomography (CT) scan in terms of tumour size and lymph node metastasis. However in terms of pathological response, it was seen that there was a higher incidence of pT4 tumours (73.5% vs. 10.7%), margin positivity (11.7% vs. 2.3%) and advanced nodal disease pN2 (29.4% vs. 9.3%) in mucinous and non-mucinous tumours respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MA of the rectum show a poor response to NACRT as seen in terms of larger residual tumours, higher incidence of margin positivity, and greater residual nodal disease. Also they showed higher incidence of peritoneal and distant dissemination during NACRT. The role of NACRT in mucinous carcinoma of the rectum is of questionable benefit and needs to be examined in prospective trials.

17.
Brachytherapy ; 13(6): 562-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25030951

RESUMO

PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: To assess the variation in the doses received by the organs at risk (OARs) that can occur during treatment planning of cervical cancer by image-based brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: After intracavitary application, two sets of images-CT and MRI-were obtained. The two sets of images were fused together with respect to the applicator. Contouring was done separately on CT and MR images. Dose received by the OARs on CT images with respect to the plans made on the MR images was estimated and compared with those on the MR images. RESULTS: Although there was always a difference between the dose received by the OARs based on the CT and MRI contours, it was not significant for the bladder and rectum; 2 cc doses differed by 0.49 Gy (±0.44) p = 0.28 for the bladder and 0.30 Gy (±0.29) p = 0.16 for the rectum. The 1 cc and 0.1 cc differences were also not significant. However for the sigmoid colon, there was significant intrafraction variation in the 2 cc doses 0.61 (±0.6) p = 0.001, 1 cc doses 0.73 (±0.67) Gy p = 0.00, and 0.1 cc dose 0.97 (±0.93) Gy p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in the doses to the OARs must be considered while weighing target coverage against overdose to the OARs. Although not significant for the bladder and rectum, it was significant for the sigmoid colon. Estimated doses to OARs on the planning system may not be the same dose delivered at the time of treatment.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Órgãos em Risco/fisiologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Colo Sigmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 15(8): 3619-23, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24870767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the vaginal dose and toxicity in patients of cervical cancer treated with image guided brachytherapy at our institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients treated with image based brachytherapy for cervical cancer were included. Vaginal contouring was done on MRI at brachytherapy and with CT scans of subsequent brachytherapy fractions. Dose volume parameters (DVH) were reported in accordance with the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. These were correlated with vaginal toxicity (assessed by CTCAE version 3) and quality of sexual life assessed at one year of completion of treatment. RESULTS: Vaginal shortness was observed in 22 out of 30 (62.8%) patients, Nine (25.7%) had vaginal dryness and in 10 (28.5%) patients, there was contact bleeding. No association could be demonstrated between the dose volume parameters and vaginal toxicity in the present study. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of association between dose volume parameters of vagina with vaginal morbidity may be due to uncertainties involved in the delineation of vaginal wall and dosimetry. Future research is required to accurately define vaginal dose distribution to study its correlation with vaginal morbidity. Vaginal morbidity needs to be documented in order to improve the sexual outcome in these patients.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/radioterapia , Doenças Vaginais/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças Vaginais/diagnóstico por imagem
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