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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(7): 671-681, July 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-595699

RESUMO

The limited amount of information on the primary age-related deficiencies in the innate immune system led us to study the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and cytokines in macrophages of young (8 weeks old) and old (72 weeks old) female BALB/c mice. We first evaluated iNOS and arginase inducers on peritoneal (PMΦ) and bone marrow-derived (BMMΦ) macrophages of young BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and then investigated their effects on macrophages of old mice. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resident and thioglycolate-elicited PMΦ from young mice presented higher iNOS activity than those from old mice (54.4 percent). However, LPS-stimulated BMMΦ from old mice showed the highest NO levels (50.1 percent). Identical NO levels were produced by PMΦ and BMMΦ of both young and old mice stimulated with interferon-γ. Arginase activity was higher in resident and elicited PMΦ of young mice stimulated with LPS (48.8 and 32.7 percent, respectively) and in resident PMΦ stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4 (64 percent). BMMΦ of old mice, however, showed higher arginase activity after treatment with IL-4 (46.5 percent). In response to LPS, PMΦ from old mice showed the highest levels of IL-1α (772.3 ± 51.9 pg/mL), whereas, those from young mice produced the highest amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (937.2 ± 132.1 pg/mL). Only TNF-α was expressed in LPS-treated BMMΦ, and cells from old mice showed the highest levels of this cytokine (994.1 ± 49.42 pg/mL). Overall, these results suggest that macrophages from young and old mice respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, depending on the source and maturity of the cell donors.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arginase/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Macrófagos/metabolismo
2.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 44(7): 671-81, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21625821

RESUMO

The limited amount of information on the primary age-related deficiencies in the innate immune system led us to study the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and cytokines in macrophages of young (8 weeks old) and old (72 weeks old) female BALB/c mice. We first evaluated iNOS and arginase inducers on peritoneal (PMΦ) and bone marrow-derived (BMMΦ) macrophages of young BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and then investigated their effects on macrophages of old mice. Upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resident and thioglycolate-elicited PMΦ from young mice presented higher iNOS activity than those from old mice (54.4%). However, LPS-stimulated BMMΦ from old mice showed the highest NO levels (50.1%). Identical NO levels were produced by PMΦ and BMMΦ of both young and old mice stimulated with interferon-γ. Arginase activity was higher in resident and elicited PMΦ of young mice stimulated with LPS (48.8 and 32.7%, respectively) and in resident PMΦ stimulated with interleukin (IL)-4 (64%). BMMΦ of old mice, however, showed higher arginase activity after treatment with IL-4 (46.5%). In response to LPS, PMΦ from old mice showed the highest levels of IL-1α (772.3 ± 51.9 pg/mL), whereas, those from young mice produced the highest amounts of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (937.2 ± 132.1 pg/mL). Only TNF-α was expressed in LPS-treated BMMΦ, and cells from old mice showed the highest levels of this cytokine (994.1 ± 49.42 pg/mL). Overall, these results suggest that macrophages from young and old mice respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, depending on the source and maturity of the cell donors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Arginase/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/biossíntese , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(1): 68-76, Jan. 2010. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-535644

RESUMO

Oral tolerance can be induced in some mouse strains by gavage or spontaneous ingestion of dietary antigens. In the present study, we determined the influence of aging and oral tolerance on the secretion of co-stimulatory molecules by dendritic cells (DC), and on the ability of DC to induce proliferation and cytokine secretion by naive T cells from BALB/c and OVA transgenic (DO11.10) mice. We observed that oral tolerance could be induced in BALB/c mice (N = 5 in each group) of all ages (8, 20, 40, 60, and 80 weeks old), although a decline in specific antibody levels was observed in the sera of both tolerized and immunized mice with advancing age (40 to 80 weeks old). DC obtained from young, adult and middle-aged (8, 20, and 40 weeks old) tolerized mice were less efficient (65, 17 and 20 percent, respectively) than DC from immunized mice (P < 0.05) in inducing antigen-specific proliferation of naive T cells from both BALB/c and DO11.10 young mice, or in stimulating IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-10 production. However, TGF-â levels were significantly elevated in co-cultures carried out with DC from tolerant mice (P < 0.05). DC from both immunized and tolerized old and very old (60 and 80 weeks old) mice were equally ineffective in inducing T cell proliferation and cytokine production (P < 0.05). A marked reduction in CD86+ marker expression was observed in DC isolated from both old and tolerized mice (75 and 50 percent, respectively). The results indicate that the aging process does not interfere with the establishment of oral tolerance in BALB/c mice, but reduces DC functions, probably due to the decline of the expression of the CD86 surface marker.


Assuntos
Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , /imunologia , /imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 43(1): 68-76, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19967261

RESUMO

Oral tolerance can be induced in some mouse strains by gavage or spontaneous ingestion of dietary antigens. In the present study, we determined the influence of aging and oral tolerance on the secretion of co-stimulatory molecules by dendritic cells (DC), and on the ability of DC to induce proliferation and cytokine secretion by naive T cells from BALB/c and OVA transgenic (DO11.10) mice. We observed that oral tolerance could be induced in BALB/c mice (N = 5 in each group) of all ages (8, 20, 40, 60, and 80 weeks old), although a decline in specific antibody levels was observed in the sera of both tolerized and immunized mice with advancing age (40 to 80 weeks old). DC obtained from young, adult and middle-aged (8, 20, and 40 weeks old) tolerized mice were less efficient (65, 17 and 20%, respectively) than DC from immunized mice (P < 0.05) in inducing antigen-specific proliferation of naive T cells from both BALB/c and DO11.10 young mice, or in stimulating IFN-g, IL-4 and IL-10 production. However, TGF-beta levels were significantly elevated in co-cultures carried out with DC from tolerant mice (P < 0.05). DC from both immunized and tolerized old and very old (60 and 80 weeks old) mice were equally ineffective in inducing T cell proliferation and cytokine production (P < 0.05). A marked reduction in CD86+ marker expression was observed in DC isolated from both old and tolerized mice (75 and 50%, respectively). The results indicate that the aging process does not interfere with the establishment of oral tolerance in BALB/c mice, but reduces DC functions, probably due to the decline of the expression of the CD86 surface marker.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos
5.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 40(8): 1111-20, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17665048

RESUMO

Aging is accompanied by a decrease in several physiological functions that make older individuals less responsive to environmental challenges. In the present study, we analyzed the immune response of female BALB/c mice (N = 6) of different ages (from 2 to 96 weeks) and identified significant age-related alterations. Immunization with hapten-protein (trinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) conjugates resulted in lower antibody levels in the primary and secondary responses of old mice (72 weeks old). Moreover, young mice (2, 16, and 32 weeks old) maintained specific antibodies in their sera for longer periods after primary immunization than did old mice. However, a secondary challenge efficiently induced memory in old mice, as shown by the increased antibody levels in their sera. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen increased until 8 weeks of age but there was no change in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio with aging. Splenic T cells from old mice that had or had not been immunized were less responsive to concanavalin-A and showed reduced cytokine production compared to young mice (IL-2: 57-127 vs 367-1104 pg/mL, IFN-gamma: 2344-12,836 vs 752-23,106 pg/mL and IL-10: 393-2172 vs 105-2869 pg/mL in old and young mice, respectively). These data suggest that there are significant changes in the organization of the immune system throughout life. However, the relevance of these alterations for the functioning of the immune system is unknown.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Haptenos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Relação CD4-CD8 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Feminino , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Baço/citologia
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(8): 1111-1120, Aug. 2007. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-456804

RESUMO

Aging is accompanied by a decrease in several physiological functions that make older individuals less responsive to environmental challenges. In the present study, we analyzed the immune response of female BALB/c mice (N = 6) of different ages (from 2 to 96 weeks) and identified significant age-related alterations. Immunization with hapten-protein (trinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin) conjugates resulted in lower antibody levels in the primary and secondary responses of old mice (72 weeks old). Moreover, young mice (2, 16, and 32 weeks old) maintained specific antibodies in their sera for longer periods after primary immunization than did old mice. However, a secondary challenge efficiently induced memory in old mice, as shown by the increased antibody levels in their sera. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen increased until 8 weeks of age but there was no change in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio with aging. Splenic T cells from old mice that had or had not been immunized were less responsive to concanavalin-A and showed reduced cytokine production compared to young mice (IL-2: 57-127 vs 367-1104 pg/mL, IFN-g: 2344-12,836 vs 752-23,106 pg/mL and IL-10: 393-2172 vs 105-2869 pg/mL in old and young mice, respectively). These data suggest that there are significant changes in the organization of the immune system throughout life. However, the relevance of these alterations for the functioning of the immune system is unknown.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Haptenos/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Concanavalina A/farmacologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitógenos/farmacologia , Baço/citologia
7.
Scand J Immunol ; 60(3): 257-66, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15320882

RESUMO

The ingestion of most dietary protein can cause systemic tolerance, and such tolerance is easier to induce in younger than in older mice. In this study, we examined whether oral tolerance to ovalbumin (OVA) could be induced in OVA-T-cell receptor (OVA-TCR)-specific transgenic mice. Continuous feeding or gavage with OVA induced tolerance, measured as reduced antibody production, in young and aged BALB/c mice, in a dose-dependent manner, but this effect was not observed in transgenic mice. Once BALB/c mice became tolerant, this state was maintained for over 44 weeks, although the tolerant state could be reversed by adoptive cell transfer. DO11.10 mice did not become tolerant upon continuous feeding with OVA, and the adoptive transfer of naïve cells increased the levels of specific antibodies in their sera after antigenic challenge. The immunization schedule used here leads to a Th2-dependent antibody response in normal BALB/c mice. However, the same schedule induced both Th1- and Th2-antibody responses in transgenic mice. Dendritic cells (DC) from tolerant BALB/c mice were less efficient in the induction of the proliferation of cocultured T cells from both BALB/c and DO11.10 mice, as well as Th1 [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma] and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine production. The DC from DO11.10 transgenic mice were equally efficient in the induction of T-cell proliferation in both normal and transgenic mice, as well as in the induction of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, whether or not the mice consumed OVA. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta secretion was significantly lower in the supernatants of T cells from both normal and transgenic mice cocultured with DC from DO11.10 mice that had consumed OVA, while it was significantly higher in the presence of DC from normal tolerant mice, thus implicating TGF-beta as a regulatory cytokine in oral tolerance in the murine model.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Animais , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia
8.
BMC Biochem ; 5: 5, 2004 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15102332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory properties of some flavonoids have been attributed to their ability to inhibit the production of NO by activated macrophages. Soybean cotyledons accumulate certain flavonoids following elicitation with an extract of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor, can substitute for Dpm in inducing flavonoid production. In this study, we investigated the effect of flavonoid-containing diffusates obtained from Dpm- and SNP-elicited soybean cotyledons on NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and LPS plus interferon-gamma (IFNgamma)-activated murine macrophages. RESULTS: Significant inhibition of NO production, measured as nitrite formation, was observed when macrophages were activated in the presence of soybean diffusates from Dpm- or SNP-elicited cotyledons. This inhibition was dependent on the duration of exposure to the elicitor. Daidzein, genistein, luteolin and apigenin, the main flavonoids present in diffusates of elicited cotyledons, suppressed the NO production by LPS + IFNgamma activated macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 81.4 microM, 34.5 microM, 38.6 microM and 10.4 microM respectively. For macrophages activated with LPS alone, the IC50 values were 40.0 microM, 16.6 microM, 10.4 microM and 2.8 microM, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS expression was not affected by daidzein, was reduced by genistein, and was abolished by apigenin, luteolin and Dpm- and SNP-soybean diffusates at concentrations that significantly inhibited NO production by activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the suppressive effect of flavonoids on iNOS expression could account for the potent inhibitory effect of Dpm- and SNP-diffusates on NO production by activated macrophages. Since the physiological concentration of flavonoids in plants is normally low, the treatment of soybean tissues with SNP may provide a simple method for substantially increasing the concentration of metabolites that are beneficial for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with NO production.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Soja/química , Animais , Ascomicetos/química , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Cotilédone/química , Cotilédone/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Difusão , Feminino , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos
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