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1.
Gene ; 714: 143985, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330236

RESUMO

In all eukaryotes, the response to heat stress (HS) is dependent on the activity of HS transcription factors (Hsfs). Plants contain a large number of Hsfs, however, only members of the HsfA1 subfamily are considered as master regulators of stress response and thermotolerance. In Solanum lycopersicum, among the four HsfA1 members, only HsfA1a has been proposed to possess a master regulator function. We performed a comparative analysis of HsfA1a, HsfA1b, HsfA1c and HsfA1e at different levels of regulation and function. HsfA1a is constitutively expressed under control and stress conditions, while the other members are induced in specific tissues and stages of HS response. Despite that all members are localized in the nucleus when expressed in protoplasts, only HsfA1a shows a wide range of basal activity on several HS-induced genes. In contrast, HsfA1b, HsfA1c, and HsfA1e show only high activity for specific subsets of genes. Domain swapping mutants between HsfA1a and HsfA1c revealed that the variation in that transcriptional transactivation activity is due to differences in the DNA binding domain (DBD). Specifically, we identified a conserved arginine (R107) residue in the turn of ß3 and ß4 sheet in the C-terminus of the DBD of HsfA1a that is highly conserved in plant HsfA1 proteins, but is replaced by leucine and cysteine in tomato HsfA1c and HsfA1e, respectively. Although not directly involved in DNA interaction, R107 contributes to DNA binding and consequently the activity of HsfA1a. Thus, we demonstrate that this variation in DBD in part explains the functional diversification of tomato HsfA1 members.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Protoplastos/fisiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Termotolerância/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1866(10): 1650-1662, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233800

RESUMO

The guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway facilitates targeting and insertion of tail-anchored proteins into membranes. In plants, such a protein insertion machinery for the endoplasmic reticulum as well as constituents within mitochondrial and chloroplasts were discovered. Previous phylogenetic analysis revealed that Get3 sequences of Embryophyta form two clades representing cytosolic ("a") and organellar ("bc") GET3 homologs, respectively. Cellular fractionation of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and usage of the self-assembly GFP system in protoplasts verified the cytosolic (ATGet3a), plastidic (ATGet3b) and mitochondrial (ATGet3c) localization of the different homologs. The identified plant homologs of Get1 and Get4 in A. thaliana are localized in ER and cytosol, respectively, implicating a degree of conservation of the GET pathway in A. thaliana. Transient expression of Get3 homologs of Solanum lycopersicum, Medicago × varia or Physcomitrella patens with the self-assembly GFP technique in homologous and heterologous systems verified that multiple Get3 homologs with differing subcellular localizations are common in plants. Chloroplast localized Get3 homologs were detected in all tested plant systems. In contrast, mitochondrial localized Get3 homologs were not identified in S. lycopersicum, or P. patens, while we confirmed on the example of A. thaliana proteins that mitochondrial localized Get3 proteins are properly targeted in S. lycopersicum as well.

3.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(8): 937-949, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087154

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Different genes coding for one ribosome biogenesis factor are differentially expressed and are likely under the control of distinct transcription factors, which contributes to the regulatory space for ribosome maturation. Maturation of ribosomes including rRNA processing and modification, rRNA folding and ribosome protein association requires the function of many ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs). Recent studies document plant-specific variations of the generally conserved process of ribosome biogenesis. For instance, distinct rRNA maturation pathways and intermediates have been identified, the existence of plant specific RBFs has been proposed and several RBFs are encoded by multiple genes. The latter in combination with the discussed ribosome heterogeneity points to a possible function of the different proteins representing one RBF in diversification of ribosomal compositions. Such factor-based regulation would require a differential regulation of their expression, may be even controlled by different transcription factors. We analyzed the expression profiles of genes coding for putative RBFs and transcription factors. Most of the genes coding for RBFs are expressed in a comparable manner, while different genes coding for a single RBF are often differentially expressed. Based on a selected set of genes we document a function of the transcription factors AtMYC1, AtMYC2, AtbHLH105 and AtMYB26 on the regulation of different RBFs. Moreover, on the example of the RBFs LSG1 and BRX1, both encoded by two genes, we give a first hint on a differential transcription factor dependence of expression. Consistent with this observation, the phenotypic analysis of RBF mutants suggests a relation between LSG1-1 and BRX1-1 expression and the transcription factor MYC1. In summary, we propose that the multiple genes coding for one RBF are required to enlarge the regulatory space for ribosome biogenesis.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1867(6): 627-636, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611779

RESUMO

The GTPases Toc159 and Toc34 of the translocon of the outer envelope of chloroplasts (TOC) are involved in recognition and transfer of precursor proteins at the cytosolic face of the organelle. Both proteins engage multiple interactions within the translocon during the translocation process, including dimeric states of their G-domains. The units of the Toc34 homodimer are involved in the recognition of the transit peptide representing the translocation signal of precursor proteins. This substrate recognition is part of the regulation of the GTPase cycle of Toc34. The Toc159 monomer and the Toc34 homodimer recognize the transit peptide of the small subunit of Rubisco at the N- and at the C-terminal region, respectively. Analysis of the transit peptide interaction by crosslinking shows that the heterodimer between both G-domains binds pSSU most efficiently. While substrate recognition by Toc34 homodimer was shown to regulate nucleotide exchange, we provide evidence that the high activation energy of the GTPase Toc159 is lowered by substrate recognition. The nucleotide affinity of Toc34G homodimer and Toc159G monomer are distinct, Toc34G homodimer recognizes GDP and Toc159G GTP with highest affinity. Moreover, the analysis of the nucleotide association rates of the monomeric and dimeric receptor units suggests that the heterodimer has an arrangement distinct from the homodimer of Toc34. Based on the biochemical parameters determined we propose a model for the order of events at the cytosolic side of TOC. The molecular processes described by this hypothesis range from transit peptide recognition to perception of the substrate by the translocation channel.

5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(4): 1880-1895, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576513

RESUMO

rRNA processing and assembly of ribosomal proteins during maturation of ribosomes involve many ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs). Recent studies identified differences in the set of RBFs in humans and yeast, and the existence of plant-specific RBFs has been proposed as well. To identify such plant-specific RBFs, we characterized T-DNA insertion mutants of 15 Arabidopsis thaliana genes encoding nuclear proteins with nucleotide binding properties that are not orthologues to yeast or human RBFs. Mutants of nine genes show an altered rRNA processing ranging from inhibition of initial 35S pre-rRNA cleavage to final maturation events like the 6S pre-rRNA processing. These phenotypes led to their annotation as 'involved in rRNA processing' - IRP. The irp mutants are either lethal or show developmental and stress related phenotypes. We identified IRPs for maturation of the plant-specific precursor 5'-5.8S and one affecting the pathway with ITS2 first cleavage of the 35S pre-rRNA transcript. Moreover, we realized that 5'-5.8S processing is essential, while a mutant causing 6S accumulation shows only a weak phenotype. Thus, we demonstrate the importance of the maturation of the plant-specific precursor 5'-5.8S for plant development as well as the occurrence of an ITS2 first cleavage pathway in fast dividing tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Precursores de RNA/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética
6.
FEBS Open Bio ; 8(9): 1437-1444, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186745

RESUMO

Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cellular function and involves rRNA synthesis, rRNA processing and modification, and ribosomal protein assembly. Ribosome biogenesis factors and small nucleolar RNA assist these events. Ribosomal maturation takes place in the nucleolus, the nucleoplasm, and the cytosol in a coordinated and controlled manner. For example, some ribosomal proteins are thought to be assembled in the cytoplasm based on the observations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we used cellular fractionation to demonstrate that cleavage of the 20S intermediate, the precursor to mature 18S rRNA, does not occur in the nucleoplasm of Arabidopsis thaliana. It most likely occurs in the cytoplasm. Further, we verified the proposed localization of RPS10e, RPS26e, and RPL24a/b in the nucleus and RPP1 in the nucleolus of A. thaliana by ribosome profiling, immunofluorescence, and analysis of the localization of GFP fusion proteins. Our results suggest that the order of events during ribosomal protein assembly in the ribosome biogenesis pathway differs between plants and yeast.

7.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187931

RESUMO

Plants code for a multitude of heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). Three of them act as central regulators of heat stress (HS) response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). HsfA1a regulates the initial response, and HsfA2 controls acquired thermotolerance. HsfB1 is a transcriptional repressor but can also act as co-activator of HsfA1a. Currently, the mode of action and the relevance of the dual function of HsfB1 remain elusive. We examined this in HsfB1 overexpression or suppression transgenic tomato lines. Proteome analysis revealed that HsfB1 overexpression stimulates the co-activator function of HsfB1 and consequently the accumulation of HS-related proteins under non-stress conditions. Plants with enhanced levels of HsfB1 show aberrant growth and development but enhanced thermotolerance. HsfB1 suppression has no significant effect prior to stress. Upon HS, HsfB1 suppression strongly enhances the induction of heat shock proteins due to the higher activity of other HS-induced Hsfs, resulting in increased thermotolerance compared with wild-type. Thereby, HsfB1 acts as co-activator of HsfA1a for several Hsps, but as a transcriptional repressor on other Hsfs, including HsfA1b and HsfA2. The dual function explains the activation of chaperones to enhance protection and regulate the balance between growth and stress response upon deviations from the homeostatic levels of HsfB1.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 447, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen development is central for plant reproduction and is assisted by changes of the transcriptome and proteome. At the same time, pollen development and viability is largely sensitive to stress, particularly to elevated temperatures. The transcriptomic and proteomic changes during pollen development and of different stages in response to elevated temperature was targeted to define the underlying molecular principles. RESULTS: The analysis of the transcriptome and proteome of Solanum lycopersicum pollen at tetrad, post-meiotic and mature stage before and after heat stress yielded a decline of the transcriptome but an increase of the proteome size throughout pollen development. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome led to the discovery of two modes defined as direct and delayed translation. Here, genes of distinct functional processes are under the control of direct and delayed translation. The response of pollen to elevated temperature occurs rather at proteome, but not as drastic at the transcriptome level. Heat shock proteins, proteasome subunits, ribosomal proteins and eukaryotic initiation factors are most affected. On the example of heat shock proteins we demonstrate a decoupling of transcript and protein levels as well as a distinct regulation between the developmental stages. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome and proteome of developing pollen undergo drastic changes in composition and quantity. Changes at the proteome level are a result of two modes assigned as direct and delayed translation. The response of pollen to elevated temperature is mainly regulated at the proteome level, whereby proteins related to synthesis and degradation of proteins are most responsive and might play a central role in the heat stress response of pollen.

10.
DNA Res ; 24(2): 205-217, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025318

RESUMO

Alternative splicing (AS) is a key control mechanism influencing signal response cascades in different developmental stages and under stress conditions. In this study, we examined heat stress (HS)-induced AS in the heat sensitive pollen tissue of two tomato cultivars. To obtain the entire spectrum of HS-related AS, samples taken directly after HS and after recovery were combined and analysed by RNA-seq. For nearly 9,200 genes per cultivar, we observed at least one AS event under HS. In comparison to control, for one cultivar we observed 76% more genes with intron retention (IR) or exon skipping (ES) under HS. Furthermore, 2,343 genes had at least one transcript with IR or ES accumulated under HS in both cultivars. These genes are involved in biological processes like protein folding, gene expression and heat response. Transcriptome assembly of these genes revealed that most of the alternative spliced transcripts possess truncated coding sequences resulting in partial or total loss of functional domains. Moreover, 141 HS specific and 22 HS repressed transcripts were identified. Further on, we propose AS as layer of stress response regulating constitutively expressed genes under HS by isoform abundance.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Temperatura Alta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Pólen/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Pólen/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Bioinform Biol Insights ; 10: 185-207, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695302

RESUMO

Phytohormones control the development and growth of plants, as well as their response to biotic and abiotic stress. The seven most well-studied phytohormone classes defined today are as follows: auxins, ethylene, cytokinin, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids. The basic principle of hormone regulation is conserved in all plants, but recent results suggest adaptations of synthesis, transport, or signaling pathways to the architecture and growth environment of different plant species. Thus, we aimed to define the extent to which information from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is transferable to other plants such as Solanum lycopersicum. We extracted the co-orthologues of genes coding for major pathway enzymes in A. thaliana from the translated genomes of 12 species from the clade Viridiplantae. Based on predicted domain architecture and localization of the identified proteins from all 13 species, we inspected the conservation of phytohormone pathways. The comparison was complemented by expression analysis of (co-) orthologous genes in S. lycopersicum. Altogether, this information allowed the assignment of putative functional equivalents between A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum but also pointed to some variations between the pathways in eudicots, monocots, mosses, and green algae. These results provide first insights into the conservation of the various phytohormone pathways between the model system A. thaliana and crop plants such as tomato. We conclude that orthologue prediction in combination with analysis of functional domain architecture and intracellular localization and expression studies are sufficient tools to transfer information from model plants to other plant species. Our results support the notion that hormone synthesis, transport, and response for most part of the pathways are conserved, and species-specific variations can be found.

12.
Biol Res ; 49(1): 31, 2016 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicochemical properties are frequently analyzed to characterize protein-sequences of known and unknown function. Especially the hydrophobicity of amino acids is often used for structural prediction or for the detection of membrane associated or embedded ß-sheets and α-helices. For this purpose many scales classifying amino acids according to their physicochemical properties have been defined over the past decades. In parallel, several hydrophobicity parameters have been defined for calculation of peptide properties. We analyzed the performance of separating sequence pools using 98 hydrophobicity scales and five different hydrophobicity parameters, namely the overall hydrophobicity, the hydrophobic moment for detection of the α-helical and ß-sheet membrane segments, the alternating hydrophobicity and the exact ß-strand score. RESULTS: Most of the scales are capable of discriminating between transmembrane α-helices and transmembrane ß-sheets, but assignment of peptides to pools of soluble peptides of different secondary structures is not achieved at the same quality. The separation capacity as measure of the discrimination between different structural elements is best by using the five different hydrophobicity parameters, but addition of the alternating hydrophobicity does not provide a large benefit. An in silico evolutionary approach shows that scales have limitation in separation capacity with a maximal threshold of 0.6 in general. We observed that scales derived from the evolutionary approach performed best in separating the different peptide pools when values for arginine and tyrosine were largely distinct from the value of glutamate. Finally, the separation of secondary structure pools via hydrophobicity can be supported by specific detectable patterns of four amino acids. CONCLUSION: It could be assumed that the quality of separation capacity of a certain scale depends on the spacing of the hydrophobicity value of certain amino acids. Irrespective of the wealth of hydrophobicity scales a scale separating all different kinds of secondary structures or between soluble and transmembrane peptides does not exist reflecting that properties other than hydrophobicity affect secondary structure formation as well. Nevertheless, application of hydrophobicity scales allows distinguishing between peptides with transmembrane α-helices and ß-sheets. Furthermore, the overall separation capacity score of 0.6 using different hydrophobicity parameters could be assisted by pattern search on the protein sequence level for specific peptides with a length of four amino acids.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Algoritmos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/classificação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Pesos e Medidas
13.
RNA Biol ; 13(4): 441-54, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26980300

RESUMO

Ribosome biogenesis is an essential process initiated in the nucleolus. In eukaryotes, multiple ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) can be found in the nucleolus, the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. They act in processing, folding and modification of the pre-ribosomal (r)RNAs, incorporation of ribosomal proteins (RPs), export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm, and quality control mechanisms. Ribosome biogenesis is best established for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant ortholog assignment to yeast RBFs revealed the absence of about 30% of the yeast RBFs in plants. In turn, few plant specific proteins have been identified by biochemical experiments to act in plant ribosome biogenesis. Nevertheless, a complete inventory of plant RBFs has not been established yet. We analyzed the proteome of the nucleus and nucleolus of Arabidopsis thaliana and the post-translational modifications of these proteins. We identified 1602 proteins in the nucleolar and 2544 proteins in the nuclear fraction with an overlap of 1429 proteins. For a randomly selected set of proteins identified by the proteomic approach we confirmed the localization inferred from the proteomics data by the localization of GFP fusion proteins. We assigned the identified proteins to various complexes and functions and found about 519 plant proteins that have a potential to act as a RBFs, but which have not been experimentally characterized yet. Last, we compared the distribution of RBFs and RPs in the various fractions with the distribution established for yeast.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Nucléolo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Acetilação , Células Cultivadas , Fosforilação
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 214, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26973665

RESUMO

The link between polyamine oxidases (PAOs), which function in polyamine catabolism, and stress responses remains elusive. Here, we address this issue using Arabidopsis pao mutants in which the expression of the five PAO genes is knocked-out or knocked-down. As the five single pao mutants and wild type (WT) showed similar response to salt stress, we tried to generate the mutants that have either the cytoplasmic PAO pathway (pao1 pao5) or the peroxisomal PAO pathway (pao2 pao3 pao4) silenced. However, the latter triple mutant was not obtained. Thus, in this study, we used two double mutants, pao1 pao5 and pao2 pao4. Of interest, pao1 pao5 mutant was NaCl- and drought-tolerant, whereas pao2 pao4 showed similar sensitivity to those stresses as WT. To reveal the underlying mechanism of salt tolerance, further analyses were performed. Na uptake of the mutant (pao1 pao5) decreased to 75% of WT. PAO activity of the mutant was reduced to 62% of WT. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, a reaction product of PAO action, and superoxide anion in the mutant became 81 and 72% of the levels in WT upon salt treatment. The mutant contained 2.8-fold higher thermospermine compared to WT. Moreover, the mutant induced the genes of salt overly sensitive-, abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent- and ABA-independent- pathways more strongly than WT upon salt treatment. The results suggest that the Arabidopsis plant silencing cytoplasmic PAOs shows salinity tolerance by reducing ROS production and strongly inducing subsets of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions.

15.
Plant Physiol ; 170(4): 2461-77, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26917685

RESUMO

Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress (HS) compared to vegetative tissues, but the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection from HS In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), HsfA2 acts as coactivator of HsfA1a and is one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The contribution of HsfA2 in heat stress response (HSR) and thermotolerance was investigated in different tissues of transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 levels (A2AS). Global transcriptome analysis and immunodetection of two major Hsps in vegetative and reproductive tissues showed that HsfA2 regulates subsets of HS-induced genes in a tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of HsfA2 by a moderate HS treatment enhances the capacity of seedlings to cope with a subsequent severe HS, suggesting an important role for HsfA2 in regulating acquired thermotolerance. In pollen, HsfA2 is an important coactivator of HsfA1a during HSR HsfA2 suppression reduces the viability and germination rate of pollen that received the stress during the stages of meiosis and microspore formation but had no effect on more advanced stages. In general, pollen meiocytes and microspores are characterized by increased susceptibility to HS due to their lower capacity to induce a strong HSR This sensitivity is partially mitigated by the developmentally regulated expression of HsfA2 and several HS-responsive genes mediated by HsfA1a under nonstress conditions. Thereby, HsfA2 is an important factor for the priming process that sustains pollen thermotolerance during microsporogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/fisiologia , Gametogênese Vegetal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/genética , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/fisiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
J Proteomics ; 131: 48-60, 2016 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26455813

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Pollen cells possess specialized cellular compartments separated by membranes. Consequently, mature pollen contains proteinaceous factors for inter- and intracellular transport of metabolites or ions to facilitate the upcoming energy exhausting processes - germination and fertilization. Despite the current advancement in the understanding of pollen development little is known about the role and molecular nature of the membrane proteome that participates in functioning and development of male gametophyte. We dissected the membrane proteome of mature pollen from economically important crop Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). Isolated membrane fractions from mature pollen of two tomato cultivars (cv. Moneymaker and cv. Red setter) were subjected to shotgun proteomics (GEL-LC-Orbitrap-MS). The global tomato protein assignment was achieved by mapping the peptides on reference genome (cv. Heinz 1706) and de novo assembled transcriptome based on mRNA sequencing from the respective cultivar. We identified 687 proteins, where 176 were assigned as putative membrane proteins. About 58% of the identified membrane proteins participate in transport processes. In depth analysis revealed proteins corresponding to energy related pathways (Glycolysis and Krebs cycle) as prerequisite for mature pollen, thereby revealing a reliable model of energy reservoir of the male gametophyte. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Mature pollen plays an indispensable role in plant fertility and crop production. To decipher the functionality of pollen global proteomics studies have been undertaken. However, these datasets are deficient in membrane proteins due to their low abundance and solubility. The work presented here provides a comprehensive investigation of membrane proteome of male gametophyte of an agriculturally important crop plant tomato. The analysis of membrane enriched fractions from two tomato cultivars ensured an effective profiling of the pollen membrane proteome. Particularly proteins of the Krebs cycle or the glycolysis process have been detected and thus a model for the energy dynamics and preparedness of the male gametophyte for the upcoming events - germination and fertilization is provided.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo
17.
Biol. Res ; 49: 1-19, 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physicochemical properties are frequently analyzed to characterize protein-sequences of known and unknown function. Especially the hydrophobicity of amino acids is often used for structural prediction or for the detection of membrane associated or embedded β-sheets and α-helices. For this purpose many scales classifying amino acids according to their physicochemical properties have been defined over the past decades. In parallel, several hydrophobicity parameters have been defined for calculation of peptide properties. We analyzed the performance of separating sequence pools using 98 hydrophobicity scales and five different hydrophobicity parameters, namely the overall hydrophobicity, the hydrophobic moment for detection of the α-helical and β-sheet membrane segments, the alternating hydrophobicity and the exact β-strand score. RESULTS: Most of the scales are capable of discriminating between transmembrane α-helices and transmembrane β-sheets, but assignment of peptides to pools of soluble peptides of different secondary structures is not achieved at the same quality. The separation capacity as measure of the discrimination between different structural elements is best by using the five different hydrophobicity parameters, but addition of the alternating hydrophobicity does not provide a large benefit. An in silico evolutionary approach shows that scales have limitation in separation capacity with a maximal threshold of 0.6 in general. We observed that scales derived from the evolutionary approach performed best in separating the different peptide pools when values for arginine and tyrosine were largely distinct from the value of glutamate. Finally, the separation of secondary structure pools via hydrophobicity can be supported by specific detectable patterns of four amino acids. CONCLUSION: It could be assumed that the quality of separation capacity of a certain scale depends on the spacing of the hydrophobicity value of certain amino acids. Irrespective of the wealth of hydrophobicity scales a scale separating all different kinds of secondary structures or between soluble and transmembrane peptides does not exist reflecting that properties other than hydrophobicity affect secondary structure formation as well. Nevertheless, application of hydrophobicity scales allows distinguishing between peptides with transmembrane α-helices and β-sheets. Furthermore, the overall separation capacity score of 0.6 using different hydrophobicity parameters could be assisted by pattern search on the protein sequence level for specific peptides with a length of four amino acids.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 6: 219, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25852675

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes important for many ecosystems with a high potential for biotechnological usage e.g., in the production of bioactive molecules. Either asks for a deep understanding of the functionality of cyanobacteria and their interaction with the environment. This in part can be inferred from the analysis of their genomes or proteomes. Today, many cyanobacterial genomes have been sequenced and annotated. This information can be used to identify biological pathways present in all cyanobacteria as proteins involved in such processes are encoded by a so called core-genome. However, beside identification of fundamental processes, genes specific for certain cyanobacterial features can be identified by a holistic genome analysis as well. We identified 559 genes that define the core-genome of 58 analyzed cyanobacteria, as well as three genes likely to be signature genes for thermophilic and 57 genes likely to be signature genes for heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. To get insights into cyanobacterial systems for the interaction with the environment we also inspected the diversity of the outer membrane proteome with focus on ß-barrel proteins. We observed that most of the transporting outer membrane ß-barrel proteins are not globally conserved in the cyanobacterial phylum. In turn, the occurrence of ß-barrel proteins shows high strain specificity. The core set of outer membrane proteins globally conserved in cyanobacteria comprises three proteins only, namely the outer membrane ß-barrel assembly protein Omp85, the lipid A transfer protein LptD, and an OprB-type porin. Thus, we conclude that cyanobacteria have developed individual strategies for the interaction with the environment, while other intracellular processes like the regulation of the protein homeostasis are globally conserved.

19.
Bioinform Biol Insights ; 9: 1-17, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25698879

RESUMO

Ribosome biogenesis involves a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. More than 250 ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) have been described in yeast. These factors are involved in multiple aspects like rRNA processing, folding, and modification as well as in ribosomal protein (RP) assembly. Considering the importance of RBFs for particular developmental processes, we examined the complexity of RBF and RP (co-)orthologs by bioinformatic assignment in 14 different plant species and expression profiling in the model crop Solanum lycopersicum. Assigning (co-)orthologs to each RBF revealed that at least 25% of all predicted RBFs are encoded by more than one gene. At first we realized that the occurrence of multiple RBF co-orthologs is not globally correlated to the existence of multiple RP co-orthologs. The transcript abundance of genes coding for predicted RBFs and RPs in leaves and anthers of S. lycopersicum was determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). In combination with existing expression profiles, we can conclude that co-orthologs of RBFs by large account for a preferential function in different tissue or at distinct developmental stages. This notion is supported by the differential expression of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development. In addition, co-regulated clusters of RBF and RP coding genes have been observed. The relevance of these results is discussed.

20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 43(1): 553-64, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477391

RESUMO

Translation fidelity and efficiency require multiple ribosomal (r)RNA modifications that are mostly mediated by small nucleolar (sno)RNPs during ribosome production. Overlapping basepairing of snoRNAs with pre-rRNAs often necessitates sequential and efficient association and dissociation of the snoRNPs, however, how such hierarchy is established has remained unknown so far. Here, we identify several late-acting snoRNAs that bind pre-40S particles in human cells and show that their association and function in pre-40S complexes is regulated by the RNA helicase DDX21. We map DDX21 crosslinking sites on pre-rRNAs and show their overlap with the basepairing sites of the affected snoRNAs. While DDX21 activity is required for recruitment of the late-acting snoRNAs SNORD56 and SNORD68, earlier snoRNAs are not affected by DDX21 depletion. Together, these observations provide an understanding of the timing and ordered hierarchy of snoRNP action in pre-40S maturation and reveal a novel mode of regulation of snoRNP function by an RNA helicase in human cells.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleolares Pequenas/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico/química , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , tRNA Metiltransferases/metabolismo
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