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1.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This review sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Stress Control' (SC) large psychoeducational 6-session group programme developed to increase access to treatment for patients with anxiety and depression. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis (Prospero registration: CRD42020173676). METHODS: Pre-post and post-treatment follow-up effect sizes were extracted and synthesized in a random effects meta-analysis, and variations in effect sizes were investigated via moderator analyses. Secondary analyses synthesized between-group effect sizes from controlled studies containing comparator treatments and calculated the average dropout rate. The quality of the meta-analysis was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Nineteen studies with pre-post treatment outcomes were included. The average group size was N = 39, and the average dropout rate was 34%. Pooled effect sizes indicated moderate pre-post treatment reductions in anxiety (ES = 0.58; CI 0.41 to 0.75; N = 5597; Z = 7.13; p < .001), moderate reductions in depression (ES = 0.62; CI 0.44 to 0.80; N = 5538, Z = 7.30; p < .001), and large reductions in global distress (ES = 0.86; CI 0.61 to 1.11; N = 591; Z = 7.41; p < .001). At follow-up, improvements in anxiety, depression, and global distress were maintained. When SC was compared to active and passive controls, outcomes were equivalent for anxiety (ES = 0.12, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.49, Z = -0.70; p = .482) and depression (ES = 0.15, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.54, Z = 0.84; p = .401). CONCLUSIONS: SC appears to be a clinically effective and durable low-intensity group intervention that facilitates access to treatment for large patient numbers. However, conclusions are limited by the low methodological quality of the evidence. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The stress control version of large group psychoeducation is appropriate and effective for mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression The evidence base for stress control is predominantly made up of practice-based studies Stress control needs to form one component of the overall offer made to patients presenting with mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression The competencies required to deliver such groups need better specification.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 287: 282-292, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective targeting of services requires that we establish which undergraduates are at increased risk of mental health problems at university. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence and risk factors for mental health problems in undergraduates. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register. Eligible studies were assessed using the Quality of Prognostic Studies checklist and narratively synthesised. Pooled prevalence of depression and suicide-related outcomes, and associated risk factors (odds ratios) were estimated using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Sixty-six eligible studies of varying quality were included in a narrative synthesis. The pooled prevalence of depression (eight studies; 13,790 participants) was 25% (95% CI 17%, 35%) and the pooled prevalence of suicide-related outcomes (four studies; 2,586 participants) was 14% (95% CI 0%, 44%). Thirteen studies contributed to meta-analytic syntheses of 12 depression-related and four suicide-related risk factors. Presenting with a current mental health problem, negative rumination, parent separation, experiences of sexual harassment and parental depression significantly predicted depression outcomes. Childhood adversity, baseline mental health problems and financial difficulties significantly predicted suicide-related outcomes. LIMITATIONS: Student mental health is a heterogeneous research area and is hampered by the use of imprecise terms, both for describing risk factors and mental health outcomes. These inconsistencies limit the extent to which datasets can be meaningfully synthesised. CONCLUSIONS: This review evidences the importance of a range of risk factors for poor undergraduate mental health. Interventions should be developed to target modifiable risk factors and prevent poor mental health outcomes. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO registration CRD42019144927.

3.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(4): e231-e240, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders can be effectively treated with psychotherapy, but some patients do not respond well and require timely identification to prevent treatment failure. We aimed to develop and validate a dynamic model to predict psychological treatment outcomes, and to compare the model with currently used methods, including expected treatment response models and machine learning models. METHODS: In this prediction model development and validation study, we obtained data from two UK studies including patients who had accessed therapy via Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services managed by ten UK National Health Service (NHS) Trusts between March, 2012, and June, 2018, to predict treatment outcomes. In study 1, we used data on patient-reported depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 [PHQ-9]) and anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7 [GAD-7]) symptom measures obtained on a session-by-session basis (Leeds Community Healthcare NHS Trust dataset; n=2317) to train the Oracle dynamic prediction model using iterative logistic regression analysis. The outcome of interest was reliable and clinically significant improvement in depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. The predictive accuracy of the model was assessed in an external test sample (Cumbria Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust dataset; n=2036) using the area under the curve (AUC), positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs). In study 2, we retrained the Oracle algorithm using a multiservice sample (South West Yorkshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, North East London NHS Foundation Trust, Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, and Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust; n=42 992) and compared its performance with an expected treatment response model and five machine learning models (Bayesian updating algorithm, elastic net regularisation, extreme gradient boosting, support vector machine, and neural networks based on a multilayer perceptron algorithm) in an external test sample (Whittington Health NHS Trust; Barnet Enfield and Haringey Mental Health Trust; Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust; and Humber NHS Foundation Trust; n=30 026). FINDINGS: The Oracle algorithm trained using iterative logistic regressions generalised well to external test samples, explaining up to 47·3% of variability in treatment outcomes. Prediction accuracy was modest at session one (AUC 0·59 [95% CI 0·55-0·62], PPV 0·63, NPV 0·61), but improved over time, reaching high prediction accuracy (AUC 0·81 [0·77-0·86], PPV 0·79, NPV 0·69) as early as session seven. The performance of the Oracle model was similar to complex (eg, including patient profiling variables) and computationally intensive machine learning models (eg, neural networks based on a multilayer perceptron algorithm, extreme gradient boosting). Furthermore, the predictive accuracy of a more simple dynamic algorithm including only baseline and index-session scores was comparable to more complex algorithms that included additional predictors modelling sample-level and individual-level variability. Overall, the Oracle algorithm significantly outperformed the expected treatment response model (mean AUC 0·80 vs 0·70, p<0·0001]). INTERPRETATION: Dynamic prediction models using sparse and readily available symptom measures are capable of predicting psychotherapy outcomes with high accuracy. FUNDING: University of Sheffield.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Psicoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychol Psychother ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managing the alliance is considered to be a core competency and central therapeutic change process during cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). This study examined latent trajectories of change in the alliance and their relationship to depression treatment outcomes. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A sample of N = 79 depressed participants completed standardized alliance (WAI-SF) and depression symptom measures (PHQ-9) every session during an 8-session CAT intervention. Growth mixture modelling was applied to model alliance trajectories and to classify cases into different latent classes. Associations between alliance class and post-treatment PHQ-9 scores were examined using hierarchical linear regression, controlling for confounders. RESULTS: There were two classes of alliance trajectories. The majority class (91%) displayed stable alliance trajectories, whilst a minority class (9%) had initially poor alliance ratings that significantly improved during treatment. Baseline severity and early change in depression symptoms significantly predicted treatment outcomes, but early alliance and longitudinal alliance change did not. CONCLUSIONS: Alliance trajectories did not significantly predict depression treatment outcomes after controlling for initial symptom severity and early change. An important limitation concerns the small sample size, so future replication in larger samples is necessary.

6.
JMIR Ment Health ; 7(12): e19888, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a lack of technological innovation regarding improving the delivery of integrative psychotherapies. This project sought to evaluate an app designed to replace previous paper-based methods supporting relational awareness and change during cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess patients' and therapists' experience of using the technology (ie, the "CAT-App") and to evaluate the relationship between app usage and clinical outcome. METHODS: The design was a mixed methods case series. Patients completed the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure pre- and post-CAT. Mood data plus the frequency and effectiveness of relational awareness and change were collected via the app. Therapists and patients were interviewed about their experiences using the app. RESULTS: Ten patients (treated by 3 therapists) were enrolled; seven completed treatment and 4 had a reliable improvement in their mental health. App usage and mood change did not differ according to clinical outcome, but there was a statistically significant difference in app usage between completers and dropouts. The qualitative themes described by the therapists were (1) the challenge of incorporating the technology into their clinical practice and (2) the barriers and benefits of the technology. Clients' themes were (1) data protection, (2) motivation and engagement, and (3) restrictions versus flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: The CAT-App is capable of supporting relational awareness and change and is an upgrade on older, paper-based formats. Further clinical evaluation is required.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e17049, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a disconnect between the ability to swiftly develop e-therapies for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and stress, and the scrupulous evaluation of their clinical utility. This creates a risk that the e-therapies routinely provided within publicly funded psychological health care have evaded appropriate rigorous evaluation in their development. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct a meta-analytic review of the gold standard evidence of the acceptability and clinical effectiveness of e-therapies recommended for use in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Systematic searches identified appropriate randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Depression, anxiety, and stress outcomes at the end of treatment and follow-up were synthesized using a random-effects meta-analysis. The grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation approach was used to assess the quality of each meta-analytic comparison. Moderators of treatment effect were examined using subgroup and meta-regression analysis. Dropout rates for e-therapies (as a proxy for acceptability) were compared against controls. RESULTS: A total of 24 studies evaluating 7 of 48 NHS-recommended e-therapies were qualitatively and quantitatively synthesized. Depression, anxiety, and stress outcomes for e-therapies were superior to controls (depression: standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.52, N=7075; anxiety and stress: SMD 0.43, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.63, n=4863), and these small effects were maintained at follow-up. Average dropout rates for e-therapies (31%, SD 17.35) were significantly higher than those of controls (17%, SD 13.31). Limited moderators of the treatment effect were found. CONCLUSIONS: Many NHS-recommended e-therapies have not been through an RCT-style evaluation. The e-therapies that have been appropriately evaluated generate small but significant, durable, beneficial treatment effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) registration CRD42019130184; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=130184.

9.
Br J Clin Psychol ; : e12259, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) is a national-level dissemination programme for provision of evidence-based psychological treatments for anxiety and depression in the United Kingdom. This paper sought to review and meta-analyse practice-based evidence arising from the programme. DESIGN: A pre-registered (CRD42018114796) systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A random effects meta-analysis was performed only on the practice-based IAPT studies (i.e. excluding the clinical trials). Subgroup analyses examined the potential influence of particular methodologies, treatments, populations, and target conditions. Sensitivity analyses investigated potential sources of heterogeneity and bias. RESULTS: The systematic review identified N = 60 studies, with N = 47 studies suitable for meta-analysis. The primary meta-analysis showed large pre-post treatment effect sizes for depression (d = 0.87, 95% CI [0.78-0.96], p < .0001) and anxiety (d = 0.88, 95% CI [0.79-0.97], p < .0001), and a moderate effect on functional impairment (d = 0.55, 95% CI [0.48-0.61], p < .0001). The methodological features of studies influenced ESs (e.g., such as whether intention-to-treat or completer analyses were employed). CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that IAPT enables access to broadly effective evidence-based psychological therapies for large numbers of patients. The limitations of the review and the clinical and methodological implications are discussed. PRACTITIONER POINTS: IAPT interventions are associated with large pre-post treatment effect sizes in depression and anxiety measures. IAPT interventions are associated with moderate treatment effect sizes with regards to work and social adjustment. A reduction in dropout and also the prevention of post-treatment relapse via the offer of follow-up support are important areas for future development.

10.
Psychol Psychother ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper sought to conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness and durability of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT) and assess the acceptability of CAT in terms of dropout rates. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PROSPERO registration: CRD42018086009. Searches identified CAT treatment outcome studies eligible to be narratively synthesized. Pre-post/post-follow-up effect sizes (ESs) were extracted and synthesized in a random-effects meta-analysis. Variations in effect sizes were explored using moderator analyses. Dropout rates were extracted. Secondary analyses synthesized between-group ES from trials of CAT. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies providing pre-post CAT treatment outcomes were aggregated across three outcome comparisons of functioning, depression, and interpersonal problems. CAT produced large pre-post improvements in global functioning (ES = 0.86; 95% CI 0.71-1.01, N = 628), moderate-to-large improvements in interpersonal problems (ES = 0.74, 95% CI 0.51-0.97, N = 460), and large reductions in depression symptoms (ES = 1.05, 95% CI 0.80-1.29, N = 586). All these effects were maintained or improved upon at follow-up. Limited moderators of CAT treatment effect were identified. CAT demonstrated small-moderate, significant post-treatment benefits compared to comparators in nine clinical trials (ES = 0.36-0.53; N = 352). The average dropout rate for CAT was 16% (range 0-33%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a range of presenting problems appear to experience durable improvements in their difficulties after undergoing CAT. Recommendations are provided to guide the further progression of the CAT outcome evidence base. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Large pre-post reductions in global functioning and depression outcomes and moderate-large reductions in interpersonal problems are evident after CAT. The effects of CAT appear durable, and interpersonal functioning significantly improves over follow-up time. CAT produces small-moderate benefits compared to trial comparators. CAT appears to be an engaging psychotherapy that maintains patients in treatment.

11.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 864-885, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422844

RESUMO

The evidence base for behavioral activation (BA) as a front-line treatment for depression is grounded in individual delivery. No valid previous meta-analytic reviews of BA delivered in groups have been conducted. This study therefore examined the efficacy and acceptability of group BA drawn from clinical trial evidence. Randomized controlled trials of group BA were identified using a comprehensive literature search. Depression outcomes at posttreatment/follow-up, recovery and dropout rates were extracted and analyzed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Treatment moderators were analyzed using meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Nineteen trials were quantitatively synthesized. Depression outcomes postgroup BA treatment were superior to controls (SMD 0.72, CI 0.34 to 1.10, k=13, N=461) and were equivalent to other active therapies (SMD 0.14, CI -0.18 to 0.46, k=15, N=526). Outcomes were maintained at follow-up for group BA and moderators of treatment outcome were limited. The dropout rate for group BA (14%) was no different from other active treatments for depression (17%). Further research is required to refine the conditions for optimum delivery of group BA and define robust moderators and mediators of outcome. However, BA delivered in groups produces a moderate to large effect on depressive symptoms and should be considered an appropriate front-line treatment option.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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