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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671939

RESUMO

Background: Well-annotated, high-quality biorepositories provide a valuable platform to support translational research. However, most biorepositories have poor representation of minority groups, limiting the ability to address health disparities. Methods: We describe the establishment of the Florida Pancreas Collaborative (FPC), the first state-wide prospective cohort study and biorepository designed to address the higher burden of pancreatic cancer (PaCa) in African Americans (AA) compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Hispanic/Latinx (H/L). We provide an overview of stakeholders; study eligibility and design; recruitment strategies; standard operating procedures to collect, process, store, and transfer biospecimens, medical images, and data; our cloud-based data management platform; and progress regarding recruitment and biobanking. Results: The FPC consists of multidisciplinary teams from fifteen Florida medical institutions. From March 2019 through August 2020, 350 patients were assessed for eligibility, 323 met inclusion/exclusion criteria, and 305 (94%) enrolled, including 228 NHW, 30 AA, and 47 H/L, with 94%, 100%, and 94% participation rates, respectively. A high percentage of participants have donated blood (87%), pancreatic tumor tissue (41%), computed tomography scans (76%), and questionnaires (62%). Conclusions: This biorepository addresses a critical gap in PaCa research and has potential to advance translational studies intended to minimize disparities and reduce PaCa-related morbidity and mortality.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661996

RESUMO

The Abstinence-Related Motivational Engagement (ARME) scale was developed to assess motivation to remain abstinent after a smoking cessation attempt. The ARME demonstrated reliability and validity among a small sample of ex-smokers. This study expands the psychometric evaluation of the ARME and tests the ARME as a predictor of smoking status among a sample of participants quitting smoking. The parent trial tested the efficacy of a self-help smoking cessation intervention (N = 1874), with assessments every 6 months. Internal consistency and factor structure of the ARME was evaluated at each assessment to confirm use of the measure as designed. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparing the ARME to the Situation-specific Abstinence Self-Efficacy (SSE) scale via inter-correlations and prediction of future smoking status. Finally, the trajectories of both the ARME and SSE were compared among continuous abstainers and continuous smokers. A single-factor structure was observed at each assessment. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.88-0.91 for the total sample. Correlations between the ARME and the SSE ranged from 0.38-0.47 (ps <0.001) among smokers; and from 0.09-0.15 (most ps > 0.05) among abstainers. Among current smokers, the ARME and SSE were independent positive predictors of subsequent abstinence (AORs 1.28-2.29, ps <0.001). For those currently abstinent, only the SSE predicted subsequent abstinence (AORs 1.69-2.60, ps <0.05). GEE analyses showed different trajectories for the two measures, as well as between abstainers and smokers. In conclusion, the ARME is a reliable, valid measure with unique predictive utility for current smokers and a distinct trajectory among those who have successfully quit.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673413

RESUMO

Most users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) report initiating use to quit combustible cigarettes. Nevertheless, high levels of dual use (i.e., using both combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes) occur among adults. Using formative data from in-depth interviews and employing learner verification, we adapted an existing, validated self-help smoking-cessation intervention (Stop Smoking for Good; SSFG) to create a targeted intervention for dual users, If You Vape: A Guide to Quitting Smoking (IYV). In Phase I, in-depth interviews (n = 28) were conducted to assess relevance of the existing SSFG materials (10 booklets, nine pamphlets) and identify new content for the booklets. Next, for Phase II, learner verification interviews (n = 20 dual users) were conducted to assess their appeal and acceptability. Several key themes emerged from the Phase I in-depth interviews. Findings led to the inclusion of e-cigarette-specific strategies used by successful quitters such as gradually reducing nicotine levels, switching from tobacco flavor to alternative flavors, and limiting e-cigarette use to places one would normally smoke (i.e., not expanding use). Suggestions from Phase II learner verification included broadening the visual appeal for a younger, more diverse demographic, expanding tips for quitting smoking via e-cigarettes, and expanding terminology for e-cigarette devices. Beginning with an efficacious self-help intervention, we used a systematic process to develop a version specifically for dual users.

4.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 98: 106172, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038504

RESUMO

Smoking cigarettes with substantially lower nicotine than conventional cigarettes prior to a quit attempt may reduce the reinforcing effects of smoking, which could facilitate smoking cessation through extinction learning. This paper describes the development of a smoking cessation intervention designed to optimize extinction processes using reduced nicotine cigarettes, as well as the design and methods for an ongoing randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate this intervention. Qualitative methods and pilot testing were conducted to develop the novel facilitated extinction (FE) intervention, with a key focus on maximizing opportunities for extinction learning during a five-week pre-quit period. The primary aims of the RCT are to test the effects of the FE intervention versus a standard (cognitive-behavioral) intervention, while also comparing two nicotine reduction schedules for providing very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes. The efficacy of the intervention is currently being evaluated with treatment-seeking smokers (n = 208) randomly assigned to one of four conditions crossing FE versus standard intervention with immediate versus gradual transition to VLNC cigarettes.

5.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals experience cancer-related health disparities and reduced quality of cancer care compared to the general population in part due to a lack of knowledgeable providers. This study explored oncologists' experiences and perspectives in providing patient-centered care for SGM individuals with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative analysis of oncologists' responses to four open-ended items on a national survey eliciting their experiences, reservations, and suggestions in treating SGM patients. RESULTS: Over 50 % of the 149 respondents of the national survey responded to at least one open-ended item. Many oncologists reported positive experiences reflecting personal growth and affirmative care practices, such as open, non-judgmental communication, compassion, competence, and supporting patients' identity. There was a notable lack of experience with transgender patients in particular. Lack of knowledge, interpersonal communication concerns (e.g., fear of offending patients), and microaggressions ("don't ask, don't tell") were identified as barriers to providing affirming care. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologists recognize their knowledge deficits and need strategies to overcome communication barriers and microaggressions among the cancer care team to provide SGM-affirming care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Curricula are needed to train oncologists in SGM healthcare needs and affirming communication skills to facilitate patient-centered care for SGM individuals with cancer.

6.
Cancer ; 126(23): 5165-5172, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abstaining from smoking after a cancer diagnosis is critical to mitigating the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes. Although many patients with cancer attempt to quit smoking, the majority relapse. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of adapting an evidence-based smoking relapse prevention (SRP) intervention for patients with cancer. METHODS: The trial enrolled 412 patients newly diagnosed with cancer who had recently quit smoking. Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) or SRP. Participants in the UC group received the institution's standard of care for treating tobacco use. Participants in the SRP group in addition received a targeted educational DVD plus a validated self-help intervention for preventing smoking relapse. The primary outcome was smoking abstinence at 2 months, 6 months, and 12 months. RESULTS: Abstinence rates for participants in the SRP and UC groups were 75% versus 71% at 2 months and 69% versus 64% at 6 months (Ps > .20). At 12 months, abstinence rates among survivors were 68% for those in the SRP group and 63% for those in the UC group (P = .38). Post hoc analyses revealed that across 2 months and 6 months, patients who were married/partnered were more likely to be abstinent after SRP than UC (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: A smoking relapse prevention intervention did not reduce relapse rates overall, but did appear to have benefited those participants who had the social support of a partner. Future work is needed to extend this effect to the larger population of patients.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19389, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need to address the unacceptable disparities and underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minority groups, including Hispanics or Latinxs, in smoking cessation trials. OBJECTIVE: Given the lack of research on recruitment strategies for this population, this study aims to assess effective recruitment methods based on enrollment and cost. METHODS: Recruitment and enrollment data were collected from a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a Spanish-language smoking cessation intervention (N=1417). The effectiveness of each recruitment strategy was evaluated by computing the cost per participant (CPP), which is the ratio of direct cost over the number enrolled. More effective strategies yielded lower CPPs. Demographic and smoking-related characteristics of participants recruited via the two most effective strategies were also compared (n=1307). RESULTS: Facebook was the most effective method (CPP=US $74.12), followed by TV advertisements (CPP=US $191.31), whereas public bus interior card advertising was the least effective method (CPP=US $642.50). Participants recruited via Facebook had lower average age (P=.008) and had spent fewer years in the United States (P<.001). Among the participants recruited via Facebook, a greater percentage of individuals had at least a high school education (P<.001) and an annual income above US $10,000 (P<.001). In addition, a greater percentage of individuals were employed (P<.001) and foreign born (P=.003). In terms of subethnicity, among the subjects recruited via Facebook, a lower percentage of individuals were of Mexican origin (P<.001) and a greater percentage of individuals were of Central American (P=.02), South American (P=.01), and Cuban (P<.001) origin. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook was the most effective method for recruiting Hispanic or Latinx smokers in the United States for this RCT. However, using multiple methods was necessary to recruit a more diverse sample of Spanish-preferring Hispanic or Latinx smokers.

8.
Ethn Dis ; 30(3): 411-420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742143

RESUMO

Objectives: This study investigated a) racial/ethnic differences in past-year discrimination experiences and b) associations between discrimination and smoking abstinence. Design: Prospective, longitudinal analysis of smoking status. Perceived past-year discrimination was assessed at baseline. ANCOVAs and intent-to-treat hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted. Setting: Dual-site (Tampa, FL and Miami, FL) randomized controlled trial testing the effects of a group cessation intervention plus pharmacotherapy. Participants: Treatment-seeking adult smokers (N=347; non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic African American/Black, or Hispanic). Main Outcome Measures: Biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (7-day ppa) was assessed immediately post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up. Results: After controlling for covariates, African Americans/Blacks reported greater perceived discrimination compared with non-Hispanic Whites (P=.02), and Hispanics (P=.06). Non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics did not differ in perceived racial/ethnic discrimination experiences over the past year. Irrespective of race/ethnicity, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with 7-day ppa, both post-intervention (AOR=.97, CI: .95-.99) and at 6-months (AOR=.98, CI: .96-.99). Among African Americans/Blacks, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with 7-day ppa, both post-intervention (AOR=.95, CI: .92-.97) and at 6-months (AOR=.97, CI: .94-.99). Perceived discrimination was unrelated to 7-day ppa among Hispanics. Among non-Hispanic Whites, past-year perceived discrimination was inversely associated with post-intervention 7-day ppa (AOR=.95, CI: .91-.99), but not 6-months. Conclusions: Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was greater among African American/Black smokers compared with non-Hispanic Whites. Perceived discrimination was negatively associated with tobacco cessation in the full sample, and for African Americans at 6-months post-intervention. These data have implications for intervention delivery and health disparities.

9.
Psychiatry Res ; 285: 112774, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035378

RESUMO

Hispanics/Latinx (H/Ls) are the largest ethnic minority group in the U.S., and three of the four leading causes of death are associated with problematic alcohol use. This study examined the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol use among H/Ls and whether differences emerged by sub-ethnicity. Participants (N = 341; 49.7% female; average age=28.57) were H/Ls currently living in the U.S. Survey questions were answered online in English or Spanish. Participants primarily endorsed engaging in informal mindfulness practices (47.5%), spiritual practices (25.2%), and mindfulness meditation (24.6%). No significant differences emerged among H/L sub-ethnicities. Spiritual practices and higher mindfulness were associated with less problematic alcohol use among the entire sample. Similar results were found among drinkers-only. Findings shed light on commonly used mindfulness practices and indicate that very few differences emerge among H/L sub-ethnicities on mindfulness practices and general mindfulness. The delivery/tailoring of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) may not need to differ amongst H/L sub-ethnicities in the U.S. Aspects of mindfulness appear protective regarding problematic alcohol use, suggesting that future MBIs that increase mindfulness should be explored for this population.

10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 764-770, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883640

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although some smokers switch to exclusive use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), others become dual users of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Little is known about how the onset of vaping affects the use of and dependence on combustible cigarettes or total nicotine use and dependence, which may influence health-related and cessation outcomes. Using self-report data of current combustible and e-cigarette use and retrospective recall of pre-vaping smoking in a sample of dual users, the aims of this study were (1) to compare pre- and post-vaping number of cigarettes per day and combustible cigarette dependence; (2) to compare pre- and post-vaping total nicotine use frequency (number of vaping sessions and cigarettes smoked per day), and total nicotine dependence; and (3) to examine predictors of nicotine dependence. METHODS: We used baseline data from a smoking cessation trial with 2896 dual users. Nicotine use frequency and the Heaviness of Smoking Index were used as measures of nicotine use and dependence, respectively. RESULTS: Participants decreased cigarettes/day from pre- (M = 19.24, SD = 9.01) to post-vaping (M = 11.15, SD = 8.02, p < .0001) and combustible cigarette dependence declined from pre- (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51) to post-vaping (M = 2.11, SD = 1.60, p < .0001). Total daily nicotine use frequency increased after initiating vaping (M = 19.25, SD = 9.01 vs. M = 29.46, SD = 8.61; p < .0001), as did total nicotine dependence (M = 3.55, SD = 1.51 vs. M = 4.68, SD = 1.38; p < .0001). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that variables associated with greater overall nicotine dependence included: younger age, lower education, more years smoking, higher pre-vaping nicotine dependence, using e-cigarettes more days per month, more puffs per vaping session, higher e-liquid nicotine concentration, and longer vaping history. CONCLUSIONS: Dual use leads to a reduction in the number of combustible cigarettes, but total nicotine use and dependence increases. IMPLICATIONS: In dual users, a reduction in smoking following onset of vaping may offer some harm reduction via reduction in cigarette intake. However, the increase in total nicotine use and dependence could affect the ability to quit either or both products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Redução do Dano , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can reduce mortality from lung cancer. Individuals with previous malignancy are at an increased risk of lung cancer but are often underrepresented in clinical trials. This study compares the outcomes of LDCT screening among individuals with and without cancer history. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort included consecutive participants undergoing LDCT screening at a tertiary care cancer institution. Abnormal screening result was defined as having Lung-RADS 3 or 4 at baseline (T0). Participant information was prospectively collected and predicted risk of lung cancer was calculated per the PLCOm2012 model. RESULTS: A total of 454 participants underwent LDCT screening. Abnormal screening result occurred in 57 (13.2%) participants at T0, and lung cancer was diagnosed in 11 (2.4%) participants. Among 153 individuals with cancer history, abnormal result occurred in 9.8%, compared with 15.4% among those without cancer history (P = .11). Lung cancer was diagnosed in 1.3%, compared with 3.5% (P = .22). The predicted risk of lung cancer at 6 years was higher among individuals with cancer history than those without: 4.8% versus 2.2% (P < .001). In a multivariable analysis, cancer history significantly reduced the likelihood of abnormal screening (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.94; P = .03). We observed a higher proportion of participants who had a previous CT scan available for comparison at T0 among individuals with cancer history than those without: 43.1% versus 9.1% (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this single-institutional study, individuals with cancer history were significantly less likely to have abnormal screening results than those without cancer history.

13.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(2): 973-991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410819

RESUMO

Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), an accepted U.S. screening tool for early lung cancer detection, is not widely-used in Puerto Rico. We investigated knowledge and attitudes about LDCT in focus groups of primary care physicians (PCP) and individuals at high risk for lung cancer (HRI) in Puerto Rico. Transcribed/translated audio-recorded discussions were analyzed with the constant comparison method. Both groups had limited knowledge about LDCT and concerns regarding insurance coverage. Most HRIs had never had a provider recommend LDCT and believed that having symptoms was necessary to obtain LDCT screening. Perceived barriers included fears about results and the procedure; a perceived benefit was having early detection and possibly being cured. Few PCPs had ever recommended LDCT to a patient, with those who had basing their decision on symptoms/smoking history but having challenges with insurance. More education on LDCT is needed among HRIs, and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines should be widely distributed to encourage physician recommendations.

14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 85: 105836, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473331

RESUMO

Although the current smoking prevalence among Hispanics/Latinxs (10%) is lower than in non-Hispanic whites (15%), higher prevalence is observed among certain subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican males, 19%). Hispanic/Latinx smokers face unique challenges such as lower awareness and acceptability of nicotine replacement aids, lower prevalence of using counseling or medication, and receiving less advice to quit by their health care providers. Despite these barriers to smoking cessation, few interventions specifically targeted to Hispanic/Latinx smokers have been developed and evaluated. This paper summarizes the design, methods, analysis plan, and sample baseline characteristics of an ongoing randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a Spanish-language self-help smoking cessation intervention among Hispanics/Latinxs. Current smokers who prefer health education materials in Spanish were randomized to one of two conditions. The usual care group received a standard smoking cessation booklet developed by the National Cancer Institute. The intervention group received 10 booklets, 9 pamphlets and a booklet for family and friends mailed monthly over 18 months. All participants complete self-report surveys every 6 months over 2 years. Smoking abstinence is biochemically verified at 12- and 24-month follow-up. A total of 2387 smokers were screened, 2056 were eligible and 1417 were enrolled in the study. The primary outcome is self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence. If the intervention is deemed efficacious, it has potential to have a large public health impact with respect to reducing smoking rates and smoking related morbidity and mortality among a large underserved minority population.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Autogestão/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia
15.
Subst Abuse ; 13: 1178221819866210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456638

RESUMO

Background: "Expectancies," or beliefs about outcomes, robustly correlate with and predict several behaviors including electronic nicotine delivery system ("e-cigarette") use. However, there is limited qualitative research available regarding relevant e-cigarette vaping expectancies. Objectives: The present study used a qualitative approach to derive and refine e-cigarette expectancy themes among young adults. Methods: We conducted 12 focus groups and two individual interviews with young adult nonusers, e-cigarette vapers, cigarette smokers, and dual users to assess beliefs about the effects of e-cigarettes. After a series of open-ended questions, follow-up questions assessed reactions to domains previously examined in expectancy measures for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette vaping. The constant comparative method was used to derive themes from transcripts. Results: Four main themes (Positive Reinforcement, Social Benefits, Negative Affect Reduction, Negative Consequences) emerged from the results. Each theme contained three associated subthemes (Positive Reinforcement: Sensorimotor Experiences, Taste, Stimulation; Social Benefits: Social Facilitation, Influence on Others, Convenience; Negative Affect Reduction: Stress Reduction, Appetite Reduction, Boredom Reduction; and Negative Consequences: Health Risks, Addiction, Secondhand Effects). Conclusions/importance: Previously identified smoking expectancies appear relevant for young adult vaping, with some notable refinements. Positive reinforcement aspects encompassed aerosol clouds, vaping tricks, and unique flavors. Social benefits included influencing others via social media and competitive activity, as well as the convenience of use in a variety of places. Negative affect reduction was controversial among user groups, but vaping was seen as more interesting than smoking and thus more effective at boredom reduction. Young adults were uncertain regarding negative consequences, but appreciated a potential for secondhand effects. Measure refinement via qualitative research and future field testing can enhance our understanding of this relatively new behavior, supporting tobacco control surveillance, marketing/labeling regulations, and counter-advertising development/evaluation.

16.
Psychooncology ; 28(8): 1702-1711, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking cessation improves quality of life (QOL) in the general population. However, there is limited information on the role of smoking status on QOL among cancer patients. Moreover, previous studies tended to analyze smoking status dichotomously and at a single point in time, potentially reducing the strength of the relation between smoking cessation and QOL. This study examined the association of smoking abstinence and QOL over time, including depression, pain, and fatigue in patients with a wide variety of cancers. METHODS: Participants were 332 cancer patients (eg, gynecologic, breast, thoracic, head and neck, and genitourinary) who had been abstinent for at least 24 hours. Days abstinent and QOL were assessed at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months later. Latent growth curve models examined if days abstinent was associated with QOL at each assessment. Baseline demographics (eg, sex and income) and smoking history variables (eg, nicotine dependence) were used as time-invariant covariates. RESULTS: The final model for each QOL component had good-to-excellent fit. More days abstinent was associated with lower depression at all follow-ups and with lower fatigue at 12 months but was not associated with pain. CONCLUSIONS: QOL was better among patients who quit smoking for longer periods. Findings suggest different timelines, with smoking abstinence most immediately associated with lower depression, followed by lower fatigue. Although pain decreased over time, it was not associated with length of smoking abstinence. Results reinforce the relationship between sustained smoking cessation and QOL, which should be communicated to patients.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Med ; 8(6): 3314-3324, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074202

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is characterized by racial/ethnic disparities and the debilitating muscle-wasting condition, cancer cachexia. Florida ranks second in the number of PC deaths and has a large and understudied minority population. We examined the primary hypothesis that PC incidence and mortality rates may be highest among Black Floridians and the secondary hypothesis that biological correlates of cancer cachexia may underlie disparities. PC incidence and mortality rates were estimated by race/ethnicity, gender, and county using publicly available state-wide cancer registry data that included approximately 2700 Black, 25 200 Non-Hispanic White (NHW), and 3300 Hispanic/Latino (H/L) Floridians diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. Blacks within Florida experienced a significantly (P < 0.05) higher incidence (12.5/100 000) and mortality (10.97/100 000) compared to NHW (incidence = 11.2/100 000; mortality = 10.3/100 000) and H/L (incidence = 9.6/100 000; mortality = 8.7/100 000), especially in rural counties. To investigate radiologic and blood-based correlates of cachexia, we leveraged data from a subset of patients evaluated at two geographically distinct Florida Cancer Centers. In Blacks compared to NHW matched on stage, markers of PC-induced cachexia were more frequent and included greater decreases in core musculature compared to corresponding healthy control patients (25.0% vs 10.1% lower), greater decreases in psoas musculature over time (10.5% vs 4.8% loss), lower baseline serum albumin levels (3.8 vs 4.0 gm/dL), and higher platelet counts (332.8 vs 268.7 k/UL). Together, these findings suggest for the first time that PC and cachexia may affect Blacks disproportionately. Given its nearly universal contribution to illness and PC-related deaths, the early diagnosis and treatment of cachexia may represent an avenue to improve health equity, quality of life, and survival.


Assuntos
Caquexia/epidemiologia , Caquexia/etiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Caquexia/mortalidade , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Florida/etnologia , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Lung Cancer ; 130: 121-127, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to develop and examine the feasibility and acceptability of a self-help smoking cessation intervention targeted to the teachable moment of smokers undergoing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a multi-phase qualitative approach, including focus groups (N = 15) and learner verification interviews (N = 16) to develop a targeted intervention for patients receiving a LDCT screening, by extending and modifying a previously validated, self-help intervention. The new intervention was then tested in a feasibility study for acceptability and receptivity by smokers (N = 18) receiving a LDCT screening. RESULTS: The main themes that emerged from the focus group findings included a need to address the counterproductive thoughts regarding a negative lung screen result, the desire to enjoy a healthy and smoke-free retirement, the need to increase self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation, and the desire to see statistics regarding survival after quitting smoking. Learner verification findings showed that participants responded favorably to most booklet and pamphlet changes. Minor changes were made to improve comprehension and enhance self-efficacy. Formative findings led to the development of a new initial booklet titled, "Lung Cancer Screening & Quitting Smoking: Taking Control of Your Health," as well as modifications of the existing self-help cessation intervention. The intervention was designed to be initiated at the LDCT appointment, prior to receipt of scan results, and with minimal disruption of clinic work-flow. Results from the feasibility study indicated that acceptability and satisfaction with the new intervention were high. CONCLUSION: A validated self-help smoking-cessation intervention was modified for smokers receiving LDCT screening for lung cancer based on formative research guided by the teachable moment concept. The new intervention is ready for testing in a randomized controlled trial.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Grupos de Autoajuda , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Autoeficácia , Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Ethn Dis ; 29(1): 23-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713413

RESUMO

Objective: The exclusion criteria of tobacco cessation randomized clinical trials (RCTs) may have unintended consequences on inclusion and cessation disparities. We examined racial/ethnic differences in: a) exclusion from a group-based cessation RCT; and b) reasons for exclusion. Design: Quasi-experimental. Inclusion criteria were self-identification as African American/Black, non-Hispanic White, or Hispanic (any race), adults, minimum five cigarettes/day or carbon monoxide reading of ≥ 8 parts per million (ppm), interest in quitting, and spoke/read English. Data were obtained from a parent trial, which is ongoing and will be completed in 2019. Analyses for our present study on participant screening and enrollment were conducted in 2018. Main Outcome Measures: Study ineligibility, and reasons for exclusion (contraindications for nicotine patch use, serious mental illness [SMI, eg, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia], alcohol dependence or illicit drug use, current tobacco treatment, attendance barriers [eg, transportation], and other concerns [eg, aggressive, intoxicated, disruptive, visibly ill]). Results: Of 1,206 individuals screened, 36% were ineligible. The most frequent reasons were SMI (28%), alcohol dependence or drug use (10%), and attendance barriers (7%). Ineligibility was greater among African Americans (42%) and Hispanics (37%), compared with Whites (24%; P<.001). Compared with African Americans and Hispanics, Whites were more likely to be excluded for single reasons, including attendance barriers, and medical conditions (P<.05). African Americans were more than twice as likely as Whites to be excluded for 3 or more reasons (12% vs 5% respectively, P<.05). Conclusions: A notable proportion of smokers were ineligible for this RCT, with SMI as the greatest single cause. Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to be excluded, with African Americans deemed ineligible for multiple reasons. Findings have implications for RCT generalizability, addressing tobacco disparities and health equity.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Seleção de Pacientes , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(7): 547-558, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650044

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify potential gaps in attitudes, knowledge, and institutional practices toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) patients, a national survey of oncologists at National Cancer Institute-Designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers was conducted to measure these attributes related to LGBTQ patients and desire for future training and education. METHODS: A random sample of 450 oncologists from 45 cancer centers was selected from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile to complete a survey measuring attitudes and knowledge about LGBTQ health and institutional practices. Results were quantified using descriptive and stratified analyses and by a novel attitude summary measure. RESULTS: Of the 149 respondents, there was high agreement (65.8%) regarding the importance of knowing the gender identity of patients, which was contrasted by low agreement (39.6%) regarding the importance of knowing sexual orientation. There was high interest in receiving education regarding the unique health needs of LGBTQ patients (70.4%), and knowledge questions yielded high percentages of "neutral" and "do not know or prefer not to answer" responses. After completing the survey, there was a significant decrease ( P < .001) in confidence in knowledge of health needs for LGB (53.1% agreed they were confident during survey assessment v 38.9% postsurvey) and transgender patients (36.9% v 19.5% postsurvey). Stratified analyses revealed some but limited influence on attitudes and knowledge by having LGBTQ friends and/or family members, political affiliation, oncology specialty, years since graduation, and respondents' region of the country. CONCLUSION: This was the first nationwide study, to our knowledge, of oncologists assessing attitudes, knowledge, and institutional practices of LGBTQ patients with cancer. Overall, there was limited knowledge about LGBTQ health and cancer needs but a high interest in receiving education regarding this community.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologistas/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Educação Médica , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oncologistas/educação , Comportamento Sexual , Pessoas Transgênero
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