Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 171
Filtrar
1.
Autophagy ; : 1-2, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679458

RESUMO

Organismal aging is associated with compromised cellular function, which can be partially attributed to accumulation of cellular damage. Being the major, if not only, cellular bulk-degradation mechanism, macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) declines with age in multiple tissues and organisms. Spermidine is an endogenous polyamine metabolite that also declines with age. It prolongs lifespan and improves tissue functions of model organisms in an autophagy-dependent manner. We report that autophagic flux is significantly reduced in B cells from old mice. Spermidine induces autophagy and improves the function of both old mouse and old human B cells. Mechanistically, spermidine post-translationally modifies (hypusinates) the translation factor EIF5A. Hypusinated EIF5A specifically regulates the synthesis of the master autophagy and lysosome transcription factor, TFEB (transcription factor EB). This pathway declines with age in both mice and humans, which may eventually lead to declining autophagy and impaired tissue functions in old individuals.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(21): 11007-11019, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598685

RESUMO

Precision genome editing technologies have transformed modern biology. These technologies have arisen from the redirection of natural biological machinery, such as bacteriophage lambda proteins for recombineering and CRISPR nucleases for eliciting site-specific double-strand breaks. Less well-known is a widely distributed class of bacterial retroelements, retrons, that employ specialized reverse transcriptases to produce noncoding intracellular DNAs. Retrons' natural function and mechanism of genetic transmission have remained enigmatic. However, recent studies have harnessed their ability to produce DNA in situ for genome editing and evolution. This review describes retron biology and function in both natural and synthetic contexts. We also highlight areas that require further study to advance retron-based precision genome editing platforms.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1900, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474985

RESUMO

The rare autoinflammatory disease mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD, which includes HIDS and mevalonic aciduria) is caused by recessive, pathogenic variants in the MVK gene encoding mevalonate kinase. Deficiency of this enzyme decreases the synthesis of isoprenoid lipids and thus prevents the normal post-translational prenylation of small GTPase proteins, which then accumulate in their unprenylated form. We recently optimized a sensitive assay capable of detecting unprenylated Rab GTPase proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed that this assay distinguished MKD from other autoinflammatory diseases. We have now analyzed PBMCs from an additional six patients with genetically-confirmed MKD (with different compound heterozygous MVK genotypes), and compared these with PBMCs from three healthy volunteers and four unaffected control individuals heterozygous for the commonest pathogenic variant, MVK V377I . We detected a clear accumulation of unprenylated Rab proteins, as well as unprenylated Rap1A by western blotting, in all six genetically-confirmed MKD patients compared to heterozygous controls and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, in the three subjects for whom measurements of residual mevalonate kinase activity was available, enzymatic activity inversely correlated with the extent of the defect in protein prenylation. Finally, a heterozygous MVK V377I patient presenting with autoinflammatory symptoms did not have defective prenylation, indicating a different cause of disease. These findings support the notion that the extent of loss of enzyme function caused by biallelic MVK variants determines the severity of defective protein prenylation, and the accumulation of unprenylated proteins in PBMCs may be a sensitive and consistent biomarker that could be used to aid, or help rule out, diagnosis of MKD.

4.
Mol Cell ; 76(1): 110-125.e9, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474573

RESUMO

Failure to make adaptive immune responses is a hallmark of aging. Reduced B cell function leads to poor vaccination efficacy and a high prevalence of infections in the elderly. Here we show that reduced autophagy is a central molecular mechanism underlying immune senescence. Autophagy levels are specifically reduced in mature lymphocytes, leading to compromised memory B cell responses in old individuals. Spermidine, an endogenous polyamine metabolite, induces autophagy in vivo and rejuvenates memory B cell responses. Mechanistically, spermidine post-translationally modifies the translation factor eIF5A, which is essential for the synthesis of the autophagy transcription factor TFEB. Spermidine is depleted in the elderly, leading to reduced TFEB expression and autophagy. Spermidine supplementation restored this pathway and improved the responses of old human B cells. Taken together, our results reveal an unexpected autophagy regulatory mechanism mediated by eIF5A at the translational level, which can be harnessed to reverse immune senescence in humans.

5.
ACS Synth Biol ; 8(9): 2017-2024, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469555

RESUMO

The proteins of trans-acyltransferase modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) self-organize into assembly lines, enabling the multienzyme biosynthesis of complex organic molecules. Docking domains comprised of ∼25 residues at the C- and N-termini of these polypeptides (CDDs and NDDs) help drive this association through the formation of four-helix bundles. Molecular connectors like these are desired in synthetic contexts, such as artificial biocatalytic systems and biomaterials, to orthogonally join proteins. Here, the ability of six CDD/NDD pairs to link non-PKS proteins is examined using green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants. As observed through size-exclusion chromatography and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), matched but not mismatched pairs of Venus+CDD and NDD+mTurquoise2 fusion proteins associate with low micromolar affinities.

6.
Indian J Pediatr ; 86(12): 1118-1123, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353430

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) adolescents often do not achieve good glycemic control. In the context of growing number of technologically savvy adolescents, this study was done to examine the effectiveness of a motivational smartphone app to improve their glycemic control. METHODS: Eleven to eighteen year old adolescents, treated by Pediatric endocrine team of CMC, Vellore, who had T1D ≥ 1 y duration with poor glycemic control (mean HbA1c ≥ 8.5% in preceding 12 mo) were recruited. An app programmed to provide 3 reminders per day regarding insulin, meals and physical exercise was installed on their phone. Diabetes management was continued as per the standard of care. HbA1C was measured after 3 mo. RESULTS: Thirty seven adolescents were recruited; 3 were excluded as the app became non-functional. Seventeen were boys, mean age was 13.8 y (11-18 y) and mean duration of diabetes was 4.9 y (0.8-16 y). The mean HbA1c levels over preceding 12 mo and at recruitment were 10.75% (1.88) and 10.6% (2.08) respectively. Twenty eight participants returned for repeat HbA1C after 3-4 mo. As compared to baseline there was significant reduction in HbA1c level: 10.6% (2.08) vs. 9.65% (1.6); p = 0.004. Twenty two of twenty eight participants showed reduction in HbA1c after app installation. The magnitude of change in HbA1c levels over a 3 mo period before and after the app use was analyzed. There was significant difference between mean HbA1c levels before and after app use; +0.28 (2.06) vs. -0.914 (1.52); p = 0.019. CONCLUSIONS: Following usage of smartphone app as a motivational intervention in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, there was significant reduction in HbA1c level after 3 mo. With continued use, this may benefit them to achieve target HbA1c levels. Use of mobile phone apps as motivational interventions is feasible in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in India.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: [18F]FDG-PET/CT is one of the most important diagnostic techniques in the work-up of patients with FUO/IUO. Little is known how to optimize the diagnostic value of [18F]FDG-PET/CT in patients with FUO/IUO. METHODS: Retrospective study in all patients who underwent [18F]FDG-PET/CT during the work-up of FUO/IUO in a tertiary expert center between 2005 and 2014. Data were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: 104 patients were identified, of whom 68 had a final diagnosis (65.4%), mainly infections (30.8%) and non-infectious inflammatory diseases (30.8%). [18F]FDG-PET/CT contributed to the final diagnosis in 47 of the 68 patients (69.1%). In 21 patients [18F]FDG- PET/CT did not help making a diagnosis. In ten of these patients [18F]FDG-PET/CT was performed while body temperature, CRP and ESR were normal or unknown. Sixteen of 104 patients underwent repeated [18F]FDG-PET/CT. The second scan contributed to the final diagnosis in five of these patients. In two of these patients, the first scan retrospectively was truly non-contributory. In both patients the first [18F]FDG-PET/CT was made while CRP/ESR was low and fever was not present or not measured. A third or fourth scan never contributed to the final diagnosis when the second one did not. CONCLUSIONS: [18F]FDG-PET/CT contributed to the final diagnosis in 45.2% of patients, but never contributed when both inflammatory parameters and body temperature were normal. Repeat [18F]FDG-PET/CT should only be performed in patients with a non- contributory [18F]FDG-PET/CT when new symptoms or signs appear, or when the first scan was made in absence of fever or elevated inflammatory parameters.

8.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 38, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is complex and cumbersome yet important for the clinical management of the disease. Exome sequencing may provide a genetic diagnosis in a significant number of patients in a single genetic test. METHODS: In May 2013, we implemented exome sequencing in routine diagnostics for patients suffering from PIDs. This study reports the clinical utility and diagnostic yield for a heterogeneous group of 254 consecutively referred PID patients from 249 families. For the majority of patients, the clinical diagnosis was based on clinical criteria including rare and/or unusual severe bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, sometimes accompanied by autoimmune manifestations. Functional immune defects were interpreted in the context of aberrant immune cell populations, aberrant antibody levels, or combinations of these factors. RESULTS: For 62 patients (24%), exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in well-established PID genes. An exome-wide analysis diagnosed 10 additional patients (4%), providing diagnoses for 72 patients (28%) from 68 families altogether. The genetic diagnosis directly indicated novel treatment options for 25 patients that received a diagnosis (34%). CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing as a first-tier test for PIDs granted a diagnosis for 28% of patients. Importantly, molecularly defined diagnoses indicated altered therapeutic options in 34% of cases. In addition, exome sequencing harbors advantages over gene panels as a truly generic test for all genetic diseases, including in silico extension of existing gene lists and re-analysis of existing data.

9.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(7): 730-743, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209374

RESUMO

The combination of modern biotechnologies such as DNA synthesis, λ red recombineering, CRISPR-based editing and next-generation high-throughput sequencing increasingly enables precise manipulation of genes and genomes. Beyond rational design, these technologies also enable the targeted, and potentially continuous, introduction of multiple mutations. While this might seem to be merely a return to natural selection, the ability to target evolution greatly reduces fitness burdens and focuses mutation and selection on those genes and traits that best contribute to a desired phenotype, ultimately throwing evolution into fast forward.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , DNA/síntese química , Engenharia Genética , Genoma , Mutação
10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(8): 1025-1032, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic and classification criteria are available for hereditary recurrent fevers (HRF)-familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS)-and for the non-hereditary, periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA). We aimed to develop and validate new evidence-based classification criteria for HRF/PFAPA. METHODS: Step 1: selection of clinical, laboratory and genetic candidate variables; step 2: classification of 360 random patients from the Eurofever Registry by a panel of 25 clinicians and 8 geneticists blinded to patients' diagnosis (consensus ≥80%); step 3: statistical analysis for the selection of the best candidate classification criteria; step 4: nominal group technique consensus conference with 33 panellists for the discussion and selection of the final classification criteria; step 5: cross-sectional validation of the novel criteria. RESULTS: The panellists achieved consensus to classify 281 of 360 (78%) patients (32 CAPS, 36 FMF, 56 MKD, 37 PFAPA, 39 TRAPS, 81 undefined recurrent fever). Consensus was reached for two sets of criteria for each HRF, one including genetic and clinical variables, the other with clinical variables only, plus new criteria for PFAPA. The four HRF criteria demonstrated sensitivity of 0.94-1 and specificity of 0.95-1; for PFAPA, criteria sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 and 0.93, respectively. Validation of these criteria in an independent data set of 1018 patients shows a high accuracy (from 0.81 to 0.98). CONCLUSION: Eurofever proposes a novel set of validated classification criteria for HRF and PFAPA with high sensitivity and specificity.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 69, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech, India) in 4 states of India as part of the Universal Immunization Programme, and expanded to 5 more states in 2017. We report four years of data on rotavirus gastroenteritis in hospitalized children < 5 years of age prior to vaccine introduction. METHODS: Children from 7 sites in southern and northern India hospitalized for diarrhoea were recruited between July 2012 and June 2016. Stool samples were screened for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The EIA positive samples were genotyped by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of the 5834 samples from the 7 sites, 2069 (35.5%) were positive for rotavirus by EIA. Genotyping was performed for 2010 (97.1%) samples. G1P[8](56.3%), G2P[4](9.1%), G9P[4](7.6%), G9P[8](4.2%), and G12P[6](3.7%) were the common genotypes in southern India and G1P[8](36%), G9P[4](11.4%), G2P[4](11.2%), G12P[6](8.4%), and G3P[8](5.9%) in northern India. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the high prevalence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in India and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes across different geographical regions. Pre- vaccine surveillance data is necessary to evaluate the potential change in admission rates for gastroenteritis and circulating rotavirus genotypes after vaccine introduction, thus assessing impact.


Assuntos
Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus/genética , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus , Feminino , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Rotavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinação
12.
Nat Chem ; 11(3): 204-212, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643229

RESUMO

Symmetrical protein oligomers are ubiquitous in biological systems and perform key structural and regulatory functions. However, there are few methods for constructing such oligomers. Here we have engineered completely synthetic, symmetrical oligomers by combining pairs of oppositely supercharged variants of a normally monomeric model protein through a strategy we term 'supercharged protein assembly' (SuPrA). We show that supercharged variants of green fluorescent protein can assemble into a variety of architectures including a well-defined symmetrical 16-mer structure that we solved using cryo-electron microscopy at 3.47 Å resolution. The 16-mer is composed of two stacked rings of octamers, in which the octamers contain supercharged proteins of alternating charges, and interactions within and between the rings are mediated by a variety of specific electrostatic contacts. The ready assembly of this structure suggests that combining oppositely supercharged pairs of protein variants may provide broad opportunities for generating novel architectures via otherwise unprogrammed interactions.


Assuntos
Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Eletricidade Estática
13.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 19(3): 170-183, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531943

RESUMO

Across all branches of the immune system, the process of autophagy is fundamentally important in cellular development, function and homeostasis. Strikingly, this evolutionarily ancient pathway for intracellular recycling has been adapted to enable a high degree of functional complexity and specialization. However, although the requirement for autophagy in normal immune cell function is clear, the mechanisms involved are much less so and encompass control of metabolism, selective degradation of substrates and organelles and participation in cell survival decisions. We review here the crucial functions of autophagy in controlling the differentiation and homeostasis of multiple immune cell types and discuss the potential mechanisms involved.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Provisional evidence-based classification criteria for hereditary periodic fever (HPF) have been recently developed. However, no consensus on how to combine clinical criteria, laboratory tests, and results of molecular analysis has been reached. The objective of this study is to understand which variables physicians consider important for the classification of patients with HPF. METHODS: Two Delphi surveys were sent to health professionals in the field of autoinflammation. In the first open survey, 124 researchers could list all the variables they consider useful for the diagnosis of each monogenic periodic fever. The variables could be of any type and each researcher could complete the survey for 1 or more diseases. In the second survey, 162 researchers were asked to select, from a list of items coming from the first survey, the 10 top variables and to rank them by assigning a score from 10 to 1. RESULTS: The response rates to the Delphi surveys were 85% for the first session and 87% for the second. The variables selected for each disease (corresponding to the third quartile, considering the total score obtained by the variables after the second Delphi survey) were 21 for mevalonate kinase deficiency, 22 for cryopyrinopathies, 18 for familial Mediterranean fever, and 20 for tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome. A positive genetic test reached the top rank in all the HPF. CONCLUSION: Our process led to the identification of those features considered the most important as candidate variables to be included in a new set of evidence-based classification criteria for HPF.

15.
Mov Disord ; 33(10): 1580-1590, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although primarily a neurodegenerative process, there is increasing awareness of peripheral disease mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. To investigate disease processes in accessible patient cells, we studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells in recently diagnosed PD patients and rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patients who have a greatly increased risk of developing PD. We hypothesized that peripheral blood mononuclear cells may recapitulate cellular pathology found in the PD brain and investigated these cells for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and studied from PD patients, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patients and age- and sex-matched control individuals from the well-characterized Oxford Discovery cohort. All participants underwent thorough clinical assessment. RESULTS: Initial characterization showed that PD patients had elevated levels of CD14 + monocytes and monocytes expressing C-C motif chemokine receptor 2. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress were increased in PD patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with elevated levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species specifically in patient monocytes. This was combined with reduced levels of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase in blood cells from PD patients and, importantly, also in rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patients. This mitochondrial dysfunction was associated with a concomitant increase in glycolysis in both PD and rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patient blood cells independent of glucose uptake or monocyte activation. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates functional bioenergetic deficits in PD and rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patient blood cells during the early stages of human disease. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

16.
Malar J ; 17(1): 391, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been reported throughout the Greater Mekong subregion and threatens to disrupt current malaria control efforts worldwide. Polymorphisms in kelch13 have been associated with clinical and in vitro resistance phenotypes; however, several studies suggest that the genetic determinants of resistance may involve multiple genes. Current proposed mechanisms of resistance conferred by polymorphisms in kelch13 hint at a connection to an autophagy-like pathway in P. falciparum. RESULTS: A SNP in autophagy-related gene 18 (atg18) was associated with long parasite clearance half-life in patients following artemisinin-based combination therapy. This gene encodes PfAtg18, which is shown to be similar to the mammalian/yeast homologue WIPI/Atg18 in terms of structure, binding abilities, and ability to form puncta in response to stress. To investigate the contribution of this polymorphism, the atg18 gene was edited using CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce a T38I mutation into a k13-edited Dd2 parasite. The presence of this SNP confers a fitness advantage by enabling parasites to grow faster in nutrient-limited settings. The mutant and parent parasites were screened against drug libraries of 6349 unique compounds. While the SNP did not modulate the parasite's susceptibility to any of the anti-malarial compounds using a 72-h drug pulse, it did alter the parasite's susceptibility to 227 other compounds. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the atg18 T38I polymorphism may provide additional resistance against artemisinin derivatives, but not partner drugs, even in the absence of kelch13 mutations, and may also be important in parasite survival during nutrient deprivation.

17.
ACS Synth Biol ; 7(11): 2600-2611, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256621

RESUMO

While several genome editing methods exist, few are suitable for the continuous evolution of targeted sequences.  Here we develop bacterial retroelements known as "retrons" for the dynamic,  in vivo editing and mutagenesis of targeted genes. We first optimized retrons' ability to introduce preprogrammed mutations, optimizing both their expression and the host machinery that interacts with them to increase the incorporation frequency of mutations 78-fold over rates previously reported in synthetic systems. The optimized system is capable of simultaneously overwriting 13 separate positions spanning  a 31-base length, and is for the first time shown to yield targeted deletions and insertions. To engineer retrons as a tool to introduce novel, unprogrammed mutations in specific targeted regions, we expressed them under a mutagenic T7 RNA polymerase. This coupled mutagenic T7 RNA polymerase-retron system enabled the evolution of diverse variants of environmentally selected antibiotic resistance genes, producing mutation rates in the targeted region 190-fold higher than  background cellular mutation rates, potentially enabling the dynamic, continuous self-evolution of selected phenotypes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140046

RESUMO

High-frequency neuronal population oscillations (HFO, 130-180 Hz) are robustly potentiated by subanesthetic doses of ketamine. This frequency band has been recorded in functionally and neuroanatomically diverse cortical and subcortical regions, notably ventral striatal areas. However, the locus of generation remains largely unknown. There is compelling evidence that olfactory regions can drive oscillations in distant areas. Here we tested the hypothesis that the olfactory bulb (OB) is a locus for the generation of HFO following a subanesthetic dose of ketamine. The effect of ketamine on the electrophysiological activity of the OB and ventral striatum of male Wistar rats was examined using field potential and unit recordings, local inhibition, naris blockade, current source density and causality estimates. Ketamine-HFO was of larger magnitude and was phase-advanced in the OB relative to ventral striatum. Granger causality analysis was consistent with the OB as the source of HFO. Unilateral local inhibition of the OB and naris blockade both attenuated HFO recorded locally and in the ventral striatum. Within the OB, current source density analysis revealed HFO current dipoles close to the mitral layer and unit firing of mitral/tufted cells was phase locked to HFO. Our results reveal the OB as a source of ketamine-HFO which can contribute to HFO in the ventral striatum, known to project diffusely to many other brain regions. These findings provide a new conceptual understanding on how changes in olfactory system function may have implications for neurological disorders involving NMDA receptor dysfunction such as schizophrenia and depression.

19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(11): 1599-1605, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Autoinflammatory diseases can cause irreversible tissue damage due to systemic inflammation. Recently, the Autoinflammatory Disease Damage Index (ADDI) was developed. The ADDI is the first instrument to quantify damage in familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, mevalonate kinase deficiency and tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. The aim of this study was to validate this tool for its intended use in a clinical/research setting. METHODS: The ADDI was scored on paper clinical cases by at least three physicians per case, independently of each other. Face and content validity were assessed by requesting comments on the ADDI. Reliability was tested by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using an 'observer-nested-within-subject' design. Construct validity was determined by correlating the ADDI score to the Physician Global Assessment (PGA) of damage and disease activity. Redundancy of individual items was determined with Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: The ADDI was validated on a total of 110 paper clinical cases by 37 experts in autoinflammatory diseases. This yielded an ICC of 0.84 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.89). The ADDI score correlated strongly with PGA-damage (r=0.92, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.95) and was not strongly influenced by disease activity (r=0.395, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55). After comments from disease experts, some item definitions were refined. The interitem correlation in all different categories was lower than 0.7, indicating that there was no redundancy between individual damage items. CONCLUSION: The ADDI is a reliable and valid instrument to quantify damage in individual patients and can be used to compare disease outcomes in clinical studies.

20.
Immunology ; 155(3): 309-319, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972686

RESUMO

Immune cell differentiation and function depend on metabolic changes for the provision of energy and metabolites. Consequently, cellular metabolism relies on the availability of micronutrients such as vitamins and energy-rich sources including amino acids and fatty acids. The bone marrow controls the continuous production of blood cells and is thereby reliant on the sophisticated interplay of progenitor and mature immune cells with its stromal microenvironment. The significance of stromal subsets in immunopoiesis is undisputed; however, our current knowledge is limited to their role in the production and secretion of a variety of soluble proteins such as cytokines. In contrast, the role of the haematopoietic niche in controlling and providing nutrients such as fatty acids, amino acids and vitamins, which are required for immune cell differentiation and function, remains largely elusive. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of local nutritional exchange and control between immune and stromal cells in peripheral tissue and, when it is known, in the bone marrow. The parallels found between peripheral tissues and bone marrow stroma raises the question of how local metabolism is capable of influencing haematopoiesis and immunopoiesis. A better understanding of the local exchange of nutrients in the bone marrow can be used to improve immune cell formation during ageing, after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and during immune challenge.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA