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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(33)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385327

RESUMO

Dirac fermions play a central role in the study of topological phases, for they can generate a variety of exotic states, such as Weyl semimetals and topological insulators. The control and manipulation of Dirac fermions constitute a fundamental step toward the realization of novel concepts of electronic devices and quantum computation. By means of Angle-Resolved Photo-Emission Spectroscopy (ARPES) experiments and ab initio simulations, here, we show that Dirac states can be effectively tuned by doping a transition metal sulfide, [Formula: see text], through Co/Ni substitution. The symmetry and chemical characteristics of this material, combined with the modification of the charge-transfer gap of [Formula: see text] across its phase diagram, lead to the formation of Dirac lines, whose position in k-space can be displaced along the [Formula: see text] symmetry direction and their form reshaped. Not only does the doping x tailor the location and shape of the Dirac bands, but it also controls the metal-insulator transition in the same compound, making [Formula: see text] a model system to functionalize Dirac materials by varying the strength of electron correlations.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(20): 206805, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110210

RESUMO

We show that a simple one-dimensional model of spinless fermions with pair hopping displays a phase in which a Luttinger liquid of paired fermions coexists with a Luttinger liquid of unpaired fermions. Our results are based on extensive numerical density-matrix renormalization-group calculations and are supported by a two-fluid model that captures the essence of the coexistence region.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(20)2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050153

RESUMO

The Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) technique in proton therapy uses fast magnets to scan the tumor volume rapidly. Changing the proton energy allows changing to layers in the third dimension, hence scanning the same volume several times. The PBS approach permits adapting the speed and/or current to modulate the delivered dose. We built a simple prototype that measures the dose distribution in a single step. The active detection material consists of a single layer of scintillating fibers (i.e., 1D) with an active length of 100 mm, a width of 18.25 mm, and an insignificant space (20 µm) between them. A commercial CMOS-based camera detects the scintillation light. Short exposure times allow running the camera at high frame rates, thus, monitoring the beam motion. A simple image processing method extracts the dose information from each fiber of the array. The prototype would allow scaling the concept to multiple layers read out by the same camera, such that the costs do not scale with the dimensions of the fiber array. Presented here are the characteristics of the prototype, studied under two modalities: spatial resolution, linearity, and energy dependence, characterized at the Center for Proton Therapy (Paul Scherrer Institute); the dose rate response, measured at an electron accelerator (Swiss Federal Institute of Metrology).


Assuntos
Terapia com Prótons , Contagem de Cintilação , Plásticos , Prótons , Radiometria
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(11): 117003, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975960

RESUMO

We study the unconventional superconducting correlations caused by a single isolated magnetic impurity in a conventional s-wave superconductor. Because of the local breaking of time-reversal symmetry, the impurity induces unconventional superconductivity, which is even in both space and spin variables but odd under time inversion. We derive an exact proportionality relation between the even-frequency component of the local electron density of states and the imaginary part of the odd-frequency local pairing function. By applying this relation to scanning tunneling microscopy spectra taken on top of magnetic impurities immersed in a Pb/Si(111) monolayer, we show experimental evidence of the occurrence of the odd-frequency pairing in these systems and explicitly extract its superconducting function from the data.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(25): 257604, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416347

RESUMO

We derive a general criterion for determining the onset of superradiant phase transition in electronic bands coupled to a cavity field, with possibly electron-electron interactions. For longitudinal superradiance in 2D or genuine 1D systems, we prove that it is always prevented, thereby extending existing no-go theorems. Instead, a superradiant phase transition can occur to a nonuniform transverse cavity field and we give specific examples in noninteracting models, either through Fermi surface nesting or parabolic band touching. Investigating the resulting time-reversal symmetry breaking superradiant states, we find in the former case Fermi surface lifting down to four Dirac points on a square lattice model, with topologically protected zero modes, and in the latter case topological bands with nonzero Chern number on an hexagonal lattice.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(23): 236803, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298884

RESUMO

We study the dynamical process of braiding Majorana bound states (MBS) in the presence of the coupling to photons in a microwave cavity. We show theoretically that the π/4 phase associated with the braiding of MBS, as well as the parity of the ground state are imprinted into the photonic field of the cavity, which can be detected by dispersive readout techniques. These manifestations are purely dynamical, they occur in the absence of any splitting of the MBS that are exchanged, and they disappear in the static setups studied previously. Conversely, the cavity can affect the braiding phase, which in turn should allow for cavity controlled braiding.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2587, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197131

RESUMO

Majorana zero modes are fractional quantum excitations appearing in pairs, each pair being a building block for quantum computation. Some signatures of Majorana zero modes have been reported at endpoints of one-dimensional systems, which are however required to be extremely clean. An alternative are two-dimensional topological superconductors, such as the Pb/Co/Si(111) system shown recently to be immune to local disorder. Here, we use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to characterize a disordered superconducting monolayer of Pb coupled to underlying Co-Si magnetic islands. We show that pairs of zero modes are stabilized: one zero mode positioned in the middle of the magnetic domain and its partner extended all around the domain. The zero mode pair is remarkably robust, isolated within a hard superconducting gap. Our theoretical scenario supports the protected Majorana nature of this zero mode pair, highlighting the role of magnetic or spin-orbit coupling textures.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2040, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230031

RESUMO

Just like insulators can present topological phases characterized by Dirac edge states, superconductors can exhibit topological phases characterized by Majorana edge states. In particular, one-dimensional topological superconductors are predicted to host zero-energy Majorana fermions at their extremities. By contrast, two-dimensional superconductors have a one-dimensional boundary which would naturally lead to propagating Majorana edge states characterized by a Dirac-like dispersion. In this paper we present evidences of one-dimensional dispersive in-gap edge states surrounding a two-dimensional topological superconducting domain consisting of a monolayer of Pb covering magnetic Co-Si islands grown on Si(111). We interpret the measured dispersive in-gap states as a spatial topological transition with a gap closure. Our method could in principle be generalized to a large variety of heterostructures combining a Rashba superconductor with a magnetic layer in order to be used as a platform for engineering topological quantum phases.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(3): 037201, 2014 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25083661

RESUMO

We propose a setup that is the spin analog of the charge-based quantum RC circuit. We define and compute the spin capacitance and the spin resistance of the circuit for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems. We find that the antiferromagnetic setup has universal properties, but the ferromagnetic setup does not. We discuss how to use the proposed setup as a quantum source of spin excitations, and put forward two possible experimental realizations, using either ultracold atoms in optical lattices or artificially engineered atomic-spin chains.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 13(12): 17265-80, 2013 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24351635

RESUMO

This paper presents an ultra-low power CMOS voltage reference circuit which is robust under biomedical extreme conditions, such as high temperature and high total ionized dose (TID) radiation. To achieve such performances, the voltage reference is designed in a suitable 130 nm Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) industrial technology and is optimized to work in the subthreshold regime of the transistors. The design simulations have been performed over the temperature range of -40-200 °C and for different process corners. Robustness to radiation was simulated using custom model parameters including TID effects, such as mobilities and threshold voltages degradation. The proposed circuit has been tested up to high total radiation dose, i.e., 1 Mrad (Si) performed at three different temperatures (room temperature, 100 °C and 200 °C). The maximum drift of the reference voltage V(REF) depends on the considered temperature and on radiation dose; however, it remains lower than 10% of the mean value of 1.5 V. The typical power dissipation at 2.5 V supply voltage is about 20 µW at room temperature and only 75 µW at a high temperature of 200 °C. To understand the effects caused by the combination of high total ionizing dose and temperature on such voltage reference, the threshold voltages of the used SOI MOSFETs were extracted under different conditions. The evolution of V(REF) and power consumption with temperature and radiation dose can then be explained in terms of the different balance between fixed oxide charge and interface states build-up. The total occupied area including pad-ring is less than 0.09 mm2.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 111(14): 147202, 2013 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24138267

RESUMO

We study a one-dimensional interacting electronic liquid coupled to a 1D array of classical magnetic moments and to a superconductor. We show that at low energy and temperature the magnetic moments and the electrons become strongly entangled and that a magnetic spiral structure emerges. For strong enough coupling between the electrons and magnetic moments, the 1D electronic liquid is driven into a topological superconducting phase supporting Majorana fermions without any fine-tuning of external parameters. Our analysis applies at low enough temperature to a quantum wire in proximity to a superconductor when the hyperfine interaction between electrons and nuclear spins is taken into account, or to a chain of magnetic adatoms adsorbed on a superconducting surface.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(16): 166605, 2012 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22680745

RESUMO

We investigate the effects induced by ferromagnetic contacts attached to a serial double quantum dot. Spin polarization generates effective magnetic fields and suppresses the Kondo effect in each dot. The superexchange interaction J(AFM), tuned by the interdot tunneling rate t, can be used to compensate the effective fields and restore the Kondo resonance when the contact polarizations are aligned. As a consequence, the direction of the spin conductance can be controlled and even reversed using electrostatic gates alone. Our results demonstrate a new approach for controlling spin-dependent transport in carbon nanotube double dot devices.

13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(9): 096802, 2012 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463658

RESUMO

We study a one-dimensional wire with strong Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which supports Majorana fermions when subject to a Zeeman magnetic field and in the proximity of a superconductor. Using both analytical and numerical techniques we calculate the electronic spin texture of the Majorana end states. We find that the spin polarization of these states depends on the relative magnitude of the Rashba and Dresselhaus SOC components. Moreover, we define and calculate a local "Majorana polarization" and "Majorana density" and argue that they can be used as order parameters to characterize the topological transition between the trivial system and the system exhibiting Majorana bound modes. We find that the local Majorana polarization is correlated to the transverse spin polarization, and we propose to test the presence of Majorana fermions in a 1D system by a spin-polarized density of states measurement.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 107(3): 036801, 2011 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21838386

RESUMO

We show that one-dimensional electron systems in the proximity of a superconductor that support Majorana edge states are extremely susceptible to electron-electron interactions. Strong interactions generically destroy the induced superconducting gap that stabilizes the Majorana edge states. For weak interactions, the renormalization of the gap is nonuniversal and allows for a regime in which the Majorana edge states persist. We present strategies of how this regime can be reached.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(11): 115301, 2010 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867581

RESUMO

We analyze an interacting Bose-Fermi mixture in a 1D disordered potential by using a combination of renormalization group and variational methods. We obtain the complete phase diagram in the incommensurate case as a function of bosonic and interspecies interaction strengths, in the weak disorder limit. We find that the system is characterized by several phase transitions between superfluid and various glassy insulating states, including a new Bose-Fermi glass phase, where both species are coupled and localized. We show that the dynamical structure factor, as measured through Bragg scattering experiments, can distinguish between the various localized phases and probe their dynamics.

17.
Phys Rev Lett ; 103(10): 106601, 2009 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19792331

RESUMO

We investigate theoretically spin relaxation in heavy-hole quantum dots in low external magnetic fields. We demonstrate that two-phonon processes and spin-orbit interaction are experimentally relevant and provide an explanation for the recently observed saturation of the spin-relaxation rate in heavy-hole quantum dots with vanishing magnetic fields. We propose further experiments to identify the relevant spin-relaxation mechanisms in low magnetic fields.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(16): 166806, 2009 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19518741

RESUMO

We study two quantum dots embedded in the arms of an Aharonov-Bohm ring threaded by a magnetic flux. This system can be described by an effective one-impurity Anderson model with an energy- and flux-dependent density of states. For specific values of the flux, this density of states vanishes at the Fermi energy, yielding a controlled realization of the pseudogap Kondo effect. The conductance and transmission phase shifts reflect a nontrivial interplay between wave interference and interactions, providing clear signatures of quantum phase transitions between Kondo and non-Kondo ground states.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(11): 116403, 2009 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19392221

RESUMO

Single wall carbon nanotubes grown entirely from 13C form an ideal system to study the effect of electron interaction on nuclear magnetism in one dimension. If the electrons are in the metallic, Luttinger liquid regime, we show that even a very weak hyperfine coupling to the 13C nuclear spins has a striking effect: The system is driven into an ordered phase, which combines electron and nuclear degrees of freedom, and which persists up into the millikelvin range. In this phase the conductance is reduced by a universal factor of 2, allowing for detection by standard transport experiments.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(1): 017202, 2008 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764149

RESUMO

We investigate the ac transport of magnetization in nonitinerant quantum systems such as spin chains described by the XXZ Hamiltonian. Using linear response theory, we calculate the ac magnetization current and the power absorption of such magnetic systems. Remarkably, the difference in the exchange interaction of the spin chain itself and the bulk magnets (i.e., the magnetization reservoirs), to which the spin chain is coupled, strongly influences the absorbed power of the system. This feature can be used in future spintronic devices to control power dissipation. Our analysis allows us to make quantitative predictions about the power absorption, and we show that magnetic systems are superior to their electronic counterparts.

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