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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 26-40, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870554

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%-70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64-4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10-5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.

3.
J Neurodev Disord ; 11(1): 40, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our ability to generate mental representation of magnitude from sensory information affects how we perceive and experience the world. Reduced resolution of the mental representations formed from sensory inputs may generate impairment in the proximal and distal information processes that utilize these representations. Impairment of spatial and temporal information processing likely underpins the non-verbal cognitive impairments observed in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). The present study builds on prior research by seeking to quantify the resolution of spatial and temporal representation in children with 22q11DS, sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), and a typically developing (TD) control group. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Children (22q11DS = 70, SCA = 49, TD = 46) responded to visual or auditory stimuli with varying difference ratios. The participant's task was to identify which of two sequentially presented stimuli was of larger magnitude in terms of, size, duration, or auditory frequency. Detection threshold was calculated as the minimum difference ratio between the "standard" and the "target" stimuli required to achieve 75% accuracy in detecting that the two stimuli were different. RESULTS: Children with 22q11DS required larger magnitude difference between spatial stimuli for accurate identification compared with both the SCA and TD groups (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD: 7; F = 8.42, p < 0.001). Temporal detection threshold was also higher for the 22q11DS group to both visual (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 14; SCA = 8; TD = 7; F = 8.33, p < 0.001) and auditory (% difference from standard: 22q11DS = 23; SCA = 12; TD: 8; F = 8.99, p < 0.001) stimuli compared with both the SCA and TD groups, while the SCA and TD groups displayed equivalent performance on these measures (p's > 0.05). Pitch detection threshold did not differ among the groups (p's > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The observation of higher detection thresholds to spatial and temporal stimuli indicates further evidence for reduced resolution in both spatial and temporal magnitude representation in 22q11DS, that does not extend to frequency magnitude representation (pitch detection), and which is not explained by generalized cognitive impairment alone. These findings generate further support for the hypothesis that spatiotemporal hypergranularity of mental representations contributes to the non-verbal cognitive impairment seen in 22q11DS.

4.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 124(6): 549-567, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756146

RESUMO

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) show high rates of anxiety associated with their increased risk of developing schizophrenia. Biased attention is associated with anxiety and is important to investigate in those with 22q11DS given this association. We analyzed attention bias to emotional faces in 7- to 17-year olds with 22q11DS and typically developing controls (TD) using a dot probe threat bias paradigm. We measured response time, eye tracking, and pupilometry. Those with 22q11DS showed no significant changes in early versus late trials, whereas those who were TD showed differing patterns in both gaze and pupilometry over time. The patterns in those who are TD may indicate adaptation that is lacking or slower in individuals with 22q11DS.

5.
Autism Res ; 12(12): 1737-1744, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433576

RESUMO

Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are common in individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), yet the underlying mechanisms of these behaviors remain poorly characterized. In the present pilot investigation, we aimed to further our understanding of RRB in 22q11.2DS by exploring their relationship with cognitive control and anxiety as well as with sex, chronological age, and full-scale IQ. Parents of 38 children with 22q11.2DS (17 females; Mage = 11.15 years, SD = 2.46) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire as a measure of RRB and social and communication (SC) problems and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 as a measure of anxiety and cognitive control. Higher RRB scores were significantly associated with higher anxiety levels (r = 0.44, P = 0.006), more impairments in cognitive control (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and higher SC scores (r = 0.43, P = 0.011). In the first step of the hierarchical regression model, anxiety accounted for 24.5% of variance (F = 10.05, P = 0.003); cognitive control accounted for an additional 18.1% of variance (Fchange = 11.15, P < 0.001) in the second step; SC score accounted for only 0.8% of additional variance in the third step (Fchange = 0.40, P = 0.53). The final model explained 43.4% of variance (F = 7.42, P = 0.001), with cognitive control as a unique independent predictor of RRB score (t = 2.52, P = 0.01). The current study provides the first exploration of the cognitive control-anxiety-RRB link in individuals with 22q11.2DS and points to cognitive control as a potentially viable target for treatments aimed at reducing RRB. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1737-1744. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: People with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome show high levels of repetitive behaviors, however, the previous research has not explored why people with this syndrome exhibit high rates of repetitive behaviors. Understanding the reasons for the high levels of repetitive behaviors is important given that these behaviors can be highly impairing. Our study found that repetitive behaviors were associated with impaired ability to self-regulate and high levels of anxiety. These findings need to be further replicated; however, they are important as they suggest potentially promising ways of reducing these behaviors.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

7.
J Psychiatr Res ; 114: 99-104, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054456

RESUMO

Bullying is an adverse childhood experience that is more common among youth with special needs and is associated with increased psychopathology throughout the lifespan. Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q) represent one group of special needs youth who are at increased risk for bullying due to co-occurring genetically-mediated developmental, physical, and learning difficulties. Furthermore, individuals with 22q are at increased risk for developing psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the impact of bullying on individuals with 22q and the possible impact this has on risk for psychosis in this population. To explore this relationship using existing research the goals of the review are: (i) to explore the nature of bullying among youth with special needs, and (ii) to discuss its potential role as a specific risk factor in the development of adverse outcomes, including psychosis symptoms. We reviewed the relationship between bullying and its short and long-term effects on the cognitive, social, and developmental functioning of typically developing individuals and those with special needs. We propose an interactive relationship between trauma, stress, and increased psychosis risk among youth with 22q with a history of bullying. The early childhood experience of trauma in the form of bullying promotes an altered developmental trajectory that may elevate the risk for maladaptive functioning and subsequent psychotic disorders, particularly in youth with genetic vulnerabilities. Therefore, we conclude the experience of bullying among individuals with 22q should be more closely examined.

8.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(8): 853-861, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874361

RESUMO

Importance: Childhood psychoticlike experiences (PLEs) are associated with greater odds of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder during adulthood. However, no known, well-validated self-report tools have been designed to measure childhood PLEs. Objective: To examine the construct validity and psychometric properties of a measure of PLEs, the Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Child Version (PQ-BC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This validation study used data from the first wave of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, a prospective longitudinal study aimed at assessing risk factors associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes from ages 9 to 10 years into late adolescence and early adulthood. The population-based sample of 3984 children within the ABCD data set was recruited from 20 research sites across the United States. Data for this study were collected from June 1, 2016, through August 31, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The PQ-BC Total and Distress scores were analyzed for measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex, their associations with measures of PLEs, and their associations with known correlates of PLEs, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, neuropsychological test performance, and developmental milestones. Results: The study analyses included 3984 participants (1885 girls [47.3%] and 2099 boys [52.7%]; mean [SE] age, 10.0 [0.01] years). The results demonstrated measurement invariance across race/ethnicity and sex. A family history of psychotic disorder was associated with higher mean (SE) PQ-BC Total (3.883 [0.352]; ß = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.027-0.094) and Distress (10.210 [1.043]; ß = 0.051; 95% CI, 0.018-0.084) scores, whereas a family history of depression or mania was not. Higher PQ-BC scores were associated with higher rates of child-rated internalizing symptoms (Total score: ß range, 0.218 [95% CI, 0.189-0.246] to 0.273 [95% CI, 0.245-0.301]; Distress score: ß range, 0.248 [95% CI, 0.220-0.277] to 0.310 [95% CI, 0.281-0.338]), neuropsychological test performance deficits such as working memory (Total score: ß = -0.042 [95% CI, -0.077 to -0.008]; Distress score: ß = -0.051 [95% CI, -0.086 to -0.017]), and motor and speech developmental milestone delays (Total score: ß = 0.057 [95% CI, 0.026-0.086] for motor; ß = 0.042 [95% CI, 0.010-0.073] for speech; Distress score: ß = 0.048 [95% CI, 0.017-0.079] for motor; ß = 0.049 [95% CI, 0.018-0.081] for speech). Conclusions and Relevance: These results provide support for the construct validity and demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of a self-report instrument designed to measure childhood PLEs, providing evidence that the PQ-BC may be a useful measure of early risk for psychotic disorders. Furthermore, these data suggest that PLEs at school age are associated with many of the same familial, cognitive, and emotional factors associated with psychotic symptoms in older populations, consistent with the dimensionality of psychosis across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Sintomas Prodrômicos , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Estados Unidos
9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895892

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion (22q11DS) is a common chromosomal microdeletion and a potent risk factor for psychotic illness. Prior studies reported widespread cortical changes in 22q11DS, but were generally underpowered to characterize neuroanatomic abnormalities associated with psychosis in 22q11DS, and/or neuroanatomic effects of variability in deletion size. To address these issues, we developed the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis) 22q11.2 Working Group, representing the largest analysis of brain structural alterations in 22q11DS to date. The imaging data were collected from 10 centers worldwide, including 474 subjects with 22q11DS (age = 18.2 ± 8.6; 46.9% female) and 315 typically developing, matched controls (age = 18.0 ± 9.2; 45.9% female). Compared to controls, 22q11DS individuals showed thicker cortical gray matter overall (left/right hemispheres: Cohen's d = 0.61/0.65), but focal thickness reduction in temporal and cingulate cortex. Cortical surface area (SA), however, showed pervasive reductions in 22q11DS (left/right hemispheres: d = -1.01/-1.02). 22q11DS cases vs. controls were classified with 93.8% accuracy based on these neuroanatomic patterns. Comparison of 22q11DS-psychosis to idiopathic schizophrenia (ENIGMA-Schizophrenia Working Group) revealed significant convergence of affected brain regions, particularly in fronto-temporal cortex. Finally, cortical SA was significantly greater in 22q11DS cases with smaller 1.5 Mb deletions, relative to those with typical 3 Mb deletions. We found a robust neuroanatomic signature of 22q11DS, and the first evidence that deletion size impacts brain structure. Psychotic illness in this highly penetrant deletion was associated with similar neuroanatomic abnormalities to idiopathic schizophrenia. These consistent cross-site findings highlight the homogeneity of this single genetic etiology, and support the suitability of 22q11DS as a biological model of schizophrenia.

10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 39(1): 232-248, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28990258

RESUMO

Occurring in at least 1 in 3,000 live births, chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) produces a complex phenotype that includes a constellation of medical complications such as congenital cardiac defects, immune deficiency, velopharyngeal dysfunction, and characteristic facial dysmorphic features. There is also an increased incidence of psychiatric diagnosis, especially intellectual disability and ADHD in childhood, lifelong anxiety, and a strikingly high rate of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, which occur in around 30% of adults with 22q11DS. Using innovative computational connectomics, we studied how 22q11DS affects high-level network signatures of hierarchical modularity and its intrinsic geometry in 55 children with confirmed 22q11DS and 27 Typically Developing (TD) children. Results identified 3 subgroups within our 22q11DS sample using a K-means clustering approach based on several midline structural measures-of-interests. Each subgroup exhibited distinct patterns of connectome abnormalities. Subtype 1, containing individuals with generally healthy-looking brains, exhibited no significant differences in either modularity or intrinsic geometry when compared with TD. By contrast, the more anomalous 22q11DS Subtypes 2 and 3 brains revealed significant modular differences in the right hemisphere, while Subtype 3 (the most anomalous anatomy) further exhibited significantly abnormal connectome intrinsic geometry in the form of left-right temporal disintegration. Taken together, our findings supported an overall picture of (a) anterior-posteriorly differential interlobar frontotemporal/frontoparietal dysconnectivity in Subtypes 2 and 3 and (b) differential intralobar dysconnectivity in Subtype 3. Our ongoing studies are focusing on whether these subtypes and their connnectome signatures might be valid biomarkers for predicting the degree of psychosis-proneness risk found in 22q11DS. Hum Brain Mapp 39:232-248, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Conectoma/métodos , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(4): 209-212, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191496

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common survivable human genetic deletion disorder, is caused by a hemizygous deletion of 30-40 contiguous genes on chromosome 22, many of which have not been well characterized. Clinical features seen in patients with this deletion, including intellectual disability, are not completely penetrant and vary in severity between patients, suggesting the involvement of variants elsewhere in the genome in the manifestation of the phenotype. Given that it is a relatively rare disorder (1/2000-6000 in humans), limited research has shed light into the contribution of these second-site variants to the developmental pathogenesis that underlies 22q11DS. As CNVs throughout the genome might constitute such a genetic risk factor for variability in the 22q11DS phenotypes such as intellectual disability, we sought to determine if the overall burden of rare CNVs in the genetic background influenced the phenotypic variability. We analyzed CNV and clinical data from 66 individuals with 22q11DS, and found that 77% (51/66) of individuals with the 22q11DS also carry additional rare CNVs (<0.1% frequency). We observed several trends between CNV burden and phenotype, including that the burden of large rare CNVs (>200 Kb in size) was significantly higher in 22q11DS individuals with intellectual disability than with normal IQ. Our analysis shows that rare CNVs may contribute to intellectual disability 22q11DS, and further analysis on larger 22q11DS cohorts should be performed to confirm this correlation.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(5)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome) occurs in 1 of 4000 live births, and 60% to 70% of affected individuals have congenital heart disease, ranging from mild to severe. In our cohort of 1472 subjects with 22q11.2DS, a total of 62% (n=906) have congenital heart disease and 36% (n=326) of these have tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), comprising the largest subset of severe congenital heart disease in the cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify common genetic variants associated with TOF in individuals with 22q11.2DS, we performed a genome-wide association study using Affymetrix 6.0 array and imputed genotype data. In our cohort, TOF was significantly associated with a genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12519770, P=2.98×10-8) in an intron of the adhesion GPR98 (G-protein-coupled receptor V1) gene on chromosome 5q14.3. There was also suggestive evidence of association between TOF and several additional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this region. Some genome-wide significant loci in introns or noncoding regions could affect regulation of genes nearby or at a distance. On the basis of this possibility, we examined existing Hi-C chromatin conformation data to identify genes that might be under shared transcriptional regulation within the region on 5q14.3. There are 6 genes in a topologically associated domain of chromatin with GPR98, including MEF2C (Myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C). MEF2C is the only gene that is known to affect heart development in mammals and might be of interest with respect to 22q11.2DS. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, common variants may contribute to TOF in 22q11.2DS and may function in cardiac outflow tract development.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Tetralogia de Fallot/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5 , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações
13.
Neurobiol Aging ; 55: 11-19, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391068

RESUMO

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting male premutation carriers with 55-200 CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions in the FMR1 gene after age 50. The aim of this study was to examine whether cerebellar and brainstem changes emerge during development or aging in late life. We retrospectively analyzed magnetic resonance imaging scans from 322 males (age 8-81 years). Volume changes in the cerebellum and brainstem were contrasted with those in the ventricles and whole brain. Compared to the controls, premutation carriers without FXTAS showed significantly accelerated volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain, flatter inverted U-shaped trajectory of the brainstem, and larger ventricles. Compared to both older controls and premutation carriers without FXTAS, carriers with FXTAS exhibited significant volume decrease in the cerebellum and whole brain and accelerated volume decrease in the brainstem. We therefore conclude that cerebellar and brainstem volumes were likely affected during both development and progression of neurodegeneration in premutation carriers, suggesting that interventions may need to start early in adulthood to be most effective.


Assuntos
Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/patologia , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Tremor/genética , Tremor/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ataxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico por imagem , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tremor/diagnóstico por imagem , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Schizophr Bull ; 43(5): 1079-1089, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204757

RESUMO

Nearly one-third of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) develop a psychotic disorder during life, most of them by early adulthood. Importantly, a full-blown psychotic episode is usually preceded by subthreshold symptoms. In the current study, 760 participants (aged 6-55 years) with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 microdeletion have been recruited through 10 medical sites worldwide, as part of an international research consortium. Of them, 692 were nonpsychotic and with complete measurement data. Subthreshold psychotic symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Nearly one-third of participants met criteria for positive subthreshold psychotic symptoms (32.8%), less than 1% qualified for acute positive subthreshold symptoms, and almost a quarter met criteria for negative/disorganized subthreshold symptoms (21.7%). Adolescents and young adults (13-25 years) showed the highest rates of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. Additionally, higher rates of anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were found among the study participants with subthreshold psychotic symptoms compared to those without. Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and global functioning (GAF) scores were negatively associated with participants' subthreshold psychotic symptoms. This study represents the most comprehensive analysis reported to date on subthreshold psychosis in 22q11.2DS. Novel findings include age-related changes in subthreshold psychotic symptoms and evidence that cognitive deficits are associated with subthreshold psychosis in this population. Future studies should longitudinally follow these symptoms to detect whether and how early identification and treatment of these manifestations can improve long-term outcomes in those that eventually develop a psychotic disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Genet ; 135(3): 273-85, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26742502

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS; MIM #192430; 188400) is the most common microdeletion syndrome. The phenotypic presentation of 22q11DS is highly variable; approximately 60-75 % of 22q11DS patients have been reported to have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or aortic arch defect. The etiology of the cardiac phenotypic variability is not currently known for the majority of patients. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region may modify the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Rare CNV analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 data from 946 22q11DS subjects with CHDs (n = 607) or with normal cardiac anatomy (n = 339). Although there was no significant difference in the overall burden of rare CNVs, an overabundance of CNVs affecting cardiac-related genes was detected in 22q11DS individuals with CHDs. When the rare CNVs were examined with regard to gene interactions, specific cardiac networks, such as Wnt signaling, appear to be overrepresented in 22q11DS CHD cases but not 22q11DS controls with a normal heart. Collectively, these data suggest that CNVs outside the 22q11.2 region may contain genes that modify risk for CHDs in some 22q11DS patients.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Humanos
16.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 41(3): 203-13, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have an elevated risk for schizophrenia, which increases with history of childhood anxiety. Altered hippocampal morphology is a common neuroanatomical feature of 22q11.2DS and idiopathic schizophrenia. Relating hippocampal structure in children with 22q11.2DS to anxiety and impaired cognitive ability could lead to hippocampus-based characterization of psychosis-proneness in this at-risk population. METHODS: We measured hippocampal volume using a semiautomated approach on MRIs collected from typically developing children and children with 22q11.2DS. We then analyzed hippocampal morphology with Localized Components Analysis. We tested the modulating roles of diagnostic group, hippocampal volume, sex and age on local hippocampal shape components. Lastly, volume and shape components were tested as covariates of IQ and anxiety. RESULTS: We included 48 typically developing children and 69 children with 22q11.2DS in our study. Hippocampal volume was reduced bilaterally in children with 22q11.2DS, and these children showed greater variation in the shape of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Children with 22q11.2DS had greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus than typically developing children. Greater inward deformation of the anterior hippocampus was associated with greater severity of anxiety, specifically fear of physical injury, within the 22q11.2DS group. LIMITATIONS: Shape alterations are not specific to hippocampal subfields. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the structure of the anterior hippocampus likely affect function and may impact limbic circuitry. We suggest these alterations potentially contribute to anxiety symptoms in individuals with 22q11.2DS through modulatory pathways. Altered hippocampal morphology may be uniquely linked to anxiety risk factors for schizophrenia, which could be a powerful neuroanatomical marker of schizophrenia risk and hence protection.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Caracteres Sexuais
17.
J Biol Chem ; 290(38): 23240-53, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26221035

RESUMO

The congenital disorder 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS), characterized by a hemizygous deletion of 1.5-3 Mb on chromosome 22 at locus 11.2, is the most common microdeletion disorder (estimated prevalence of 1 in 4000) and the second risk factor for schizophrenia. Nine of ∼30 genes involved in 22qDS have the potential of disrupting mitochondrial metabolism (COMT, UFD1L, DGCR8, MRPL40, PRODH, SLC25A1, TXNRD2, T10, and ZDHHC8). Deficits in bioenergetics during early postnatal brain development could set the basis for a disrupted neuronal metabolism or synaptic signaling, partly explaining the higher incidence in developmental and behavioral deficits in these individuals. Here, we investigated whether mitochondrial outcomes and metabolites from 22qDS children segregated with the altered dosage of one or several of these mitochondrial genes contributing to 22qDS etiology and/or morbidity. Plasma metabolomics, lymphocytic mitochondrial outcomes, and epigenetics (histone H3 Lys-4 trimethylation and 5-methylcytosine) were evaluated in samples from 11 22qDS children and 13 age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing controls. Metabolite differences between 22qDS children and controls reflected a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis (higher lactate/pyruvate ratios) accompanied by an increase in reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate (increased concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, cholesterol, and fatty acids). Altered metabolism in 22qDS reflected a critical role for the haploinsufficiency of the mitochondrial citrate transporter SLC25A1, further enhanced by HIF-1α, MYC, and metabolite controls. This comprehensive profiling served to clarify the biochemistry of this disease underlying its broad, complex phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Síndrome de DiGeorge/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/metabolismo , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(5): 753-64, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25892112

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10(-3), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10(-2), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10(-4), two-tailed Fisher's exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 3/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Adulto , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 232(1): 106-14, 2015 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25748884

RESUMO

The fornix is the primary subcortical output fiber system of the hippocampal formation. In children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), hippocampal volume reduction has been commonly reported, but few studies as yet have evaluated the integrity of the fornix. Therefore, we investigated the fornix of 45 school-aged children with 22q11.2DS and 38 matched typically developing (TD) children. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to reconstruct the body of the fornix in each child׳s brain native space. Compared with children, significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) was observed bilaterally in the body of the fornix in children with 22q11.2DS. Irregularities were especially prominent in the posterior aspect of the fornix where it emerges from the hippocampus. Smaller volumes of the hippocampal formations were also found in the 22q11.2DS group. The reduced hippocampal volumes were correlated with lower fornix FA and higher fornix RD in the right hemisphere. Our findings provide neuroanatomical evidence of disrupted hippocampal connectivity in children with 22q11.2DS, which may help to further understand the biological basis of spatial impairments, affective regulation, and other factors related to the ultra-high risk for schizophrenia in this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Fórnice/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Adolescente , Anisotropia , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Esquizofrenia/genética
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 72(4): 377-85, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25715178

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have an elevated (25%) risk of developing schizophrenia. Recent reports have suggested that a subgroup of children with 22q11DS display a substantial decline in cognitive abilities starting at a young age. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early cognitive decline is associated with risk of psychotic disorder in 22q11DS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. As part of an international research consortium initiative, we used the largest data set of intelligence (IQ) measurements in patients with 22q11DS reported to date to investigate longitudinal IQ trajectories and the risk of subsequent psychotic illness. A total of 829 patients with a confirmed hemizygous 22q11.2 deletion, recruited through 12 international clinical research sites, were included. Both psychiatric assessments and longitudinal IQ measurements were available for a subset of 411 patients (388 with ≥1 assessment at age 8-24 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, initial IQ, longitudinal IQ trajectory, and timing of the last psychiatric assessment with respect to the last IQ test. RESULTS: Among 411 patients with 22q11DS, 55 (13.4%) were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder. The mean (SD) age at the most recent psychiatric assessment was 16.1 (6.2) years. The mean (SD) full-scale IQ at first cognitive assessment was lower in patients who developed a psychotic disorder (65.5 [12.0]) compared with those without a psychotic disorder (74.0 [14.0]). On average, children with 22q11DS showed a mild decline in IQ (full-scale IQ, 7.04 points) with increasing age, particularly in the domain of verbal IQ (9.02 points). In those who developed psychotic illness, this decline was significantly steeper (P < .001). Those with a negative deviation from the average cognitive trajectory observed in 22q11DS were at significantly increased risk for the development of a psychotic disorder (odds ratio = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.24-5.00; P = .01). The divergence of verbal IQ trajectories between those who subsequently developed a psychotic disorder and those who did not was distinguishable from age 11 years onward. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In 22q11DS, early cognitive decline is a robust indicator of the risk of developing a psychotic illness. These findings mirror those observed in idiopathic schizophrenia. The results provide further support for investigations of 22q11DS as a genetic model for elucidating neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development of psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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