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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(3): 595-600, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); however, it is not known whether early-stage NAFLD may be associated with BMD after accounting for BMI or visceral adipose tissue (VAT). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 3,462 Framingham Heart Study participants who underwent computed tomographic measurement of liver fat, VAT volume, volumetric spine BMD, vertebral cross-sectional area (CSA), and vertebral compressive strength. This study excluded heavy alcohol consumers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the association between NAFLD and volumetric BMD, CSA, and vertebral compressive strength after accounting for covariates, including BMI or VAT. RESULTS: A total of 2,253 participants (mean age, 51.2 [SD 10.7] years; 51.1% women) were included. In multivariable-adjusted models, positive associations between NAFLD and integral BMD, trabecular BMD, and vertebral compressive strength were observed. However, results were attenuated and no longer significant after additionally adjusting for BMI or VAT. NAFLD was observed to be weakly associated with a lower vertebral CSA in adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: In a community-based cohort, the associations between NAFLD and BMD and vertebral strength were confounded by BMI and VAT. However, NAFLD was associated with a reduced vertebral CSA in adjusted models.

2.
Hepatology ; 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic health record (EHR)-based research allows the capture of large amounts of data, which is necessary in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), where the risk of clinical liver outcomes is generally low. The lack of consensus on which International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes should be used as exposures and outcomes limits comparability and generalizability of results across studies. We aimed to establish consensus among a panel of experts on ICD codes that could become the reference standard and provide guidance around common methodological issues. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Researchers with an interest in EHR-based NAFLD research were invited to collectively define which administrative codes are most appropriate for documenting exposures and outcomes. We used a modified Delphi approach to reach consensus on several commonly encountered methodological challenges in the field. After two rounds of revision, a high level of agreement (>67%) was reached on all items considered. Full consensus was achieved on a comprehensive list of administrative codes to be considered for inclusion and exclusion criteria in defining exposures and outcomes in EHR-based NAFLD research. We also provide suggestions on how to approach commonly encountered methodological issues and identify areas for future research. CONCLUSIONS: This expert panel consensus statement can help harmonize and improve generalizability of EHR-based NAFLD research.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) are at an increased risk of death and liver-related endpoints, but the association with incident cancer is not well understood, and whether it differs across histopathological subgroups is undefined. METHODS: We investigated the risk of cancer in 3,410 persons with a diagnosis of ALD and an available liver biopsy in Sweden between 1969-2016, compared to a matched reference population. Administrative coding from national registers and liver biopsy data were used to define exposure and outcome status. Competing risk regression, adjusted for available confounders and using non-cancer mortality as the competing risk, was used to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) for incident cancer. RESULTS: At baseline, persons with ALD had a median age of 58.2 years, 67% were men, and 2,042 (60%) had cirrhosis. ALD was not associated with cancer in general (sHR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.92-1.11), although the risk was increased in persons surviving ≥1 year (sHR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.32). The risk of liver cancer was elevated sHR = 12.80, 95%CI = 9.38-17.45). HCC incidence among ALD persons with cirrhosis was 8.6 cases/1,000 person-years, corresponding to a cumulative incidence after 10 years of 5.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with biopsy-proven ALD that survive the initial time after diagnosis are at an elevated risk for cancer, in particular HCC compared with the general population. Although the risk for HCC was elevated, data do not suggest that routine surveillance for HCC in ALD cirrhosis is cost-effective.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We prospectively examined the extent to which greater inflammatory and insulinemic potential of diet and lifestyle are associated with the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in two nationwide cohorts. METHODS: Five kinds of pattern scores including the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and insulin resistance (EDIR), empirical lifestyle pattern score for hyperinsulinemia (ELIH) and insulin resistance (ELIR) were calculated. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: After an average follow-up of 25.6 years among 119,316 participants, 142 incident HCC cases were documented. Higher adherence to EDIP (HR by comparing extreme tertiles: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.31-3.16, Ptrend= 0.001), EDIH (HR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Ptrend= 0.02), and EDIR (HR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.08-2.42, Ptrend= 0.02) were associated with increased risk of HCC. Likewise, participants with higher scores of ELIH (HR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.25-2.87, Ptrend= 0.001) and ELIR (HR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.34-3.14, Ptrend= 0.0004) had higher risk of developing HCC. Additional adjustment for diabetes mellitus and/or body mass index attenuated the magnitude of the associations, indicating that diabetes and/or adiposity may partly mediate the association of these patterns with HCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that inflammation and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia are potential mechanisms linking dietary or lifestyle factors and HCC development. IMPACT: Inflammation and insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may partly mediate the association of diet and other lifestyles with HCC development, and interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory and hyperinsulinemic diet and lifestyle may reduce HCC risk.

5.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283299

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Among those with NAFLD, up to 30% will develop progressive steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis, which can ultimately lead to cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, and death. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of NAFLD-cirrhosis, it often goes undiagnosed, and delayed diagnoses of cirrhosis contribute to substantially increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is vitally important to develop non-invasive screening tools to accurately identify NAFLD-cirrhosis before potentially life-threatening complications arise.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In contrast to most other common diseases, few genetic variants have been identified that impact risk of cirrhosis. We aimed to identify new genetic variants that predispose to cirrhosis, to test whether such variants, aggregated into a polygenic score, enable genomic risk stratification, and to test whether alcohol intake or body mass index interacts with polygenic predisposition. METHODS: We conducted a multi-trait genome-wide association study combining cirrhosis and alanine aminotransferase levels performed in 5 discovery studies (UK Biobank, Vanderbilt BioVU, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, and 2 case-control studies including 4829 individuals with cirrhosis and 72,705 controls and 362,539 individuals with alanine aminotransferase levels). Identified variants were replicated in 3 studies (Partners HealthCare Biobank, FinnGen, and Biobank Japan including 3554 individuals with cirrhosis and 343,826 controls). A polygenic score was tested in Partners HealthCare Biobank. RESULTS: Five previously reported and 7 newly identified genetic variants were associated with cirrhosis in both the discovery studies multi-trait genome-wide association study (P < 5 × 10-8) and the replication studies (P < .05), including a missense variant in the APOE gene and a noncoding variant near EFN1A. These 12 variants were used to generate a polygenic score. Among Partners HealthCare Biobank individuals, high polygenic score-defined as the top quintile of the distribution-was associated with significantly increased risk of cirrhosis (odds ratio, 2.26; P < .001) and related comorbidities compared with the lowest quintile. Risk was even more pronounced among those with extreme polygenic risk (top 1% of the distribution, odds ratio, 3.16; P < .001). The impact of extreme polygenic risk was substantially more pronounced in those with elevated alcohol consumption or body mass index. Modeled as risk by age 75 years, probability of cirrhosis with extreme polygenic risk was 13.7%, 20.1%, and 48.2% among individuals with no or modest, moderate, and increased alcohol consumption, respectively (Pinteraction < .001). Similarly, probability among those with extreme polygenic risk was 6.5%, 10.3%, and 19.5% among individuals with normal weight, overweight, and obesity, respectively (Pinteraction < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve independent genetic variants, 7 of which are newly identified in this study, conferred risk for cirrhosis. Aggregated into a polygenic score, these variants identified a subset of the population at substantially increased risk who are most susceptible to the hepatotoxic effects of excess alcohol consumption or obesity.

7.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Population-based data are lacking regarding the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality across the complete histological spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). DESIGN: This nationwide, matched cohort study included all individuals in Sweden with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (1966 to 2017; n=10 568). NAFLD was confirmed histologically from all liver biopsies submitted to Sweden's 28 pathology departments, after excluding other etiologies of liver disease, and further categorised as, simple steatosis, non-fibrotic steatohepatitis (NASH), non-cirrhotic fibrosis and cirrhosis. NAFLD cases were matched to ≤5 general population comparators by age, sex, calendar year and county (n=49 925). Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs (aHRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Over a median of 14.2 years, 4,338 NAFLD patients died. Compared with controls, NAFLD patients had significantly increased overall mortality (16.9 vs 28.6/1000 PY; difference=11.7/1000 PY; aHR=1.93, 95% CI=1.86 to 2.00). Compared with controls, significant excess mortality risk was observed with simple steatosis (8.3/1000 PY, aHR=1.71, 95% CI=1.64 to 1.79), non-fibrotic NASH (13.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.14, 95% CI=1.93 to 2.38), non-cirrhotic fibrosis (18.4/1000 PY, aHR=2.44, 95% CI=2.22 to 2.69) and cirrhosis (53.6/1000 PY, aHR=3.79, 95% CI=3.34 to 4.30)(ptrend <0.01). This dose-dependent gradient was similar when simple steatosis was the reference (ptrend <0.01). The excess mortality associated with NAFLD was primarily from extrahepatic cancer (4.5/1000 PY, aHR=2.16, 95% CI=2.03 to 2.30), followed by cirrhosis (2.7/1000 PY, aHR=18.15, 95% CI=14.78 to 22.30), cardiovascular disease (1.4/1000 PY, aHR=1.35, 95% CI=1.26 to 1.44) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (1.2/1000 PY, aHR=11.12, 95% CI=8.65 to 14.30). CONCLUSION: All NAFLD histological stages were associated with significantly increased overall mortality, and this risk increased progressively with worsening NAFLD histology. Most of this excess mortality was from extrahepatic cancer and cirrhosis, while in contrast, the contributions of cardiovascular disease and HCC were modest.

8.
Metabolism ; 113: 154398, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is established as a major risk factor for the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the influence of dynamic changes in adiposity over the life course on NAFLD risk remains poorly understood. METHODS: We collected data from 110,054 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Early adulthood weight was ascertained at age 18 years, and weight gain since early adulthood was defined prospectively every 2 years. We used a group-based modeling approach to identify five trajectories of body shape from age 5 years up to age 50 years. NAFLD was defined by physician-confirmed diagnoses of fatty liver, after excluding excess alcohol intake and viral hepatitis, using validated approaches. RESULTS: We documented 3798 NAFLD cases over a total of 20 years of follow-up. Compared to women who maintained stable weight (±2 kg), women with ≥20 kg of adulthood weight gain had the multivariable aHR of 6.96 (95% CI, 5.27-9.18), and this remained significant after further adjusting for early adulthood BMI and updated BMI (both P trend <0.0001). Compared to women with a medium-stable body shape trajectory, the multivariable aHRs for NAFLD were, 2.84 (95% CI, 2.50-3.22) for lean-marked increase, 2.60 (95% CI, 2.27-2.98) for medium-moderate increase, and 3.39 (95% CI, 2.95-3.89) for medium-marked increase. CONCLUSIONS: Both early adulthood weight gain and lifetime body shape trajectory were significantly and independently associated with excess risk of developing NAFLD in mid-life. Maintaining both lean and stable weight throughout life may offer the greatest benefit for the prevention of NAFLD.

9.
Clin Liver Dis ; 24(4): 549-576, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012445

RESUMO

Patients with chronic liver disease are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Most patients diagnosed with HCC have limited treatment options and a poor overall prognosis, with a 5-year survival less than 15%. Preventing the development of HCC represents the most important strategy. However, current guidelines lack specific recommendations for primary prevention. Lifestyle factors may be central in the pathogenesis of HCC, and primary prevention strategies focused on lifestyle modification could represent an important approach to the prevention of HCC. Both experimental and epidemiologic studies have identified promising chemopreventive agents for the primary prevention of HCC.

11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(11): 986-995, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of antibiotics in early life has been linked with childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but data for adults are mixed, and based on smaller investigations that did not compare risk among siblings with shared genetic or environmental risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between antibiotic therapy and IBD in a large, population-based study. METHODS: In this prospective case-control study, we identified people living in Sweden aged 16 years or older, with a diagnosis of IBD based on histology and at least one diagnosis code for IBD or its subtypes (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease). We identified consecutive patients with incident IBD from the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, cross-referenced with the Swedish Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register. We accrued data for cumulative antibiotic dispensations until 1 year before time of matching for patients and up to five general population controls per patient (matched on the basis of age, sex, county, and calendar year). We also included unaffected full siblings as a secondary control group. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% CIs for diagnosis of incident IBD. FINDINGS: We identified 23 982 new patients with IBD (15 951 ulcerative colitis, 7898 Crohn's disease, 133 unclassified IBD) diagnosed between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2016. 117 827 matched controls and 28 732 siblings were also identified. After adjusting for several risk factors, aOR in patients who had used antibiotics versus those who had never used antibiotics was 1·88 (95% CI 1·79-1·98) for diagnosis of incident IBD, 1·74 (1·64-1·85) for ulcerative colitis, and 2·27 (2·06-2·49) for Crohn's disease. aOR was higher in patients who had received one antibiotic dispensation (1·11, 1·07-1·15), two antibiotic dispensations (1·38, 1·32-1·44), and three or more antibiotic dispensations (1·55, 1·49-1·61) than patients who had none. Increased risk was noted for ulcerative colitis (aOR with three or more antibiotic dispensations 1·47, 95% CI 1·40-1·54) and Crohn's disease (1·64, 1·53-1·76) with higher estimates corresponding to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Similar but attenuated results were observed when siblings were used as the reference group, with an aOR of 1·35 (95% CI 1·28-1·43) for patients who had received three or more dispensations, compared with general population controls. INTERPRETATION: Higher cumulative exposure to systemic antibiotic therapy, particularly treatments with greater spectrum of microbial coverage, may be associated with a greater risk of new-onset IBD and its subtypes. The association between antimicrobial treatment and IBD did not appear to differ when predisposed siblings were used as the reference controls. Our findings, if substantiated by longer-term prospective studies in humans or mechanistic preclinical investigations, suggest the need to further emphasise antibiotic stewardship to prevent the rise in dysbiosis-related chronic diseases, including IBD. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. Crohn's and Colitis Foundation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Disbiose , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sistemas de Informação em Farmácia Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic steatosis has been associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) but it is not clear whether steatosis is independently associated with risk of MACE. We investigated whether steatosis is associated with risk of MACE independently of the presence and extent of baseline coronary artery disease, assessed by comprehensive contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study of 3756 subjects (mean age, 60.6 years; 48.4% men) who underwent coronary CTA at 193 sites in North America, from July 2010 through September 2013, as part of the PROMISE study, which included noninvasive cardiovascular analyses of symptomatic outpatients without coronary artery disease. Independent core laboratory readers measured hepatic and splenic attenuation, using non-contrast computed tomography images to identify steatosis, and evaluated coronary plaques and stenosis in coronary CTA images. We collected data on participants' cardiovascular risk factors, presence of metabolic syndrome, and body mass index. The primary endpoint was an adjudicated composite of MACE (death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina) during a median follow-up time of 25 months. RESULTS: Among the 959 subjects who had steatosis (25.5% of the cohort), 42 had MACE (4.4%), whereas among the 2797 subjects without steatosis, 73 had MACE (2.6%) (hazard ratio [HR] for MACE in subjects with steatosis, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.16-2.48; P = .006 for MACE in subjects with vs without steatosis). This association remained after adjustment for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores, significant stenosis, and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.16-2.54; P = .007) or obesity (adjusted HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.59; P = .005). Steatosis remained independently associated with MACE after adjustment for all CTA measures of plaques and stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic steatosis is associated with MACE independently of other cardiovascular risk factors or extent of coronary artery disease. Strategies to reduce steatosis might reduce risk of MACE. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01174550.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 123(2): 316-324, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) arises from cholangiocytes in the intrahepatic bile duct and is the second most common type of liver cancer. Cholangiocytes express both oestrogen receptor-α and -ß, and oestrogens positively modulate cholangiocyte proliferation. Studies in women and men have reported higher circulating oestradiol is associated with increased ICC risk, further supporting a hormonal aetiology. However, no observational studies have examined the associations between exogenous hormone use and reproductive factors, as proxies of endogenous hormone levels, and risk of ICC. METHODS: We harmonised data from 1,107,498 women who enroled in 12 North American-based cohort studies (in the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, LCPP) and the UK Biobank between 1980-1998 and 2006-2010, respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence internals (CI). Then, meta-analytic techniques were used to combine the estimates from the LCPP (n = 180 cases) and the UK Biobank (n = 57 cases). RESULTS: Hysterectomy was associated with a doubling of ICC risk (HR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.27-3.09), compared to women aged 50-54 at natural menopause. Long-term oral contraceptive use (9+ years) was associated with a 62% increased ICC risk (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55). There was no association between ICC risk and other exogenous hormone use or reproductive factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that hysterectomy and long-term oral contraceptive use may be associated with an increased ICC risk.

15.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(4): 400-404, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and HIV are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the factors associated with NAFLD in persons living with HIV (PWH) and whether CVD is more frequent in PWH with NAFLD are currently unknown. METHODS: From the Partners HealthCare Research Patient Data Registry, we identified PWH with and without NAFLD between 2010 and 2017. NAFLD was defined using validated histological or radiographic criteria. CVD was defined by an ICD-9 diagnosis of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, transient ischemic attack, or stroke and was confirmed by clinician review. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between NAFLD and CVD. RESULTS: Compared with PWH without NAFLD (n = 135), PWH with NAFLD (n = 97) had higher body mass index and more frequently had hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and CVD (P < 0.01 for all). PWH with NAFLD were also more likely to have CD4 T-cell counts (CD4) <200 cells/mm. In multivariable models, the presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with CVD (adjusted odds ratio 3.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 6.94) and CD4 <200 cells/mm (adjusted odds ratio 4.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.74 to 11.55). CONCLUSION: In PWH, CVD was independently associated with prevalent NAFLD after controlling for traditional CVD risk factors. NAFLD was also associated with CD4 <200 cells/mm, suggesting that immune dysfunction may be related to NAFLD. Both CVD and low CD4 count as risk factors for NAFLD require prospective evaluation.

17.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(8): 707-714, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312712

RESUMO

Mounting evidence indicates a potential beneficial effect of vigorous-intensity physical activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, and the risk of HCC remains largely unknown. Two prospective cohorts of 77,535 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 44,540 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were included. Weekly time spent on physical activities were updated biennially. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). After an average 23-year follow-up, we identified 138 incident HCC cases. A higher amount of total physical activity was not significantly associated with a reduced risk of HCC (top tertile vs. bottom tertile; HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.51-1.18; P trend = 0.33). For the same comparison, there was an inverse association between moderate-intensity activity and HCC risk (HR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38-0.94; P trend = 0.04), whereas no statistically significant association with vigorous-intensity activity (HR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.56-1.37; P trend = 0.74). Engaging in brisk walking was significantly associated with a lower risk of HCC (over 1 hour/week vs. non-brisk walking; HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.78; P trend = 0.006). The association between brisk walking and HCC risk was generally present across all subgroups, including age, body mass index, type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking status, aspirin use, and alcohol consumption (all P interaction ≥ 0.05). In conclusion, moderate-intensity activity, especially brisk walking, was associated with reduced risk of HCC among U.S. men and women. If confirmed, brisk walking might serve a feasible way for HCC prevention.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 382(11): 1018-1028, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More information is needed about the long-term effects of low-dose aspirin (≤160 mg) on incident hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related mortality, and gastrointestinal bleeding in persons with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. METHODS: Using nationwide Swedish registries, we identified all adults who received a diagnosis of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C from 2005 through 2015 and who did not have a history of aspirin use (50,275 patients). Patients who were starting to take low-dose aspirin (14,205 patients) were identified by their first filled prescriptions for 90 or more consecutive doses of aspirin. We constructed a propensity score and applied inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance baseline characteristics between groups. Using Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, we estimated the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related mortality, accounting for competing events. RESULTS: With a median of 7.9 years of follow-up, the estimated cumulative incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was 4.0% among aspirin users and 8.3% among nonusers of aspirin (difference, -4.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to -3.6; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.76). This inverse association appeared to be duration-dependent; as compared with short-term use (3 months to <1 year), the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06) for 1 to less than 3 years of use, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78) for 3 to less than 5 years of use, and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.70) for 5 or more years of use. Ten-year liver-related mortality was 11.0% among aspirin users and 17.9% among nonusers (difference, -6.9 percentage points [95% CI, -8.1 to -5.7]; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.67 to 0.81]). However, the 10-year risk of gastrointestinal bleeding did not differ significantly between users and nonusers of aspirin (7.8% and 6.9%, respectively; difference, 0.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.6 to 2.4). CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide study of patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Sweden, use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a significantly lower risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and lower liver-related mortality than no use of aspirin, without a significantly higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Hepatology ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222996

RESUMO

Little is known about the role of low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We prospectively evaluated the associations between plant-based and animal-based LCDs and risk of HCC in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Dietary intake was assessed every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). HRs are shown for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment with variable modelled as continuous. During 3,664,769 person years of follow-up, there were 156 incident HCC cases. Although there were no associations between overall or animal-based LCD score and risk of HCC, plant-based LCD score was inversely associated with HCC risk (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; Ptrend =0.03). Carbohydrate intake, especially from refined grains (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.39; Ptrend =0.04) was positively, while plant fat (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65-0.95; Ptrend =0.01) was inversely associated with HCC risk. Substituting 5% of energy from plant fat and protein for carbohydrate (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.93; Ptrend =0.01) or refined grains (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.90; Ptrend =0.006) was associated with lower HCC risk. In conclusion, a plant-based LCD and dietary restriction of carbohydrate from refined grains were associated with a lower risk of HCC. Substituting plant fat and protein for carbohydrate, particularly refined grains, may decrease HCC incidence. Our findings support a potential benefit in emphasizing plant sources of fat and protein in the diet for HCC primary prevention. Additional studies that carefully consider hepatitis B and C virus infections and chronic liver diseases are needed to confirm our findings.

20.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(7): 728-736, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is not well understood, however, which individuals with NAFLD are at highest risk for cardiovascular disease. AIMS: To determine the factors associated with incident cardiovascular events in a prospective cohort of individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. METHODS: From 2011 to 2018, adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD without cardiovascular disease were enrolled in a tissue repository and were followed prospectively to the first recorded date of incident cardiovascular disease, death or the end of follow-up (11/1/2018). Competing risks analysis was performed to identify predictors of incident cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 5.2 years, 26/285 (9.1%) individuals experienced an incident cardiovascular event. Advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) on biopsy was a significant predictor of incident cardiovascular disease, and this persisted on multivariable analysis (SHR 2.86, 95% CI 1.36-6.04) after considering relevant covariates, including cardiovascular risk scores, which were not independent predictors. Of the non-invasive indicators of fibrosis, the NAFLD fibrosis score was the only independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Other histologic features, including steatohepatitis, were not associated with incident cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD, advanced fibrosis on biopsy and higher NAFLD fibrosis score were significant and independent predictors of incident cardiovascular disease, even after considering traditional risk factors and cardiovascular risk scores. These findings should be considered when evaluating NAFLD patients for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and further evaluation into the link between advanced fibrosis and cardiovascular disease is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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