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1.
J Virol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694939

RESUMO

The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with major variations in severe disease and congenital afflictions among infected populations, suggesting an influence of host genes. We investigated how genome-wide variants could impact susceptibility to ZIKV infection in mice. We first describe that the susceptibility of Ifnar1 knockout mice is largely influenced by their genetic background. We then show that the broad genetic diversity of Collaborative Cross mice, of which receptor to type I interferon (IFNAR) was blocked by anti-IFNAR antibody, expressed phenotypes ranging from complete resistance to severe symptoms and death with large variations in the peak and rate of decrease of plasma viral load, in brain viral load, in brain histopathology and in viral replication rate in infected cells. Differences in susceptibility between CC strains were correlated between Zika, Dengue and West Nile viruses. We identified highly susceptible and resistant mouse strains as new models to investigate the mechanisms of human ZIKV disease and other flavivirus infections. Genetic analyses revealed that phenotypic variations are driven by multiple genes with small effects, reflecting the complexity of ZIKV disease susceptibility in human population. Notably, our results rule out a role of the Oas1b gene in the susceptibility to ZIKV. Altogether, this study emphasizes the role of host genes in the pathogeny of ZIKV infection and lays the foundation for further genetic and mechanistic studies.IMPORTANCE In recent outbreaks, ZIKV has infected millions of people and induced rare but potentially severe complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and encephalitis in adults. While several viral sequence variants were proposed to enhance the pathogenicity of ZIKV, the influence of host genetic variants in mediating the clinical heterogeneity remains mostly unexplored. We have addressed this question using a mouse panel which models the genetic diversity of human population and a ZIKV strain from a recent clinical isolate. Through a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that multiple host genetic variants determine viral replication in infected cells, and clinical severity, kinetics of blood viral load and brain pathology in mice. We describe new mouse models expressing high susceptibility or resistance to ZIKV and to other flaviviruses. These models will facilitate the identification and mechanistic characterization of host genes that influence ZIKV pathogenesis.

2.
Nature ; 574(7777): 259-263, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554973

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites and causes musculoskeletal and joint pain1,2. Despite intensive investigations, the human cellular factors that are critical for CHIKV infection remain unknown, hampering the understanding of viral pathogenesis and the development of anti-CHIKV therapies. Here we identified the four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1)3 as a host factor that is required for CHIKV permissiveness and pathogenesis in humans and mice. Ablation of FHL1 expression results in the inhibition of infection by several CHIKV strains and o'nyong-nyong virus, but not by other alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Conversely, expression of FHL1 promotes CHIKV infection in cells that do not normally express it. FHL1 interacts directly with the hypervariable domain of the nsP3 protein of CHIKV and is essential for the replication of viral RNA. FHL1 is highly expressed in CHIKV-target cells and is particularly abundant in muscles3,4. Dermal fibroblasts and muscle cells derived from patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy that lack functional FHL15 are resistant to CHIKV infection. Furthermore,  CHIKV infection  is undetectable in Fhl1-knockout mice. Overall, this study shows that FHL1 is a key factor expressed by the host that enables CHIKV infection and identifies the interaction between nsP3 and FHL1 as a promising target for the development of anti-CHIKV therapies.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Fatores Celulares Derivados do Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus Chikungunya/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Vírus Chikungunya/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fibroblastos/virologia , Células HEK293 , Fatores Celulares Derivados do Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/deficiência , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/deficiência , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Mioblastos/virologia , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/patogenicidade , Ligação Proteica , RNA Viral/biossíntese , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1424, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293584

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) induces strong T and B cell responses upon infection. Hence, it is difficult to determine the contribution of cell-mediated immunity alone in the long lasting protection against DENV infection and disease. Numerous CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes have been identified, mainly in the non-structural proteins of DENV. Taking into account the immunogenicity and peptide sequence conservation among the different DENV serotypes, a minimal DENV antigen, called DENV1-NS, has been designed. This antigen is enriched in conserved and highly antigenic epitopes located in the NS3, NS4B, and NS5 regions of DENV1. To evaluate the ability of the DENV1-NS poly-epitope to express the antigenic peptides in the context of different HLA class I molecules, we established its in vivo immunogenicity by measuring, after DNA immunization and electroporation, the activation of DENV-specific CD8 T cells in transgenic mice expressing the human HLA-A*0201, -A*2402, -B*0702, and -B*3502 class I alleles. We then engineered a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding DENV1-NS and tested immunogenicity and protection in these human HLA class I transgenic mice, after transient blockade of the interferon (IFN) type I receptor. Significant protection was observed, after two injections of the mRNA vaccine. Collectively, these data strongly support the development of T cell-based vaccines targeting immunodominant T cell epitopes that generate potent virus-specific T cell responses conferring immunity against DENV infection.

5.
Nat Biotechnol ; 37(2): 160-168, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718881

RESUMO

Metagenomic sequencing has the potential to transform microbial detection and characterization, but new tools are needed to improve its sensitivity. Here we present CATCH, a computational method to enhance nucleic acid capture for enrichment of diverse microbial taxa. CATCH designs optimal probe sets, with a specified number of oligonucleotides, that achieve full coverage of, and scale well with, known sequence diversity. We focus on applying CATCH to capture viral genomes in complex metagenomic samples. We design, synthesize, and validate multiple probe sets, including one that targets the whole genomes of the 356 viral species known to infect humans. Capture with these probe sets enriches unique viral content on average 18-fold, allowing us to assemble genomes that could not be recovered without enrichment, and accurately preserves within-sample diversity. We also use these probe sets to recover genomes from the 2018 Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria and to improve detection of uncharacterized viral infections in human and mosquito samples. The results demonstrate that CATCH enables more sensitive and cost-effective metagenomic sequencing.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma Viral , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Biblioteca Gênica , Variação Genética , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Febre Lassa/virologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Viroses
6.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(12): 1155, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459303

RESUMO

The authors wish to point out that the name of the first author is appearing incorrectly on Pubmed: it should be El Ghouzzi V (and not Ghouzzi VE). In addition, the words "and p53" appear at the end of the title in the original publication ( https://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2016266 ) and in the previous erratum version ( https://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2016446 ). This is not correct.

8.
Viruses ; 10(9)2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205518

RESUMO

The high levels of dengue-virus (DENV) seroprevalence in areas where the Zika virus (ZIKV) is circulating and the cross-reactivity between these two viruses have raised concerns on the risk of increased ZIKV disease severity for patients with a history of previous DENV infections. To determine the role of DENV preimmunity in ZIKV infection, we analyzed the T- and B-cell responses against ZIKV in donors with or without previous DENV infection. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors living in an endemic area in Colombia, we have identified, by interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, most of the immunodominant ZIKV T-cell epitopes in the nonstructural (NS) proteins NS1, NS3, and NS5. Analyses of the T- and B-cell responses in the same donors revealed a stronger T-cell response against peptides conserved between DENV and ZIKV, with a higher level of ZIKV-neutralizing antibodies in DENV-immune donors in comparison with DENV-naïve donors. Strikingly, the potential for antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection was reduced in donors with sequential DENV and ZIKV infection in comparison with donors with DENV infection only. Altogether, these data suggest that individuals with DENV immunity present improved immune responses against ZIKV.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Dengue/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Colômbia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
10.
Cell Rep ; 24(2): 320-328, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996094

RESUMO

The flavivirus genus comprises major human pathogens, such as Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses. RIG-I and MDA5 are key cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors that are implicated in detecting viral RNAs. Here, we show that RNAs that co-purified with RIG-I during DENV infection are immuno-stimulatory, whereas RNAs bound to MDA5 are not. An affinity purification method combined with next-generation sequencing (NGS) revealed that the 5' region of the DENV genome is recognized by RIG-I. No DENV RNA was bound to MDA5. In vitro production of fragments of the DENV genome confirmed the NGS data and revealed that the 5' end of the genome, when bearing 5'-triphosphates, is the RIG-I ligand. The 5' region of the ZIKV genome is also a RIG-I agonist. We propose that RIG-I binds to the highly structured and conserved 5' region of flavivirus nascent transcripts before capping and that this mechanism leads to interferon secretion by infected cells.

11.
JMM Case Rep ; 5(5): e005145, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896405

RESUMO

Introduction: Although the current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is a major public health concern, most reports have focused on congenital ZIKV syndrome, its most devastating manifestation. Severe ocular complications associated with ZIKV infections and possible pathogenetic factors are rarely described. Here, we describe three Venezuelan patients who developed severe ocular manifestations following ZIKV infections. We also analyse their serological response to ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV). Case presentation: One adult with bilateral optic neuritis, a child of 4 years of age with retrobulbar uveitis and a newborn with bilateral congenital glaucoma had a recent history of an acute exanthematous infection consistent with ZIKV infection. The results of ELISA tests indicated that all patients were seropositive for ZIKV and four DENV serotypes. Conclusion: Patients with ZIKV infection can develop severe ocular complications. Anti-DENV antibodies from previous infections could play a role in the pathogenesis of these complications. Well-designed epidemiological studies are urgently needed to measure the risk of ZIKV ocular complications and confirm whether they are associated with the presence of anti-flaviviral antibodies.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(5): e0006381, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29813062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 4 one-step, real-time, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were developed for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes by considering 2,056 full genome DENV sequences. DENV1 and DENV2 RT-LAMP assays were validated with 31 blood and 11 serum samples from Tanzania, Senegal, Sudan and Mauritania. DENV3 and DENV4 RT-LAMP assays were validated with 25 serum samples from Cambodia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 4 final reaction primer mixes were obtained by using a combination of Principal Component Analysis of the full DENV genome sequences, and LAMP primer design based on sequence alignments using the LAVA software. These mixes contained 14 (DENV1), 12 (DENV2), 8 (DENV3) and 3 (DENV4) LAMP primer sets. The assays were evaluated with an External Quality Assessment panel from Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics. The assays were serotype-specific and did not cross-detect with other flaviviruses. The limits of detection, with 95% probability, were 22 (DENV1), 542 (DENV2), 197 (DENV3) and 641 (DENV4) RNA molecules, and 100% reproducibility in the assays was obtained with up to 102 (DENV1) and 103 RNA molecules (DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4). Validation of the DENV2 assay with blood samples from Tanzania resulted in 23 samples detected by RT-LAMP, demonstrating that the assay is 100% specific and 95.8% sensitive (positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 85.7%). All serum samples from Senegal, Sudan and Mauritania were detected and 3 untyped as DENV1. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP for DENV4 samples from Cambodia did not quite match qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown a novel approach to design LAMP primers that makes use of fast growing sequence databases. The DENV1 and DENV2 assays were validated with viral RNA extracted clinical samples, showing very good performance parameters.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Primers do DNA/genética , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Transcrição Reversa , Tanzânia
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(4): 754-757, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553325

RESUMO

We analyzed whole-genome sequences of 8 enterovirus A71 isolates (EV-A71). We confirm the circulation of genogroup C and the new genogroup E in West Africa. Our analysis demonstrates wide geographic circulation and describes genetic exchanges between EV-A71 and autochthonous EV-A that might contribute to the emergence of pathogenic lineages.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 217(11): 1690-1698, 2018 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490079

RESUMO

Background: Early detection of severe dengue can improve patient care and survival. To date, no reliable single-gene biomarker exists. We hypothesized that robust multigene signatures exist. Methods: We performed a prospective study on Cambodian dengue patients aged 4 to 22 years. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at hospital admission. We analyzed 42 transcriptomic profiles of patients with secondary dengue infected with dengue serotype 1. Our novel signature discovery approach controls the number of included genes and captures nonlinear relationships between transcript concentrations and severity. We evaluated the signature on secondary cases infected with different serotypes using 2 datasets: 22 PBMC samples from additional patients in our cohort and 32 whole blood samples from an independent cohort. Results: We identified an 18-gene signature for detecting severe dengue in patients with secondary infection upon hospital admission with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.98), specificity of 0.67 (95% CI, .53-.80), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% CI, .75-.97). At validation, the signature had empirical AUCs of 0.85 (95% CI, .69-1.00) and 0.83 (95% CI, .68-.98) for the PBMCs and whole blood datasets, respectively. Conclusions: The signature could detect severe dengue in secondary-infected patients upon hospital admission. Its genes offer new insights into the pathogenesis of severe dengue.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473899

RESUMO

Despite numerous efforts to identify the molecular and cellular effectors of the adaptive immunity that induce a long-lasting immunity against dengue or Zika virus infection, the specific mechanisms underlying such protective immunity remain largely unknown. One of the major challenges lies in the high level of dengue virus (DENV) seroprevalence in areas where Zika virus (ZIKV) is circulating. In the context of such a pre-existing DENV immunity that can exacerbate ZIKV infection and disease, and given the lack of appropriate treatment for ZIKV infection, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient vaccine against DENV and ZIKV. Notably, whereas several ZIKV vaccine candidates are currently in clinical trials, all these vaccine candidates have been designed to induce neutralizing antibodies as the primary mechanism of immune protection. Given the difficulty to elicit simultaneously high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the different DENV serotypes, and the potential impact of pre-existing subneutralizing antibodies induced upon DENV infection or vaccination on ZIKV infection and disease, additional or alternative strategies to enhance vaccine efficacy, through T cell immunity, are now being considered. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries about cross-reactive B and T cell responses against DENV and ZIKV and propose guidelines for the development of safe and efficient T cell vaccines targeting both viruses.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinas/normas , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006202, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447178

RESUMO

Ethnic diversity has been long considered as one of the factors explaining why the severe forms of dengue are more prevalent in Southeast Asia than anywhere else. Here we take advantage of the admixed profile of Southeast Asians to perform coupled association-admixture analyses in Thai cohorts. For dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the significant haplotypes are located in genes coding for phospholipase C members (PLCB4 added to previously reported PLCE1), related to inflammation of blood vessels. For dengue fever (DF), we found evidence of significant association with CHST10, AHRR, PPP2R5E and GRIP1 genes, which participate in the xenobiotic metabolism signaling pathway. We conducted functional analyses for PPP2R5E, revealing by immunofluorescence imaging that the coded protein co-localizes with both DENV1 and DENV2 NS5 proteins. Interestingly, only DENV2-NS5 migrated to the nucleus, and a deletion of the predicted top-linking motif in NS5 abolished the nuclear transfer. These observations support the existence of differences between serotypes in their cellular dynamics, which may contribute to differential infection outcome risk. The contribution of the identified genes to the genetic risk render Southeast and Northeast Asian populations more susceptible to both phenotypes, while African populations are best protected against DSS and intermediately protected against DF, and Europeans the best protected against DF but the most susceptible against DSS.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Dengue Grave/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia Sudeste , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/virologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Razão de Chances , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sorogrupo , Dengue Grave/etnologia , Sulfotransferases , Tailândia , Fosfolipases Tipo C/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(405)2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855396

RESUMO

Clinical symptoms of dengue virus (DENV) infection, the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease, range from classical mild dengue fever to severe, life-threatening dengue shock syndrome. However, most DENV infections cause few or no symptoms. Asymptomatic DENV-infected patients provide a unique opportunity to decipher the host immune responses leading to virus elimination without negative impact on an individual's health. We used an integrated approach of transcriptional profiling and immunological analysis to compare a Cambodian population of strictly asymptomatic viremic individuals with clinical dengue patients. Whereas inflammatory pathways and innate immune response pathways were similar between asymptomatic individuals and clinical dengue patients, expression of proteins related to antigen presentation and subsequent T cell and B cell activation pathways was differentially regulated, independent of viral load and previous DENV infection history. Feedback mechanisms controlled the immune response in asymptomatic viremic individuals, as demonstrated by increased activation of T cell apoptosis-related pathways and FcγRIIB (Fcγ receptor IIB) signaling associated with decreased anti-DENV-specific antibody concentrations. Together, our data illustrate that symptom-free DENV infection in children is associated with increased activation of the adaptive immune compartment and proper control mechanisms, leading to elimination of viral infection without excessive immune activation, with implications for novel vaccine development strategies.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Dengue/imunologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Doença Aguda , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Citocinas/sangue , Demografia , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Plasmócitos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transcrição Genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Viremia/imunologia
18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 22(3): 260-261, 2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28910632

RESUMO

RNA viruses circulate as rapidly evolving swarms of related variants, and their evolutionary dynamics within hosts may be key to understanding virus emergence. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Parameswaran et al. (2017) combine next-generation sequencing and functional studies to characterize viral populations in acute dengue infections.


Assuntos
Dengue/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Vírus de RNA
19.
EMBO J ; 36(12): 1653-1668, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473450

RESUMO

The cytopathic effects of Zika virus (ZIKV) are poorly characterized. Innate immunity controls ZIKV infection and disease in most infected patients through mechanisms that remain to be understood. Here, we studied the morphological cellular changes induced by ZIKV and addressed the role of interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM), a family of broad-spectrum antiviral factors, during viral replication. We report that ZIKV induces massive vacuolization followed by "implosive" cell death in human epithelial cells, primary skin fibroblasts and astrocytes, a phenomenon which is exacerbated when IFITM3 levels are low. It is reminiscent of paraptosis, a caspase-independent, non-apoptotic form of cell death associated with the formation of large cytoplasmic vacuoles. We further show that ZIKV-induced vacuoles are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and dependent on the PI3K/Akt signaling axis. Inhibiting the Sec61 ER translocon in ZIKV-infected cells blocked vacuole formation and viral production. Our results provide mechanistic insight behind the ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect and indicate that IFITM3, by acting as a gatekeeper for incoming virus, restricts virus takeover of the ER and subsequent cell death.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/virologia , Morte Celular , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Canais de Translocação SEC/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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