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1.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119123

RESUMO

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) can occur as an advanced consequence of multiple primary malignancies. Surgical resection, radiation, or systemic interventions alone have proven inadequate for this aggressive cancer presentation, since PC still has a poor survival profile. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which photosensitive drugs are exposed to light to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, may be an ideal treatment for PC because of its ability to deliver treatment to a depth appropriate for peritoneal surface tumors. Additionally, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays a variety of roles in cancer progression and survival as well as PDT-mediated cytotoxicity, so EGFR inhibitors may be valuable in enhancing the therapeutic index of intraperitoneal PDT. This study examines escalating doses of benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD)-mediated intraperitoneal PDT combined with the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab in a canine model. In the presence or absence of small bowel resection (SBR) and cetuximab, we observed a tolerable safety and toxicity profile related to the light dose received. Additionally, our findings that BPD levels are higher in the small bowel compared to other anatomical regions, and that the risk of anastomotic failure decreases at lower light doses will help to inform the design of similar PC treatments in humans.

2.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222430

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several sentinel phase III randomized trials have recently been published challenging traditional radiation therapy (RT) practices for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This American Society for Radiation Oncology guideline reviews the evidence for thoracic RT and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for both limited-stage (LS) and extensive-stage (ES) SCLC. METHODS: The American Society for Radiation Oncology convened a task force to address 4 key questions focused on indications, dose fractionation, techniques and timing of thoracic RT for LS-SCLC, the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) compared with conventional RT in stage I or II node negative SCLC, PCI for LS-SCLC and ES-SCLC, and thoracic consolidation for ES-SCLC. Recommendations were based on a systematic literature review and created using a consensus-building methodology and system for grading evidence quality and recommendation strength. RESULTS: The task force strongly recommends definitive thoracic RT administered once or twice daily early in the course of treatment for LS-SCLC. Adjuvant RT is conditionally recommended in surgically resected patients with positive margins or nodal metastases. Involved field RT delivered using conformal advanced treatment modalities to postchemotherapy volumes is also strongly recommended. For patients with stage I or II node negative disease, SBRT or conventional fractionation is strongly recommended, and chemotherapy should be delivered before or after SBRT. In LS-SCLC, PCI is strongly recommended for stage II or III patients who responded to chemoradiation, conditionally not recommended for stage I patients, and should be a shared decision for patients at higher risk of neurocognitive toxicities. In ES-SCLC, radiation oncologist consultation for consideration of PCI versus magnetic resonance surveillance is strongly recommended. Lastly, the use of thoracic RT is strongly recommended in select patients with ES-SCLC after chemotherapy treatment, including a conditional recommendation in those responding to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: RT plays a vital role in both LS-SCLC and ES-SCLC. These guidelines inform best clinical practices for local therapy in SCLC.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Re-irradiation (re-RT) for locoregionally recurrent esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer and de novo esophageal + GEJ cancer arising in-field after a course of prior radiation poses considerable treatment challenges given the sensitivity of surrounding organs at risk (OARs). Guidelines for treatment of this presentation are not well established. Pencil-beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy has the ability to decrease radiation dose to OARs relative to photon plans. We present the first published series to date of re-RT with PBS for esophageal + GEJ malignancies and hypothesize that re-RT with proton PBS will be feasible and improve the safety profile of re-RT for this cohort of patients. METHODS: Consecutive esophageal + GEJ cancers treated with PBS re-RT within a single institution were analyzed. Comparative volumetric-modulated arc therapy photon plans were generated. A total of 17 patients were included for analysis. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 11.6 months, 1-year local control was 75.3% and overall survival was 68.9%. There were five (27.8%) grade 3 or higher late toxicities. When matched for clinical target volume coverage, proton PBS plans delivered significantly lower doses to the spinal cord, lungs, liver, and heart (all p < 0.05); five volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans would have been undeliverable on the basis of physician-specified OAR constraints. CONCLUSIONS: Re-RT for de novo or recurrent malignancies of the esophagus + GEJ, when delivered with PBS proton therapy, yields high rates of local control with acceptable acute and late toxicities in a high-risk population and decreased radiation dose to OARs relative to comparative photon plans. This is the largest series of proton re-RT for esophageal malignancies and the first that exclusively used PBS.

4.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(1): 1-7, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal communication and collaboration between inter-disciplinary health care providers is critical to ensuring high quality patient care. We aimed to quantify the impact on physician-nurse collaboration (PNC) of implementing daily goal sheets (DGSs) in emergency settings. METHODS: The usage of a DGS was administered in morning rounds in an emergency intensive care unit (ICU) for four consecutive months. A Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) form was used before (n=113) and after (n=107) the intervention to evaluate the attitudes of PNCs from the perspective of both physicians and nurses. RESULTS: There is a significant positive relation between the attitude to PNC and the participant age, educational background, and professional rank and title before DGS application (P<0.01 for each), whereas there was no significant difference observed after the initiation of the DGS. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a DGS improves physician-nurse collaborations in emergency care settings.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4571-4577, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071251

RESUMO

Machine learning is proving invaluable across disciplines. However, its success is often limited by the quality and quantity of available data, while its adoption is limited by the level of trust afforded by given models. Human vs. machine performance is commonly compared empirically to decide whether a certain task should be performed by a computer or an expert. In reality, the optimal learning strategy may involve combining the complementary strengths of humans and machines. Here, we present expert-augmented machine learning (EAML), an automated method that guides the extraction of expert knowledge and its integration into machine-learned models. We used a large dataset of intensive-care patient data to derive 126 decision rules that predict hospital mortality. Using an online platform, we asked 15 clinicians to assess the relative risk of the subpopulation defined by each rule compared to the total sample. We compared the clinician-assessed risk to the empirical risk and found that, while clinicians agreed with the data in most cases, there were notable exceptions where they overestimated or underestimated the true risk. Studying the rules with greatest disagreement, we identified problems with the training data, including one miscoded variable and one hidden confounder. Filtering the rules based on the extent of disagreement between clinician-assessed risk and empirical risk, we improved performance on out-of-sample data and were able to train with less data. EAML provides a platform for automated creation of problem-specific priors, which help build robust and dependable machine-learning models in critical applications.

6.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088429

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This review explores the use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after lung-sparing surgery in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Because severe toxicities have been documented after radiation therapy for MPM, its use remains controversial, especially as modern surgical management has shifted toward lung-sparing pleurectomy/decortication. IMRT is an advanced technique that may allow for safer radiation therapy delivery, but there remains limited data (including no summative data) to support this notion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a systematic review evaluating the safety and efficacy of post-pleurectomy IMRT (P-IMRT). A systematic review of PubMed using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted for publications of all dates that specifically reported clinical outcomes and/or toxicities of P-IMRT in patients with MPM. Ten original studies were included in this review. RESULTS: The incidence of grade 3 pneumonitis ranged from 0% to 16%, with all but 2 studies reporting rates below 9%. Grade 4 and 5 pneumonitis were observed in less than 1.5% of cases, except in one publication that used hypofractionated radiation therapy to doses >60 Gy. Crude local failure rates ranged from 19% to 60%, median progression free survival ranged from 12 to 16 months, and median overall survival ranged from 19 to 28 months. CONCLUSIONS: P-IMRT produces relatively few higher-grade toxicities and has reasonable disease-related outcomes, especially when delivered using conventionally fractionated regimens to doses of 45 to 54 Gy and exercising careful attention to dose constraints during treatment planning. IMRT can thus be considered in well-selected patients in whom adequate survival after pleurectomy is expected. These data also support the initiation of the phase III NRG-LU006 trial of extended pleurectomy/decortication and chemotherapy with or without IMRT.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077891

RESUMO

Importance: Consolidative programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L) inhibition after chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and requires safety evaluation for incorporation of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibition at the onset of chemoradiotherapy. Objective: To determine the safety and tolerability of PD-1 inhibition concurrently with definitive chemoradiotherapy for NSCLC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 1 prospective multicenter nonrandomized controlled trial using a 3 plus 3 design was performed from August 30, 2016, to October 24, 2018, with a median follow-up of 16.0 (95% CI, 12.0-22.6) months and data locked on July 25, 2019. Twenty-one participants had locally advanced, unresectable, stage III NSCLC as determined by multidisciplinary review, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function. Data were analyzed from October 17, 2016, to July 19, 2019. Interventions: Pembrolizumab was combined with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (weekly carboplatin and paclitaxel with 60 Gy of radiation in 2 Gy per d). Dose cohorts evaluated included full-dose pembrolizumab (200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks) 2 to 6 weeks after chemoradiotherapy (cohort 1); reduced-dose pembrolizumab (100 mg intravenously every 3 weeks) starting day 29 of chemoradiotherapy (cohort 2); full-dose pembrolizumab starting day 29 of chemoradiotherapy (cohort 3); reduced-dose pembrolizumab starting day 1 of chemoradiotherapy (cohort 4); and full-dose pembrolizumab starting day 1 of chemoradiotherapy (cohort 5). A safety expansion cohort of 6 patients was planned based on the maximum tolerated dose of pembrolizumab. Dose-limiting toxic effects were defined as pneumonitis of at least grade 4 within cycle 1 of pembrolizumab treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Safety and tolerability of PD-1 inhibition with chemoradiotherapy for NSCLC. Secondary outcomes included PFS and pneumonitis rates. Results: Among the 21 patients included in the analysis (11 female [52%]; median age, 69.5 [range, 53.0-85.0] years), no dose-limiting toxic effects in any cohort were observed. One case of grade 5 pneumonitis occurred in the safety expansion cohort with the cohort 5 regimen. Immune-related adverse events of at least grade 3 occurred in 4 patients (18%). Median PFS for patients who received at least 1 dose of pembrolizumab (n = 21) was 18.7 (95% CI, 11.8-29.4) months, and 6- and 12-month PFS were 81.0% (95% CI, 64.1%-97.7%) and 69.7% (95% CI, 49.3%-90.2%), respectively. Median PFS for patients who received at least 2 doses of pembrolizumab (n = 19) was 21.0 (95% CI, 15.3 to infinity) months. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that combined treatment with PD-1 inhibitors and chemoradiotherapy for stage III NSCLC is tolerable, with promising PFS of 69.7% at 12 months, and requires further study. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02621398.

8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(Suppl 1): S1-S2, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075403
9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node (LN) involvement is a poor prognostic factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, to our knowledge, postresection outcomes of node-negative (cN0/pN0), occult pathologic nodal disease (cN0/pN+), and clinical node-positive disease (cN+) have not been compared to date. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for newly diagnosed, resected MPM with known clinical/pathologic LN information. Three cohorts were compared: cN0/pN0, cN+, and cN0/pN+. Multivariable logistic regression examined predictors of pathologic nodal upstaging. Kaplan-Meier analysis with propensity matching assessed overall survival (OS); multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling examined predictors thereof. RESULTS: Of 1369 patients, 687 (50%) had cN0/pN0, 457 (33%) cN+, and 225 (16%) cN0/pN+ disease. Median follow-up was 29 months. In patients with cN0 disease, factors associated with pathologic nodal upstaging were younger age, greater number of examined LNs, and nonsarcomatoid histology (P < .05 for all). Relative to pN0 cases, occult LN involvement (65% being pN2) was associated with 51% higher hazard of mortality on multivariate analysis (P = .005). Following propensity matching, the OS of cN0/pN+ was similar to cN+ cases (P = .281). On multivariate analysis, the number of involved LNs (continuous variable, P = .013), but not nodal tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification or LN ratio (P > .05 for both), was associated with OS. CONCLUSION: Detecting occult nodal disease during resection for cN0 MPM is associated with poorer prognosis, with similar survival as cN+ cases, underscoring the importance of routine preoperative pathologic nodal assessment for potentially resectable MPM. The number of involved LNs (rather than current location-based classification) may provide more robust prognostic stratification for future TNM staging.

11.
Photochem Photobiol ; 96(2): 417-425, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048732

RESUMO

The distributions of light and tissue oxygenation (St O2 ) within the chest cavity were determined for 15 subjects undergoing macroscopic complete resection followed by intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) as part of a clinical trial for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Over the course of light delivery, detectors at each of eight different sites recorded exposure to variable fluence rate. Nevertheless, the treatment-averaged fluence rate was similar among sites, ranging from a median of 40-61 mW cm-2 during periods of light exposure to a detector. St O2 at each tissue site varied by subject, but posterior mediastinum and posterior sulcus were the most consistently well oxygenated (median St O2 >90%; interquartile ranges ~85-95%). PDT effect on St O2 was characterized as the St O2 ratio (post-PDT St O2 /pre-PDT St O2 ). High St O2 pre-PDT was significantly associated with oxygen depletion (St O2 ratio < 1), although the extent of oxygen depletion was mild (median St O2 ratio of 0.8). Overall, PDT of the thoracic cavity resulted in moderate treatment-averaged fluence rate that was consistent among treated tissue sites, despite instantaneous exposure to high fluence rate. Mild oxygen depletion after PDT was experienced at tissue sites with high pre-PDT St O2 , which may suggest the presence of a treatment effect.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969332

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is effective in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), approximately 10%-15% of patients will fail regionally and 20%-25% distantly. We evaluate a novel circulating tumor cell (CTC) assay as a prognostic marker for increased risk of recurrence following SBRT. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ninety-two subjects (median age, 71 years) with T1a (64%), T1b (23%), or T2a (13%) stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT were prospectively enrolled. CTCs were enumerated by utilizing a GFP-expressing adenoviral probe that detects elevated telomerase activity in cancer cells. Samples were obtained before, during, and serially up to 24 months after treatment. SBRT was delivered to a median dose of 50 Gy (range, 40-60 Gy), mostly commonly in four to five fractions (92%). RESULTS: Thirty-eight of 92 subjects (41%) had a positive CTC test prior to SBRT. A cutoff of ≥5 CTCs/mL before treatment defined favorable (n = 78) and unfavorable (n = 14) prognostic groups. Increased risk of nodal (P = 0.04) and distant (P = 0.03) failure was observed in the unfavorable group. Within 3 months following SBRT, CTCs continued to be detected in 10 of 35 (29%) subjects. Persistent detection of CTCs was associated with increased risk of distant failure (P = 0.04) and trended toward increased regional (P = 0.08) and local failure (P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Higher pretreatment CTCs and persistence of CTCs posttreatment is significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence outside the targeted treatment site. This suggests that CTC analysis may potentially identify patients at higher risk for regional or distant recurrences and who may benefit from either systemic therapy and/or timely locoregional salvage treatment.

13.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190879, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804145

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Locally recurrent disease is of increasing concern in (non-)small cell lung cancer [(N)SCLC] patients. Local reirradiation with photons or particles may be of benefit to these patients. In this multicentre in silico trial performed within the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison (ROCOCO) consortium, the doses to the target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were compared when using several photon and proton techniques in patients with recurrent localised lung cancer scheduled to undergo reirradiation. METHODS: 24 consecutive patients with a second primary (N)SCLC or recurrent disease after curative-intent, standard fractionated radio(chemo)therapy were included in this study. The target volumes and OARs were centrally contoured and distributed to the participating ROCOCO sites. Remaining doses to the OARs were calculated on an individual patient's basis. Treatment planning was performed by the participating site using the clinical treatment planning system and associated beam characteristics. RESULTS: Treatment plans for all modalities (five photon and two proton plans per patient) were available for 22 patients (N = 154 plans). 3D-conformal photon therapy and double-scattered proton therapy delivered significantly lower doses to the target volumes. The highly conformal techniques, i.e., intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), CyberKnife, TomoTherapy and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), reached the highest doses in the target volumes. Of these, IMPT was able to statistically significantly decrease the radiation doses to the OARs. CONCLUSION: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. They, however, significantly differ in the dose deposited in the OARs. The therapeutic options, i.e., reirradiation or systemic therapy, need to be carefully weighed and discussed with the patients. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Highly conformal photon and proton beam techniques enable high-dose reirradiation of the target volume. In light of the abilities of the various highly conformal techniques to spare specific OARs, the therapeutic options need to be carefully weighed and patients included in the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Reirradiação/métodos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Oncol ; 59(2): 164-170, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608751

RESUMO

Background: Patients with unresectable locally advanced NSCLC who refuse or are not candidates for chemotherapy often receive radiation therapy (RT) alone. Hypofractionated RT (HFRT) regimens are becoming increasingly common. An analysis of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) was performed to evaluate the practice patterns and outcomes of HFRT vs. conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) in patients with stage III NSCLC undergoing definitive RT alone.Material and methods: The NCDB was queried for all patients with stage III NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 who received RT alone. CFRT was defined as patients treated to a total dose of 60-80 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy daily fractions. HFRT was defined as patients treated to a total dose of 50-80 Gy in 2.25-4 Gy fractions. Logistic regression, univariable and multivariable analyses (MVAs) for overall survival (OS) and propensity score matched analyses (PSMAs) were performed.Results: A total of 6490 patients were evaluated: 5378 received CFRT and 1112 received HFRT. Median CFRT dose was 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions vs. 58.5 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions for HFRT. HFRT was associated with older age, lower biological effective dose (BED10), academic facility type, higher T-stage and lower N-stage. On initial analysis, HFRT was associated with inferior OS (median 9.9 vs. 11.1 months, p<.001), but after adjusting for the imbalance in covariates such as age, BED10, T-stage and N-stage using PSMA, the difference in survival was no longer significant (p=.1).Conclusions: In the appropriate clinical context, HFRT can be an option for patients with locally advanced NSCLC who are not candidates for chemotherapy or surgical resection. HFRT needs to be further studied in prospective trials to evaluate toxicity and tumor control.

15.
PET Clin ; 15(1): 45-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735301

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) is an advanced functional imaging modality in oncology care for the diagnosis, staging, prognostication, and surveillance of numerous malignancies. PET can also offer considerable advantages for target volume delineation as part of radiation treatment planning. In this review, data and clinical practice from 6 general oncology disease sites are assessed to descriptively evaluate the role of PET in target volume delineation. Also highlighted are several specific and practical utilities for PET imaging in radiation treatment planning. Publication of several ongoing prospective trials in the future may further expand the utility of PET for target delineation and patient care.

16.
PET Clin ; 15(1): 77-87, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735304

RESUMO

At present, the strongest evidence for the use of PET/computed tomography (CT) in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies is to rule out distant metastatic disease at diagnosis, radiation treatment planning for anal malignancies, and disease recurrence monitoring in colorectal and anal malignancies. Use of PET/CT for GI malignancies continues to evolve over time, with new studies evaluating prognostic abilities of PET/CT and with increasing sensitivity and spatial resolution of more modern PET/CT scanners. The authors encourage future applications and prospective evaluation of the use of PET/CT in the staging, prognostication, and recurrence prediction for GI malignancies.

17.
PET Clin ; 15(1): 89-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735305

RESUMO

Radiation-induced normal tissue toxicities vary in terms of pathophysiologic determinants and timing of disease development, and they are influenced by the dose and radiation volume the critical organs receive, and the radiosensitivity of normal tissues and their baseline rate of cell turnover. Radiation-induced lung injury is dose limiting for the treatment of lung and thoracic cancers and can lead to fibrosis and potentially fatal pneumonitis. This article focuses on pulmonary and cardiovascular complications of radiation therapy and discusses how PET-based novel quantitative techniques can be used to detect these events earlier than current imaging modalities or clinical presentation allow.

18.
PET Clin ; 15(1): xiii-xiv, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735306
19.
Med Dosim ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870600

RESUMO

Introduction The aim of this article is to introduce a novel protocol for proton pencil beam scanning treatment with moderate deep inspiration breath hold (mDIBH) and report on our clinical implementation results. Methods Three computed tomography (CT) scannings to build the patient's anatomy model were performed during the patient's voluntary mDIBH. All 3 CT scans were used in the optimization during the treatment planning process. Both orthogonal kV imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were implemented for patient alignment with BH prior to the treatment. The BH CBCT images were analyzed for BH reproducibility and the virtual total dose (VTD) retrospectively. To find the VTD, a series of deformable image registrations (DIR) were performed between CBCT and pCT. The effect of the variation of lung density on the dose distribution was also analyzed in the study. Results The values of the mean, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum of the tumor location difference between the CBCT and pCT were 1.9, 1.6, 4.7, and 0.0 mm, respectively. The percentage difference in D99% of CTVs between VTD and the nominal plan was within 1.5%. Conclusions The feedback-based voluntary moderate BH proton PBS treatment was successfully performed in our clinic. This study shows that there is a potential to implement the BH treatment widely in proton centers.

20.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population studies suggest an impact of insurance status on oncologic outcomes. We sought to explore this in a large single-institution cohort of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 342 consecutive patients (January 2000 to December 2013) curatively treated for stage III NSCLC. Patients were categorized by insurance status as uninsured (U), Medicare/Medicaid + Veterans Affairs (M/M + VA), or Private (P). The χ2 test was utilized to compare categorical variables. The Kaplan-Meier approach and the Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze overall survival (OS) and freedom from recurrence (FFR). RESULTS: Compared with M/M + VA patients, P insurance patients were more likely to be younger (P < .001), married (P < .001), Caucasian (P = .001), reside in higher median income zip codes (P < .001), have higher performance status (P < .001), and undergo consolidation chemotherapy (P < .001) and trimodality therapy (P < .001). Diagnosis to treatment was delayed > 30 days in U (67.3%), M/M + VA (68.1%), and P (52.6%) patients (P = .017). Compared with the M/M + VA and U cohorts, P insurance patients had improved OS (median/5-year: 30.7 months/34.2%, 19 months/17%, and 16.9 months/3.8%; P < .001) and FFR (median/5-year: 18.4 months/27.3%, 15.2 months/23.2%, and 11.4 months/4.8%; P = .012), respectively. On multivariate analysis, insurance status was an independent predictor for OS (P = .017) but not FFR. CONCLUSION: Compared with U or M/M + VA patients, P insurance patients with stage III NSCLC were more likely to be optimally diagnosed and treated, resulting in a doubling of median OS for P versus U patients. Improved access to affordable health insurance is critical to combat inequities in access to care and has potential for improvements in cancer outcomes.

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