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1.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608751

RESUMO

Background: Patients with unresectable locally advanced NSCLC who refuse or are not candidates for chemotherapy often receive radiation therapy (RT) alone. Hypofractionated RT (HFRT) regimens are becoming increasingly common. An analysis of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) was performed to evaluate the practice patterns and outcomes of HFRT vs. conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) in patients with stage III NSCLC undergoing definitive RT alone. Material and methods: The NCDB was queried for all patients with stage III NSCLC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014 who received RT alone. CFRT was defined as patients treated to a total dose of 60-80 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy daily fractions. HFRT was defined as patients treated to a total dose of 50-80 Gy in 2.25-4 Gy fractions. Logistic regression, univariable and multivariable analyses (MVAs) for overall survival (OS) and propensity score matched analyses (PSMAs) were performed. Results: A total of 6490 patients were evaluated: 5378 received CFRT and 1112 received HFRT. Median CFRT dose was 66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions vs. 58.5 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions for HFRT. HFRT was associated with older age, lower biological effective dose (BED10), academic facility type, higher T-stage and lower N-stage. On initial analysis, HFRT was associated with inferior OS (median 9.9 vs. 11.1 months, p<.001), but after adjusting for the imbalance in covariates such as age, BED10, T-stage and N-stage using PSMA, the difference in survival was no longer significant (p=.1). Conclusions: In the appropriate clinical context, HFRT can be an option for patients with locally advanced NSCLC who are not candidates for chemotherapy or surgical resection. HFRT needs to be further studied in prospective trials to evaluate toxicity and tumor control.

2.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior intercostal lymph nodes, previously undescribed for cancer staging, are part of the lymphatic drainage of the pleural space. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of posterior intercostal lymph nodes on survival in patients undergoing surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma. METHODS: As part of the thoracic lymphadenectomy, posterior intercostal lymph nodes were accessed by incising the endothoracic fascia at the level of the rib heads. These nodes were systematically harvested in 56 consecutive patients undergoing extended pleurectomy decortication in a clinical trial. The impact of these nodes on both progression free and overall survival was then analyzed by multiple statistical methods. RESULTS: Median PFS/OS were 11.6/25.5 months, respectively. In 6/56 (11%) posterior intercostal lymph nodes were the only positive nodes and, overall, 48.2% had posterior intercostal lymph node metastases. Patients with N2 disease had significantly poorer prognosis if the posterior intercostal lymph nodes were involved: PFS (7.3 vs 14.9 months, p=0.002) and OS (14.4 vs 26.1 months, p = 0.028). In the multivariable models, after adjustment for nodal stage and other prognostic factors, intercostal nodes remained associated with a 2.5 fold elevated risk of progression (p<0.001) and a 2.3 fold elevated risk of death (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This first reported series of posterior intercostal lymph nodes revealed they independently more than doubled the risk of progression and death and in 11% of the patients were the only metastatic nodes. These nodes warrant further investigation, including non-operative techniques to identify and factor them into treatment decision making.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(40): 19887-19893, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527280

RESUMO

The expansion of machine learning to high-stakes application domains such as medicine, finance, and criminal justice, where making informed decisions requires clear understanding of the model, has increased the interest in interpretable machine learning. The widely used Classification and Regression Trees (CART) have played a major role in health sciences, due to their simple and intuitive explanation of predictions. Ensemble methods like gradient boosting can improve the accuracy of decision trees, but at the expense of the interpretability of the generated model. Additive models, such as those produced by gradient boosting, and full interaction models, such as CART, have been investigated largely in isolation. We show that these models exist along a spectrum, revealing previously unseen connections between these approaches. This paper introduces a rigorous formalization for the additive tree, an empirically validated learning technique for creating a single decision tree, and shows that this method can produce models equivalent to CART or gradient boosted stumps at the extremes by varying a single parameter. Although the additive tree is designed primarily to provide both the model interpretability and predictive performance needed for high-stakes applications like medicine, it also can produce decision trees represented by hybrid models between CART and boosted stumps that can outperform either of these approaches.

4.
Photochem Photobiol ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556122

RESUMO

Uniform light fluence distribution for patients undergoing photodynamic therapy (PDT) is critical to ensure predictable PDT outcomes. However, current practice when delivering intrapleural PDT uses a point source to deliver light that is monitored by seven isotropic detectors placed within the pleural cavity to assess its uniformity. We have developed a real-time infrared (IR) tracking camera to follow the movement of the light point source and the surface contour of the treatment area. The calculated light fluence rates were matched with isotropic detectors using a two-correction factor method and an empirical model that includes both direct and scattered light components. Our clinical trial demonstrated that we can successfully implement the IR navigation system in 75% (15/20) of the patients. Data were successfully analyzed in 80% (12/15) patients because detector locations were not available for three patients. We conclude that it is feasible to use an IR camera-based system to track the motion of the light source during PDT and demonstrate its use to quantify the uniformity of light distribution, which deviated by a standard deviation of 18% from the prescribed light dose. The navigation system will fail when insufficient percentage of light source positions is obtained (<30%) during PDT.

5.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(10): 1718-1731, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470129

RESUMO

Detailed guidelines pertaining to radiological assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma are currently lacking due to the rarity of the disease, complex morphology, propensity to invade multiple planes simultaneously, and lack of specific recommendations within the radiology community about assessment, reporting, and follow-up. In March 2017, a multidisciplinary meeting of mesothelioma experts was co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Thoracic Malignancy Steering Committee, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, and the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation. One of the outcomes of this conference was the foundation of detailed, multidisciplinary consensus imaging and management guidelines. Here, we present the recommendations for radiologic assessment of malignant pleural mesothelioma in the setting of clinical trial enrollment. We discuss optimization of imaging parameters across modalities, standardized reporting, and response assessment within clinical trials.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 8(4): 490-497, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431028

RESUMO

In palliative care, opioids and other controlled drugs are among the most commonly used and important medications. Opioids are associated with significant risk of dependence and misuse. In many developed countries, there is an epidemic of prescription opioid misuse and overdose deaths. Palliative care has a critical role educating patients about the safe use of opioids, providing universal screening and close monitoring, and prescribing opioids appropriately balancing the risks and benefits. This is particularly important in the era of early palliative care, when patients have much longer survival and potentially greater risk of misuse while on chronic opioid therapy. Here, we provided a critical appraisal of opioid use in the context of opioid crisis and early palliative care. We also present a pragmatic 10-step approach for the judicious use of opioids.

7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 8(3): 352-354, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370665
10.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436839

RESUMO

Importance: Local failure after chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) significantly contributes to mortality in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). One approach to improve local control is through targeted radiosensitization of the tumor. Objective: To evaluate the dose-limiting toxic effects, maximally tolerated dose, and recommended phase 2 dose of the protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate, administered concurrently with CT-RT in patients with LA-NSCLC, and, in the phase 2 portion of the study, to estimate the objective response rate, local and distant failure rates, and overall survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, open-label, single-group, single-institution phase 1/2 trial tested the oral protease inhibitor nelfinavir in combination with concurrent CT-RT in 35 patients aged 18 to 89 years with biopsy-confirmed unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB LA-NSCLC and a minimum Karnofsky performance status from June 29, 2007, to February 22, 2012, with an analysis date of May 9, 2017. Median follow-up for all patients was 6.8 years, with a minimum 5 years of follow-up for all survivors. Interventions: Oral nelfinavir mesylate, 625 mg, twice daily or 1250 mg, twice daily was administered for 7 to 14 days before and during concurrent CT-RT. Main Outcomes and Measures: Graded toxic effects, overall survival, local failure, distant failure, objective response rate, and progression-free survival as measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Results: Thirty-five patients (16 women and 19 men; median age, 60 years [range, 39-79 years]) enrolled and met protocol-specified criteria for adherence, with 5 at a dose of 625 mg twice daily and 30 at a dose of 1250 mg twice daily. No dose-limiting toxic effects were observed. No grade 4 or higher nonhematologic toxic effects were observed. Thirty-three of the 35 patients had evaluable posttreatment computed tomographic scans, with an objective response rate of 94% (31 of 33; 95% CI, 86%-100%). The cumulative incidence of local failure was 39% (95% CI, 30.5%-47.5%). Median progression-free survival was 11.7 months (95% CI, 6.2-17.1 months). Median overall survival for all patients was 41.1 months (95% CI, 19.0-63.1 months); the 5-year mean (SE) overall survival rate was 37.1% (8.2%). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that nelfinavir administered with concurrent CT-RT is associated with acceptable toxic effects and a promising objective response rate, local failure, progression-free survival, and overall survival in unresectable LA-NSCLC. These data suggest that nelfinavir may enhance the efficacy of standard CT-RT in this disease. Additional testing in the randomized phase 3 setting should be conducted to establish the improvement associated with nelfinavir with concurrent CT-RT. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00589056.

12.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(5): 384-390.e2, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assays to identify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) might allow for noninvasive and sequential monitoring of lung cancer. We investigated whether serial CTC analysis could complement conventional imaging for detecting recurrences after treatment in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with LA-NSCLC (stage II-III) who definitively received concurrent chemoradiation were prospectively enrolled, with CTCs from peripheral blood samples identified using an adenoviral probe that detects elevated telomerase activity present in nearly all lung cancer cells. A "detectable" CTC level was defined as 1.3 green flourescent protein-positive cells per milliliter of collected blood. Samples were obtained before, during (at weeks 2, 4, and 6), and after treatment (post-radiation therapy [RT]; at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled. At a median follow-up of 10.9 months, 22 (46%) patients had disease recurrence at a median time of 7.6 months post-RT (range, 1.3-32.0 months). Of the 20 of 22 patients for whom post-RT samples were obtained, 15 (75%) had an increase in CTC counts post-RT. In 10 of these 15 patients, CTCs were undetectable on initial post-RT draw but were then detected again before radiographic detection of recurrence, with a median lead time of 6.2 months and mean lead time of 6.1 months (range, 0.1-12.0 months) between CTC count increase and radiographic evidence of recurrence. One patient with an early recurrence (4.7 months) had persistently elevated detectable CTC levels during and after treatment. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that longitudinal CTC monitoring in patients with LA-NSCLC treated with chemoradiation is feasible, and that detectable CTC levels in many patients meaningfully precede radiologic evidence of disease recurrence.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226401

RESUMO

Nodal involvement in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a poor prognostic factor, and management remains highly debated. Because there are no prospective trials for this population, this investigation addressed a major knowledge gap by examining national practice patterns as well as survival outcomes. The National Cancer Database was queried for newly diagnosed cN1-3M0 MPM. Multivariable logistic regression ascertained factors associated with administering surgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed overall survival (OS); multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling examined factors associated with OS. No statistical intergroup comparisons were made herein. This was primarily owing to undeniable selection biases in these heterogeneous datasets; the presence of incomplete and inadequately granular clinical information (eg, intent and selection of treatment, preoperative assessment) cannot be accounted for by propensity matching or other such algorithms, thus potentially leading to misinterpretation. Of 2548 patients, 20%, 70%, and 9% had N1, N2, and N3 disease, respectively. Overall, 13% received surgery/chemotherapy, 47% underwent chemotherapy alone, 30% were observed, and 5% received resection without chemotherapy (5% had unknown treatment information). The median OS for all patients was 9.2 months. Relative to N1 cases, N2+ subjects were less likely to undergo resection, and they also experienced lower OS (P < 0.05 for both). The median OS in N1, N2, and N3 patients was 10.0, 9.1, and 8.5 months, respectively. In summary, nodal status is a prognostic factor in cN+ MPM. Expected outcomes for the overall population and by nodal classification are described, which should be considered when patients and multidisciplinary providers jointly weigh management options. Careful patient selection in this population is necessary, encompassing factors such as histology, age, performance status, and location(s) of nodal burden.

14.
Lung Cancer ; 132: 24-27, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097089

RESUMO

Radiation remains an important component of mesothelioma treatment in 2018. Its use as a treatment modality continues to evolve as the technology for planning and delivery continues to improve. Use of radiation to improve local control in the involved hemithorax has been a common adjuvant treatment post extrapleural pneumonectomy for many years. Modern treatment options with advanced planning techniques including protons and intensity modulated radiation therapy lead to new potential options for treatment post lung-sparing surgery or in the unresectable setting. Presentations and discussions on the implementation of these strategies for palliation, treatment of oligometastatic recurrence or unresectable disease were the focus of a session dedicated to the role of radiation therapy at the 14th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group and are reviewed in this article. Preclinical data to better understand how to integrate radiation and the delivery of novel systemic therapy approached like check point inhibitors are also presented.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 132: 94-98, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097101

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The lymphangitic carcinomatosis (LC) pattern of metastatic malignancy is associated with a poor prognosis but is currently not well defined in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we report the incidence and prognostic significance of the radiographic development of LC in MPM following extended pleurectomy/decortication (EPD). METHODS: Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven MPM undergoing EPD with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) at our institution from 2008 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Patients without available post-surgical clinical or imaging data for direct review were excluded. CT images were reviewed by an experienced, board-certified thoracic radiologist and confirmed by consensus review. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were calculated by Kaplan Meier methodology. Hazard ratios were compared with a cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: 44 patients underwent EPD with PDT during the study period and had available clinical and imaging data. During the follow-up period (median 34 months), 17 patients (39%) developed LC at a median of 10 months after surgery (IQR 5-21 months). 16 of the 17 patients who developed LC (94%) died during the follow-up period, compared to 17 of the 27 who did not develop LC (63%). OS for the LC versus non-LC group was 53% versus 93% at 1 year and 18% versus 67% at 3 years. LC was significantly associated with a lower OS (HR 4.07; 95% confidence interval 1.44-11.48; p = 0.008). PFS for the LC group versus non-LC group was 8 months (IQR 5-9 months) compared to 17 months (IQR 11-24 months) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: LC is a common form of failure in MPM following EPD and is associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, further studies are warranted to determine if any evidence of preoperative LC should be an absolute contraindication to EPD and may warrant an EPP or no surgery at all.

16.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(7): 1172-1183, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Detailed guidelines regarding the use of radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are currently lacking because of the rarity of the disease, the wide spectrum of clinical presentations, and the paucity of high-level data on individual treatment approaches. METHODS: In March 2017, a multidisciplinary meeting of mesothelioma experts was cosponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Research, and Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation. Among the outcomes of this conference was the foundation of detailed, multidisciplinary consensus guidelines. RESULTS: Here we present consensus recommendations on the use of radiation therapy for MPM in three discrete scenarios: (1) hemithoracic radiation therapy to be used before or after extrapleural pneumonectomy; (2) hemithoracic radiation to be used as an adjuvant to lung-sparing procedures (i.e., without pneumonectomy); and (3) palliative radiation therapy for focal symptoms caused by the disease. We discuss appropriate simulation techniques, treatment volumes, dose fractionation regimens, and normal tissue constraints. We also assess the role of particle beam therapy, specifically, proton beam therapy, for MPM. CONCLUSION: The recommendations provided in this consensus statement should serve as important guidelines for developing future clinical trials of treatment approaches for MPM.

17.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(6): 618-625, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiation pneumonitis is a major dose-limiting complication in thoracic radiation therapy (RT) and presents clinically in the first few months after RT. We evaluated the feasibility of quantifying pulmonary parenchymal glycolysis (PG) as a surrogate of global lung inflammation and radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity using a novel semiautomatic lung segmentation technique in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and compared PG in patients treated with photon or proton RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 18 consecutive locally advanced NSCLC patients who underwent pretreatment and post-treatment F-FDG PET/CT treated with definitive (median: 66.6 Gy; 1.8 Gy fractions) photon or proton RT between 2010 and 2014. Lung volume segmentation was conducted using 3D Slicer by performing simple thresholding. Pulmonary PG was calculated by summing F-FDG uptake in the whole lung. RESULTS: In nine patients treated with photon RT, significant increases in PG in both ipsilateral (mean difference: 1400±510; P=0.02) and contralateral (mean difference: 1200±450; P=0.03) lungs were noted. In nine patients treated with proton therapy, no increase in pulmonary PG was observed in either the ipsilateral (P=0.30) or contralateral lung (P=0.98). CONCLUSION: We observed a significant increase in global lung inflammation bilaterally as measured by quantification of PG. However, no significant change in global lung inflammation was noted after proton therapy. Future larger studies are needed to determine whether this difference correlates with lower risks of radiation pneumonitis in NSCLC patients treated with proton therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Fótons/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(4): 263-269, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management options for unresected malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) are largely limited to palliative chemotherapy and best supportive care. This study sought to delineate subgroups most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for newly-diagnosed unresected sarcomatoid, biphasic, and/or metastatic (M1) MPM. Statistics included Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) analysis with and without propensity matching, landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis to address immortal time bias, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling in all patients as well as within histologic/M-classification-based subcohorts. RESULTS: Of 4655 patients (48% chemotherapy, 52% best supportive care), 15%, 27%, and 40% had epithelioid, biphasic, and sarcomatoid disease, respectively; 41% had M1 disease. The median OS in the chemotherapy and BSC cohorts was 10.4 versus 4.8 months (P < .001). OS differences persisted following landmark analysis (P = .038) and propensity matching (P < .001). Chemotherapy was associated with higher OS in M1 cases with unknown histology and M1 epithelioid patients (P < .001 for both). For non-epithelioid cases, chemotherapy was associated with higher OS for M0 (P < .001 for sarcomatoid and biphasic) but not M1 (P > .05 for both) disease. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy may benefit metastatic epithelioid and non-metastatic non-epithelioid MPM to a greater degree than metastatic non-epithelioid disease. Causation, however, is not implied, and careful patient selection in this population cannot be understated.

19.
Radiother Oncol ; 133: 106-112, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a radiotherapy dose-limiting toxicity for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Prior studies have proposed relevant dosimetric constraints to limit this toxicity. Using machine learning algorithms, we performed analyses of contributing factors in the development of RP to uncover previously unidentified criteria and elucidate the relative importance of individual factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 32 clinical features per patient in a cohort of 203 stage II-III LA-NSCLC patients treated with definitive chemoradiation to a median dose of 66.6 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily fractions at our institution from 2008 to 2016. Of this cohort, 17.7% of patients developed grade ≥2 RP. Univariate analysis was performed using trained decision stumps to individually analyze statistically significant predictors of RP and perform feature selection. Applying Random Forest, we performed multivariate analysis to assess the combined performance of important predictors of RP. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, lung V20, lung mean, lung V10 and lung V5 were found to be significant RP predictors with the greatest balance of specificity and sensitivity. On multivariate analysis, Random Forest (AUC = 0.66, p = 0.0005) identified esophagus max (20.5%), lung V20 (16.4%), lung mean (15.7%) and pack-year (14.9%) as the most common primary differentiators of RP. CONCLUSIONS: We highlight Random Forest as an accurate machine learning method to identify known and new predictors of symptomatic RP. Furthermore, this analysis confirms the importance of lung V20, lung mean and pack-year as predictors of RP while also introducing esophagus max as an important RP predictor.

20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 26(8): 2357-2366, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The median age at diagnosis for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is approximately 72 years. Elderly patients pose unique management challenges because of the increased risk of therapy-related toxicities and mortality. Because there are no high-volume retrospective studies, prospective trials, or dedicated treatment recommendations for this population, this investigation addresses a major knowledge gap by examining national practice patterns and postoperative/survival outcomes in elderly MPM patients. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients aged ≥ 80 years with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic MPM. Multivariable logistic regression ascertained factors associated with observation and surgery. Kaplan-Meier analysis assessed overall survival (OS), and multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling examined factors associated with OS. Survival was also calculated following propensity matching. Additionally, postoperative outcomes were evaluated in surgical patients. RESULTS: Of 4526 patients, 2% received surgery and chemotherapy, 22% underwent chemotherapy alone, and 63% were observed. Respective median OS was 12.2, 9.5, and 4.1 months (p < 0.001). Differences between all groups persisted following propensity matching (all comparisons p < 0.05). For the 8% of patients who underwent specified definitive surgery (95% of whom received pleurectomy/decortication), 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 11.0% and 28.5%, respectively. The median length of postoperative hospitalization was 6 days, with 30-day readmission occurring in 7.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of elderly MPM patients in the US are observed, which was associated with poorer OS than chemotherapy and/or surgery. Although highly selected surgery/chemotherapy patients were associated with the longest OS, given the high biases in database studies and high perioperative mortality rates, careful patient selection for combined modality approaches in this population is imperative.

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