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1.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006391

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine longitudinal associations of intuitive eating (IE), defined as eating according to internal hunger and satiety cues, with psychological health outcomes and disordered eating behaviors. METHODS: Data from a diverse sample of 1491 participants (54.1% female, 19.7% non-Hispanic white) followed from adolescence (baseline; Mage = 14.5 years) into young adulthood (follow-up; Mage = 22.2 years) came from the population-based EAT 2010-2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) study. Logistic regression models predicting psychological health outcomes and disordered eating behaviors at follow-up simultaneously included baseline IE and change in IE from baseline to follow-up as predictors, adjusting for demographic covariates, body mass index, and outcome at baseline. RESULTS: Greater baseline IE and increases in IE from baseline to follow-up were both associated with lower odds of high depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, high body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., fasting, skipping meals), extreme weight control behaviors (e.g., taking diet pills, vomiting), and binge eating at 8-year follow-up. Particularly strong protective associations were observed for binge eating, such that a one-point higher IE score at baseline was associated with 74% lower odds of binge eating at follow-up, and a one-point higher increase in IE score from baseline to follow-up was associated with 71% lower odds of binge eating at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that IE longitudinally predicts better psychological and behavioral health across a range of outcomes and suggest that IE may be a valuable intervention target for improving psychological health and reducing disordered eating behaviors, particularly binge eating. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, cohort study.

2.
Int J Eat Disord ; 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was threefold: (a) compare rates of self-reported anorexia nervosa (AN), self-reported bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating pathology-specific academic impairment (EAI) by gender identity (cisgender men, cisgender women, transgender or genderqueer) and sexual orientation (gay or lesbian, bisexual, unsure, other), (b) examine associations between gender identity, sexual orientation, and eating outcomes, and (c) identify for whom rates of eating disorder diagnosis and impairment is greatest. METHOD: The study includes a sample of Minnesota students (n = 13,906) who participated in the College Student Health Survey from 2015 to 2018. Chi-square tests with bootstrapping examined differences in eating pathology rates between groups. Adjusted logistic regressions tested the association between gender identity, sexual orientation, and self-reported eating outcomes. RESULTS: Chi-square results revealed heightened rates of self-reported AN, self-reported BN, and EAI in cisgender women, transgender or genderqueer, and sexual minority (e.g., lesbian or bisexual) students. Logistic regression analyses in cisgender men and cisgender women revealed higher odds of self-reported AN, self-reported BN, and EAI in sexual minority students relative their heterosexual peers. Chi-square analyses indicated that bisexual cisgender women reported heightened rates of all three eating pathology measures relative to other sexual and/or gender (e.g., transgender) minority students. DISCUSSION: Individuals with marginalized gender and/or sexual orientation identities report heightened rates of eating pathology, with cisgender bisexual women reporting the poorest outcomes relative to individuals from other marginalized identities. Preventive efforts and more research are needed to understand the mechanisms driving this disparity and to reduce prevalence among marginalized groups.

3.
Struct Equ Modeling ; 26(4): 636-645, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289434

RESUMO

Mediation models are commonly used to identify the mechanisms through which one variable influences another. Among longitudinal mediation methods, latent difference score mediation stands out due to its unique ability to capture non-linear change over time. However, there is limited information regarding sample size demands to achieve adequate power with this method, resulting in few applications of latent difference score mediation. To address this limitation, the current study presents empirically supported sample size guidelines for 10 common latent difference score mediation structural models and 9 unique population models. The results of this study offer researchers with a set of representative sample estimates that may be used when designing studies or seeking funding.

4.
Soc Sci Med ; 233: 64-70, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181470

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs) often predict future substance use, resulting in a comorbidity that predicts later health consequences. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine whether weight stigma and its associated harms magnify or attenuate the effect of UWCBs at baseline on substance use at 10-year follow-up among girls and to elucidate factors related to the perceived harms of weight stigma. METHODS: Data from 1147 adolescent girls from Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) were analyzed at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Participants were split into three groups at baseline: no weight stigma; weight stigma only (being teased by peers or parents); and weight stigma with perceived harms (e.g., being bothered by teasing). Moderation and stratified regression analyses examined the role of weight stigma and its perceived harms on the relationship between UWCBs and substance use. ANOVA models aimed to elucidate factors related to the perceived harms of weight stigma. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed marginally significant effects of group membership on the effect of UWCB on substance use (p = .08). Stratified regression results indicated that UWCBs at baseline predicted substance use at 10-year follow-up among girls in the weight stigma with perceived harms group (p = .005), but not in the no weight stigma or weight stigma only groups. Girls in the weight stigma with perceived harms group reported higher weight concern, depressive symptoms and BMIs than girls who report no weight stigma or weight stigma only. CONCLUSIONS: Health initiatives should seek to reduce weight stigma and its associated harms to prevent substance use in girls and women. Clinicians working with adolescent girls with UWCB should inquire about experiences with weight stigma with its harms to assess substance use risk. Due to the marginally significant moderation, results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: Health initiatives should seek to reduce weight stigma and its associated harms to prevent substance use in girls and women. Clinicians working with adolescent girls with UWCB should inquire about experiences with weight stigma with its harms to assess substance use risk. Due to the marginally significant moderation, results should be interpreted with caution.

5.
Qual Life Res ; 28(11): 2909-2917, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how patterns of interpersonal relational contexts (e.g., face-to-face or technology-based) and processes (e.g., initiated or accepted) relate to depressive symptomology and life satisfaction. METHODS: Participants were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (n = 962 adults [52.1% female; aged 18-78; 16.4% Non-White]). Quota sampling was used to closely match the sample demographics to that of the United States Census data. Latent class analyses (LCA) identified classes of interpersonal relations using the Multidimensional Interpersonal Relations Scale. Next, participants' responses on the Beck Depression Inventory and Satisfaction With Life Scale were examined to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction across classes. RESULTS: LCA results supported a 4-class model, in which classes were characterized by patterns of relational contexts and processes: Class 1 (50.6%) engagement across all contexts (e.g., face-to-face) and processes (e.g., initiated); Class 2 (12.7%) engagement across all contexts and processes except Facebook; Class 3 (24.0%) engagement in all contexts and only passive processes; and Class 4 (12.7%) engagement in only technology-based contexts and passive processes. Membership in Classes 1 and 2 was associated with lower depressive symptomology and higher life satisfaction as compared to Classes 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that patterns of relations differentially relate to depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. The findings suggest that multicontextual (e.g., face-to-face and technology-based) and reciprocal relationships with friends (e.g., initiating and accepting connections) may play an important role in the association between interpersonal relations with life satisfaction and depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Face/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(9): 1047-1051, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorder (ED) symptoms are common and impairing in males, despite their perception as "female" disorders. As existing self-report symptom measures were developed and primarily validated in women, there is a need to establish the utility of these measures in men. The present study used differential item functioning (DIF) analyses to explore whether item endorsement differed by gender for three commonly used ED symptom measures. METHOD: Participants were undergraduate men (n = 1,083) and women (n = 2,424) from three universities in the United States. Global scores on the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ), and Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale for DSM-IV (EDDS) were examined. Tests of DIF were conducted by regressing each item against its composite scale score, and then comparing fit and variance explained (R2 ) to a model with the interaction of item*gender. The clinical significance threshold for DIF is ΔR2 ≥ 0.13. RESULTS: There was no evidence of clinically significant DIF within the EAT-26, EDEQ, or EDDS. DISCUSSION: Findings suggest that the examined measures perform similarly for undergraduate men and women, supporting their use in nonclinical male samples. However, development and testing of items reflecting ED symptoms that more commonly occur in males (e.g., muscularity-oriented behaviors) is encouraged.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Women Ther ; 42(1-2): 200-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086429

RESUMO

Sizeism has a negative impact on women and perpetuates fat shaming. Conventional therapeutic suggestions for addressing weight concerns focuses on self-discipline rather than on the larger social, cultural, or political contexts of weight stigma. Feminist scholars, therapists, and activists have encouraged social activism to promote psychological well-being and challenge systemic weight prejudice. Results of research on health prevention and promotion efforts have begun to shift thinking away from weight loss and toward deconstructing and changing anti-fat attitudes. We highlight some individual and community-based fat activists to illustrate how their strategies and ideas challenge sizeism in a variety of areas including: the rhetoric of fat; body positivity; photography/art; nutrition/exercise; and diversity/intersectionality. Fat activism has utility within a therapeutic context especially for those who have been recipients of sizeism. We strongly encourage therapists to work closely with clients on finding sources and types of fat activism that represent their unique identities which may be more difficult for those with marginalized identities.

8.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105319844588, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014132

RESUMO

This study aimed to elucidate the shared and non-shared behavioral, sociocultural, and personal risk factors underlying binge eating and binge drinking among a sample ( n = 1764) of participants from Project EAT at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses revealed a range of risk factors associated with binge eating and binge drinking at 10 years, which varied by gender. The results revealed that risks associated with binge eating and binge drinking often differed, and thus full-scale dual preventive interventions for concurrent binge eating and binge drinking may be less effective. However, general prevention and intervention programs may emphasize shared risk factors.

9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 47(7): 1373-1384, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250752

RESUMO

Although adolescence marks a vulnerable stage for peer influence on health behavior, little is known about the longitudinal and dynamic relationship between adolescent friendship and weight control. The current study aims to explain these dynamic processes among a sample of 1156 American adolescents in grades 9-11 (48.6% girls, 23.4% European American, 25.2% African American) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Stochastic actor-oriented models were fit to examine changes in friendship networks and unhealthy weight control across two waves. The findings support a bidirectional relationship where weight control predicts future friendship seeking and friendship seeking predicts future weight control. The findings also indicate that adolescents prefer friends with similar weight control patterns. Taken together, the results of the current study indicate that adolescent friendships play an integral role in the development of unhealthy weight control and thus can be used to identify adolescents at risk and serve as targets within preventive interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Apoio Social
10.
J Am Coll Health ; 64(7): 520-6, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Disordered eating behaviors among undergraduate women are common and, thus, are an important public health concern. Weight stigmatization, stress, and social withdrawal are often associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, it is unclear whether stress and social withdrawal act as mediators between weight stigmatization and disordered eating. By testing specific pathways to disordered eating, theory-driven prevention programs can be implemented. METHODS: Self-reported surveys were administered to 217 undergraduate women during the Fall 2014 semester. RESULTS: There were 2 distinct mediational pathways in response to weight stigmatization. Stress partially mediated the path between weight stigmatization and emotional eating (38%), whereas social withdrawal partially mediated the path between weight stigmatization and dietary restraint (44%). CONCLUSIONS: Stress and social withdrawal mediate the relationship between weight stigmatization and disordered eating. The results of this study identified potentially critical risk factors that, if addressed, may improve outcomes of campus-based disordered eating programs for women.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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