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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587869

RESUMO

Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels convert physical forces into electrical signals. Despite the importance of this function, the involvement of mechanosensitive ion channels in human disease is poorly understood. Here we report heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding the MA ion channel TMEM63A that result in an infantile disorder resembling a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Four unrelated individuals presented with congenital nystagmus, motor delay, and deficient myelination on serial scans in infancy, prompting the diagnosis of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher (like) disease. Genomic sequencing revealed that all four individuals carry heterozygous missense variants in the pore-forming domain of TMEM63A. These variants were confirmed to have arisen de novo in three of the four individuals. While the physiological role of TMEM63A is incompletely understood, it is highly expressed in oligodendrocytes and it has recently been shown to be a MA ion channel. Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we demonstrated that each of the modeled variants result in strongly attenuated stretch-activated currents when expressed in naive cells. Unexpectedly, the clinical evolution of all four individuals has been surprisingly favorable, with substantial improvements in neurological signs and developmental progression. In the three individuals with follow-up scans after 4 years of age, the myelin deficit had almost completely resolved. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated role for mechanosensitive ion channels in myelin development.

3.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 330, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is a common clinical presentation, the diagnostic workup for which involves many non-invasive and invasive investigations. We report on two siblings that highlight the clinically relevant functional role of cubulin for albumin resorption in the proximal tubule and supports the use of genomic sequencing early in the diagnostic work up of patients who present with proteinuria. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-year-old boy was referred with an incidental finding of proteinuria. All preliminary investigations were unremarkable. Further assessment revealed consanguineous family history and a brother with isolated proteinuria. Renal biopsy demonstrated normal light microscopy and global glomerular basement membrane thinning on electron microscopy. Chromosomal microarray revealed long continuous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) representing ~ 4.5% of the genome. Shared regions of LCSH between the brothers were identified and their further research genomic analysis implicated a homozygous stop-gain variant in CUBN (10p12.31). CONCLUSIONS: CUBN mutations have been implicated as a hereditary cause of megaloblastic anaemia and variable proteinuria. This is the second reported family with isolated proteinuria due to biallelic CUBN variants in the absence of megaloblastic anaemia, demonstrating the ability of genomic testing to identify genetic causes of nephropathy within expanding associated phenotypic spectra. Genomic sequencing, undertaken earlier in the diagnostic trajectory, may reduce the need for invasive investigations and the time to definitive diagnosis for patients and families.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 413-424, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327508

RESUMO

WD40 repeat-containing proteins form a large family of proteins present in all eukaryotes. Here, we identified five pediatric probands with de novo variants in WDR37, which encodes a member of the WD40 repeat protein family. Two probands shared one variant and the others have variants in nearby amino acids outside the WD40 repeats. The probands exhibited shared phenotypes of epilepsy, colobomas, facial dysmorphology reminiscent of CHARGE syndrome, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia. The WDR37 protein is highly conserved in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms and is currently not associated with a human disease. We generated a null allele of the single Drosophila ortholog to gain functional insights and replaced the coding region of the fly gene CG12333/wdr37 with GAL4. These flies are homozygous viable but display severe bang sensitivity, a phenotype associated with seizures in flies. Additionally, the mutant flies fall when climbing the walls of the vials, suggesting a defect in grip strength, and repeat the cycle of climbing and falling. Similar to wall clinging defect, mutant males often lose grip of the female abdomen during copulation. These phenotypes are rescued by using the GAL4 in the CG12333/wdr37 locus to drive the UAS-human reference WDR37 cDNA. The two variants found in three human subjects failed to rescue these phenotypes, suggesting that these alleles severely affect the function of this protein. Taken together, our data suggest that variants in WDR37 underlie a novel syndromic neurological disorder.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

6.
Dev Cell ; 49(2): 279-292.e5, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014480

RESUMO

The correct assignment of cell fate within fields of multipotent progenitors is essential for accurate tissue diversification. The first lymphatic vessels arise from pre-existing veins after venous endothelial cells become specified as lymphatic progenitors. Prox1 specifies lymphatic fate and labels these progenitors; however, the mechanisms restricting Prox1 expression and limiting the progenitor pool remain unknown. We identified a zebrafish mutant that displayed premature, expanded, and prolonged lymphatic specification. The gene responsible encodes the regulator of alternative splicing, Nova2. In zebrafish and human endothelial cells, Nova2 selectively regulates pre-mRNA splicing for components of signaling pathways and phosphoproteins. Nova2-deficient endothelial cells display increased Mapk/Erk signaling, and Prox1 expression is dynamically controlled by Erk signaling. We identify a mechanism whereby Nova2-regulated splicing constrains Erk signaling, thus limiting lymphatic progenitor cell specification. This identifies the capacity of a factor that tunes mRNA splicing to control assignment of cell fate during vascular differentiation.

7.
Dev Dyn ; 248(4): 284-295, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During heart morphogenesis, the cardiac chambers undergo ballooning: a process involving regionalized elongation of cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte shape changes require reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton; however, the genetic regulation of this process is not well understood. RESULTS: From a forward genetic screen, we identified the zebrafish uq 23ks mutant which manifests chamber ballooning defects. Whole-genome sequencing-mapping identified a truncating mutation in the gene, myo5b. myo5b encodes an atypical myosin required for endosome recycling and, consistent with this, increased vesicles were observed in myo5b mutant cardiomyocytes. Expression of RFP-Rab11a (a recycling endosome marker) confirmed increased recycling endosomes in cardiomyocytes of myo5b mutants. To investigate potential cargo of MyoVb-associated vesicles, we examined the adherens junction protein, N-cadherin. N-cadherin appeared mispatterned at cell junctions, and an increase in the number of intracellular particles was also apparent. Co-localization with RFP-Rab11a confirmed increased N-cadherin-positive recycling endosomes, demonstrating N-cadherin trafficking is perturbed in myo5b mutants. Finally, phalloidin staining showed disorganized F-actin in myo5b cardiomyocytes, suggesting the cytoskeleton fails to remodel, obstructing chamber ballooning. CONCLUSIONS: MyoVb is required for cardiomyocyte endosomal recycling and appropriate N-cadherin localization during the onset of chamber ballooning. Cardiomyocytes lacking MyoVb are unable to reorganize their actin cytoskeleton, resulting in failed chamber ballooning. Developmental Dynamics 248:284-295, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 619-630, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740813

RESUMO

The lipid phosphatase gene FIG4 is responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 4J, a peripheral neuropathy. We now describe four families with FIG4 variants and prominent abnormalities of central nervous system (CNS) white matter (leukoencephalopathy), with onset in early childhood, ranging from severe hypomyelination to mild undermyelination, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals inherited biallelic FIG4 variants from heterozygous parents. Cultured fibroblasts exhibit enlarged vacuoles characteristic of FIG4 dysfunction. Two unrelated families segregate the same G > A variant in the +1 position of intron 21 in the homozygous state in one family and compound heterozygous in the other. This mutation in the splice donor site of exon 21 results in read-through from exon 20 into intron 20 and truncation of the final 115 C-terminal amino acids of FIG4, with retention of partial function. The observed CNS white matter disorder in these families is consistent with the myelination defects in the FIG4 null mouse and the known role of FIG4 in oligodendrocyte maturation. The families described here the expanded clinical spectrum of FIG4 deficiency to include leukoencephalopathy.

9.
Neurology ; 92(11): e1225-e1237, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively. METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity. CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.

10.
Neurology ; 92(6): e587-e593, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular etiology of disease in 4 individuals from 2 unrelated families who presented with proximal muscle weakness and features suggestive of mitochondrial disease. METHODS: Clinical information and neuroimaging were reviewed. Genome sequencing was performed on affected individuals and biological parents. RESULTS: All affected individuals presented with muscle weakness and difficulty walking. In one family, both children had neonatal respiratory distress while the other family had 2 children with episodic deteriorations. In each family, muscle biopsy demonstrated ragged red fibers. MRI was suggestive of a mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy, with extensive deep cerebral white matter T2 hyperintense signal and selective involvement of the middle blade of the corpus callosum. Through genome sequencing, homozygous GFPT1 missense variants were identified in the affected individuals of each family. The variants detected (p.Arg14Leu and p.Thr151Lys) are absent from population databases and predicted to be damaging by in silico prediction tools. Following the genetic diagnosis, nerve conduction studies were performed and demonstrated a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, confirming the diagnosis of myasthenia. Treatment with pyridostigmine was started in one family with favorable response. CONCLUSIONS: GFPT1 encodes a widely expressed protein that controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine-biosynthesis pathway that produces precursors for glycosylation of proteins. GFPT1 variants and defects in other enzymes of this pathway have previously been associated with congenital myasthenia. These findings identify leukoencephalopathy as a previously unrecognized phenotype in GFPT1-related disease and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction could contribute to this disorder.

11.
Sex Dev ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504698

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a disorder of sex development which affects 1 in 4,500 females and is characterized by agenesis of müllerian structures, including the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina. It can occur in isolation (type 1) or in conjunction with various anomalies (type 2), with a subset of these comprising müllerian, renal, and cervicothoracic abnormalities (MURCS) association. The genetic causes of MRKH have been investigated previously yielding limited results, with massive parallel sequencing becoming increasingly utilized. We sought to identify genetic contributions to MRKH using a combination of microarray and whole exome sequencing (WES) on a cohort of 8 unrelated women with MRKH and MURCS. WES data were analysed using a candidate gene approach to identify potential contributing variants. Microarray analysis identified a 0.6-Mb deletion in the previously implicated 16p11.2 region in a patient with MRKH type 2. WES revealed 16 rare nonsynonymous variants in MRKH candidate genes across the cohort. These included variants in several genes, such as LRP10 and DOCK4, associated with disorders with müllerian anomalies. Further functional studies of these variants will help to delineate their biological significance and expand the genotypic spectrum of MRKH.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 86, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP8A2 mutations have recently been described in several patients with severe, early-onset hypotonia and cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with ATP8A2 mutations. METHODS: An observational study was conducted at multiple diagnostic centres. Clinical data is presented from 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with ATP8A2 mutations. We compare their features with 3 additional patients that have been previously reported in the medical literature. RESULTS: Eleven patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations were identified, with a mean age of 9.4 years (range 2.5-28 years). All patients with ATP8A2 mutations (100%) demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders, specifically chorea or choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) and facial dyskinesia (18%). Optic atrophy was observed in 78% of patients for whom funduscopic examination was performed. Symptom onset in all (100%) was noted before 6 months of age, with 70% having symptoms noted at birth. Feeding difficulties were common (91%) although most patients were able to tolerate pureed or thickened feeds, and 3 patients required gastrostomy tube insertion. MRI of the brain was normal in 50% of the patients. A smaller proportion was noted to have mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Functional studies were performed on differentiated induced pluripotent cells from one child, which confirmed a decrease in ATP8A2 expression compared to control cells. CONCLUSIONS: ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as the cause of a novel neurological phenotype characterized by global developmental delays, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders, the latter being an important distinguishing feature. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation in older children. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this complex neurologic disorder.

13.
J Child Neurol ; 33(10): 642-650, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882456

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a heterogeneous group of heritable disorders that affect the glial-axonal unit. As more patients with unsolved leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies undergo next generation sequencing, causative mutations in genes leading to central hypomyelination are being identified. Two such individuals presented with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy, and central hypomyelination with early respiratory failure. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene: homozygous c.1163G>C (p.Arg388Pro) and compound heterozygous c.967T>C (p.Cys323Arg) and c.319C>T (p.Arg107*). Sural nerve and quadriceps muscle biopsies demonstrated progressive, severe onion bulb and axonal pathology. By ultrastructural evaluation, septate axoglial paranodal junctions were absent from nodes of Ranvier. Serial brain magnetic resonance images revealed hypomyelination, progressive atrophy, and reduced diffusion in the globus pallidus in both patients. These 2 families illustrate severe progressive peripheral demyelinating neuropathy due to the absence of septate paranodal junctions and central hypomyelination with neurodegeneration in CNTNAP1-associated arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 816-831, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706353

RESUMO

Despite the increasing diagnostic rate of genomic sequencing, the genetic basis of more than 50% of heritable kidney disease remains unresolved. Kidney organoids differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of individuals affected by inherited renal disease represent a potential, but unvalidated, platform for the functional validation of novel gene variants and investigation of underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In this study, trio whole-exome sequencing of a prospectively identified nephronophthisis (NPHP) proband and her parents identified compound-heterozygous variants in IFT140, a gene previously associated with NPHP-related ciliopathies. IFT140 plays a key role in retrograde intraflagellar transport, but the precise downstream cellular mechanisms responsible for disease presentation remain unknown. A one-step reprogramming and gene-editing protocol was used to derive both uncorrected proband iPSCs and isogenic gene-corrected iPSCs, which were differentiated to kidney organoids. Proband organoid tubules demonstrated shortened, club-shaped primary cilia, whereas gene correction rescued this phenotype. Differential expression analysis of epithelial cells isolated from organoids suggested downregulation of genes associated with apicobasal polarity, cell-cell junctions, and dynein motor assembly in proband epithelial cells. Matrigel cyst cultures confirmed a polarization defect in proband versus gene-corrected renal epithelium. As such, this study represents a "proof of concept" for using proband-derived iPSCs to model renal disease and illustrates dysfunctional cellular pathways beyond the primary cilium in the setting of IFT140 mutations, which are established for other NPHP genotypes.

15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1443-1448, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696782

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are a genetically heterogeneous collection of severe epilepsies often associated with psychomotor regression. Mutations in SZT2, a known seizure threshold regulator gene, are a newly identified cause of EOEE. We present an individual with EOEE, macrocephaly, and developmental regression with compound heterozygous mutations in SZT2 as identified by whole exome sequencing. Serial imaging characterized the novel finding of progressive loss of central myelination. This case expands our clinical understanding of the SZT2-phenotype and emphasizes the role of this gene in the diagnostic investigation for EOEE and leukoencephalopathies.

16.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 11: 81, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615866

RESUMO

Translation of mRNA into protein is an evolutionarily conserved, fundamental process of life. A prerequisite for translation is the accurate charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, a reaction catalyzed by specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. One of these enzymes is the aspartyl-tRNA synthetase DARS, which pairs aspartate with its corresponding tRNA. Missense mutations of the gene encoding DARS result in the leukodystrophy hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL) with a distinct pattern of hypomyelination, motor abnormalities, and cognitive impairment. A thorough understanding of the DARS expression domains in the central nervous system is essential for the development of targeted therapies to treat HBSL. Here, we analyzed endogenous DARS expression on the mRNA and protein level in different brain regions and cell types of human post mortem brain tissue as well as in human stem cell derived neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. DARS expression is significantly enriched in the cerebellum, a region affected in HBSL patients and important for motor control. Although obligatorily expressed in all cells, DARS shows a distinct expression pattern with enrichment in neurons but only low abundance in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Our results reveal little homogeneity across the different cell types, largely matching previously published data in the murine brain. This human gene expression study will significantly contribute to the understanding of DARS gene function and HBSL pathology and will be instrumental for future development of animal models and targeted therapies. In particular, we anticipate high benefit from a gene replacement approach in neurons of HBSL mouse models, given the abundant endogenous DARS expression in this lineage cell.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 676-684, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576217

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are genetic disorders characterized by insufficient myelin deposition during development. They are diagnosed on the basis of both clinical and MRI features followed by genetic confirmation. Here, we report on four unrelated affected individuals with hypomyelination and bi-allelic pathogenic variants in EPRS, the gene encoding cytoplasmic glutamyl-prolyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. EPRS is a bifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that catalyzes the aminoacylation of glutamic acid and proline tRNA species. It is a subunit of a large multisynthetase complex composed of eight aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and its three interacting proteins. In total, five different EPRS mutations were identified. The p.Pro1115Arg variation did not affect the assembly of the multisynthetase complex (MSC) as monitored by affinity purification-mass spectrometry. However, immunoblot analyses on protein extracts from fibroblasts of the two affected individuals sharing the p.Pro1115Arg variant showed reduced EPRS amounts. EPRS activity was reduced in one affected individual's lymphoblasts and in a purified recombinant protein model. Interestingly, two other cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases have previously been implicated in hypomyelinating leukodystrophies bearing clinical and radiological similarities to those in the individuals we studied. We therefore hypothesized that leukodystrophies caused by mutations in genes encoding cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases share a common underlying mechanism, such as reduced protein availability, abnormal assembly of the multisynthetase complex, and/or abnormal aminoacylation, all resulting in reduced translation capacity and insufficient myelin deposition in the developing brain.

19.
Brain ; 140(12): 3105-3111, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186371

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a clinical presentation that often includes early-onset nystagmus, ataxia and spasticity and a wide range of severity. Using next-generation sequencing techniques and GeneMatcher, we identified four unrelated patients with brain hypomyelination, all with the same recurrent dominant mutation, c.754G>A p.(Asp252Asn), in TMEM106B. The mutation was confirmed as de novo in three of the cases, and the mildly affected father of the fourth affected individual was confirmed as mosaic for this variant. The protein encoded by TMEM106B is poorly characterized but is reported to have a role in regulation of lysosomal trafficking. Polymorphisms in TMEM106B are thought to modify disease onset in frontotemporal dementia, but its relation to myelination is not understood. Clinical presentation in three of the four patients is remarkably benign compared to other hypomyelinating disorders, with congenital nystagmus and mild motor delay. These findings add TMEM106B to the growing list of genes causing hypomyelinating disorders and emphasize the essential role lysosomes play in myelination.

20.
Brain ; 140(10): 2550-2556, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969374

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping clinical and neuroimaging features reflecting variable abnormalities in myelin formation. We report on the identification of biallelic inactivating mutations in NKX6-2, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating multiple developmental processes with a main role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and regulation of myelin-specific gene expression, as the cause underlying a previously unrecognized severe variant of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Five affected subjects (three unrelated families) were documented to share biallelic inactivating mutations affecting the NKX6-2 homeobox domain. A trio-based whole exome sequencing analysis in the first family detected a homozygous frameshift change [c.606delinsTA; p.(Lys202Asnfs*?)]. In the second family, homozygosity mapping coupled to whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.565G>T) introducing a premature stop codon (p.Glu189*). In the third family, whole exome sequencing established compound heterozygosity for a non-conservative missense change affecting a key residue participating in DNA binding (c.599G>A; p.Arg200Gln) and a nonsense substitution (c.589C>T; p.Gln197*), in both affected siblings. The clinical presentation was homogeneous, with four subjects having severe motor delays, nystagmus and absent head control, and one individual showing gross motor delay at the age of 6 months. All exhibited neuroimaging that was consistent with hypomyelination. These findings define a novel, severe form of leukodystrophy caused by impaired NKX6-2 function.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares
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