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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356586

RESUMO

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276729, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342921

RESUMO

Combining diagnostic specimens into pools has been considered as a strategy to augment throughput, decrease turnaround time, and leverage resources. This study utilized a multi-parametric approach to assess optimum pool size, impact of automation, and effect of nucleic acid amplification chemistries on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pooled samples for surveillance testing on the Hologic Panther Fusion® System. Dorfman pooled testing was conducted with previously tested SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal samples using Hologic's Aptima® and Panther Fusion® SARS-CoV-2 Emergency Use Authorization assays. A manual workflow was used to generate pool sizes of 5:1 (five samples: one positive, four negative) and 10:1. An automated workflow was used to generate pool sizes of 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, 8:1 and 10:1. The impact of pool size, pooling method, and assay chemistry on sensitivity, specificity, and lower limit of detection (LLOD) was evaluated. Both the Hologic Aptima® and Panther Fusion® SARS-CoV-2 assays demonstrated >85% positive percent agreement between neat testing and pool sizes ≤5:1, satisfying FDA recommendation. Discordant results between neat and pooled testing were more frequent for positive samples with CT>35. Fusion® CT (cycle threshold) values for pooled samples increased as expected for pool sizes of 5:1 (CT increase of 1.92-2.41) and 10:1 (CT increase of 3.03-3.29). The Fusion® assay demonstrated lower LLOD than the Aptima® assay for pooled testing (956 vs 1503 cp/mL, pool size of 5:1). Lowering the cut-off threshold of the Aptima® assay from 560 kRLU (manufacturer's setting) to 350 kRLU improved the assay sensitivity to that of the Fusion® assay for pooled testing. Both Hologic's SARS-CoV-2 assays met the FDA recommended guidelines for percent positive agreement (>85%) for pool sizes ≤5:1. Automated pooling increased test throughput and enabled automated sample tracking while requiring less labor. The Fusion® SARS-CoV-2 assay, which demonstrated a lower LLOD, may be more appropriate for surveillance testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , RNA Viral/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Automação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac314, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899278

RESUMO

Background: There is limited information on the functional consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine side effects. To support patient counseling and public health messaging, we describe the risk and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent work or usual activities and/or lead to medical care ("severe" side effects). Methods: The EPICC study is a longitudinal cohort study of Military Healthcare System beneficiaries including active duty service members, dependents, and retirees. We studied 2789 adults who were vaccinated between December 2020 and December 2021. Results: Severe side effects were most common with the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson and Johnson) vaccine, followed by mRNA-1273 (Moderna) then BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech). Severe side effects were more common after the second than first dose (11% vs 4%; P < .001). First (but not second) dose side effects were more common in those with vs without prior severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (9% vs 2%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.84; 95% CI, 3.8-9.1), particularly if the prior illness was severe or critical (13% vs 2%; aOR, 10.57; 95% CI, 5.5-20.1) or resulted in inpatient care (17% vs 2%; aOR, 19.3; 95% CI, 5.1-72.5). Side effects were more common in women than men but not otherwise related to demographic factors. Conclusions: Vaccine side effects sufficient to prevent usual activities were more common after the second than first dose and varied by vaccine type. First dose side effects were more likely in those with a history of COVID-19-particularly if that prior illness was severe or associated with inpatient care. These findings may assist clinicians and patients by providing a real-world evaluation of the likelihood of experiencing impactful postvaccine symptoms.

4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac275, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35873301

RESUMO

Background: Patient-reported outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are an important measure of the full burden of coronavirus disease (COVID). Here, we examine how (1) infecting genotype and COVID-19 vaccination correlate with inFLUenza Patient-Reported Outcome (FLU-PRO) Plus score, including by symptom domains, and (2) FLU-PRO Plus scores predict return to usual activities and health. Methods: The epidemiology, immunology, and clinical characteristics of pandemic infectious diseases (EPICC) study was implemented to describe the short- and long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a longitudinal, observational cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were run with FLU-PRO Plus scores as the outcome variable, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of FLU-PRO Plus scores on return to usual health or activities. Results: Among the 764 participants included in this analysis, 63% were 18-44 years old, 40% were female, and 51% were White. Being fully vaccinated was associated with lower total scores (ß = -0.39; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.21). The Delta variant was associated with higher total scores (ß = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.45). Participants with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores were less likely to report returning to usual health and activities (health: hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.57; activities: HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.67). Fully vaccinated participants were more likely to report returning to usual activities (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.48). Conclusions: Full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with decreased severity of patient-reported symptoms across multiple domains, which in turn is likely to be associated with earlier return to usual activities. In addition, infection with the Delta variant was associated with higher FLU-PRO Plus scores than previous variants, even after controlling for vaccination status.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparing humoral responses in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinees, those with SARS-CoV-2 infection, or combinations of vaccine/infection ('hybrid immunity'), may clarify predictors of vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We studied 2660 U.S. Military Health System beneficiaries with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection-alone (n = 705), vaccination-alone (n = 932), vaccine-after-infection (n = 869), and vaccine-breakthrough-infection (n = 154). Peak anti-spike-IgG responses through 183 days were compared, with adjustment for vaccine product, demography, and comorbidities. We excluded those with evidence of clinical or sub-clinical SARS-CoV-2 reinfection from all groups. RESULTS: Multivariable regression results indicated vaccine-after-infection anti-spike-IgG responses were higher than infection-alone (p < 0.01), regardless of prior infection severity. An increased time between infection and vaccination was associated with a greater post-vaccination IgG response (p < 0.01). Vaccination-alone elicited a greater IgG response, but more rapid waning of IgG (p < 0.01), compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-receipt was associated with greater IgG responses compared to JNJ-78436735 (p < 0.01), regardless of infection history. Those with vaccine-after-infection or vaccine-breakthrough-infection had a more durable anti-spike-IgG response compared to infection-alone (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-receipt elicited higher anti-spike-IgG responses than infection-alone, although IgG levels waned faster in those vaccinated (compared to infection-alone). Vaccine-after-infection elicits a greater humoral response compared to vaccine or infection alone; and the timing, but not disease severity, of prior infection predicted these post-vaccination IgG responses. While differences between groups were small in magnitude, these results offer insights into vaccine immunogenicity variations that may help inform vaccination timing strategies.

6.
Mil Med ; 187(Suppl 2): 42-51, 2022 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, as well as polymicrobial wounds and infections, complicated the management of combat trauma-related infections. Multidrug resistance and wound microbiology are a research focus of the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS), an Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University, research protocol. To conduct comprehensive microbiological research with the goal of improving the understanding of the complicated etiology of wound infections, the TIDOS MDR and Virulent Organisms Trauma Infections Initiative (MDR/VO Initiative) was established as a collaborative effort with the Brooke Army Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Center, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. We provide a review of the TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative and summarize published findings. METHODS: Antagonism and biofilm formation of commonly isolated wound bacteria (e.g., ESKAPE pathogens-Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.), antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and clinical outcomes are being examined. Isolates collected from admission surveillance swabs, as part of infection control policy, and clinical infection workups were retained in the TIDOS Microbiological Repository and associated clinical data in the TIDOS database. RESULTS: Over the TIDOS study period (June 2009 to December 2014), more than 8,300 colonizing and infecting isolates were collected from military personnel injured with nearly one-third of isolates classified as MDR. At admission to participating U.S. military hospitals, 12% of wounded warriors were colonized with MDR Gram-negative bacilli. Furthermore, 27% of 913 combat casualties with ≥1 infection during their trauma hospitalization had MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. Among 335 confirmed combat-related extremity wound infections (2009-2012), 61% were polymicrobial and comprised various combinations of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi, and anaerobes. Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical workups, as well as the most common colonizing MDR secondary to extended-spectrum ß-lactamase resistance. Assessment of 479 E. coli isolates collected from wounded warriors found 188 pulsed-field types (PFTs) from colonizing isolates and 54 PFTs from infecting isolates without significant overlap across combat theaters, military hospitals, and study years. A minority of patients with colonizing E. coli isolates developed subsequent infections with the same E. coli strain. Enterococcus spp. were most commonly isolated from polymicrobial wound infections (53% of 204 polymicrobial cultures). Patients with Enterococcus infections were severely injured with a high proportion of lower extremity amputations and genitourinary injuries. Approximately 65% of polymicrobial Enterococcus infections had other ESKAPE organisms isolated. As biofilms have been suggested as a cause of delayed wound healing, wound infections with persistent recovery of bacteria (isolates of same organism collected ≥14 days apart) and nonrecurrent bacterial isolates were assessed. Biofilm production was significantly associated with recurrent bacteria isolation (97% vs. 59% with nonrecurrent isolates; P < 0.001); however, further analysis is needed to confirm biofilm formation as a predictor of persistent wound infections. CONCLUSIONS: The TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative provides comprehensive and detailed data of major microbial threats associated with combat-related wound infections to further the understanding of wound etiology and potentially identify infectious disease countermeasures, which may lead to improvements in combat casualty care.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Hospitais Militares , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(645): eabn8543, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35380448

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the highly contagious Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) along with its high number of mutations in the spike gene has raised alarms about the effectiveness of current medical countermeasures. To address this concern, we measured the neutralization of the Omicron BA.1 variant pseudovirus by postvaccination serum samples after two and three immunizations with the Pfizer/BioNTech162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA (Pfizer/BNT162b2) vaccine, convalescent serum samples from unvaccinated individuals infected by different variants, and clinical-stage therapeutic antibodies. We found that titers against the Omicron variant were low or undetectable after two immunizations and in many convalescent serum samples, regardless of the infecting variant. A booster vaccination increased titers more than 30-fold against Omicron to values comparable to those seen against the D614G variant after two immunizations. Neither age nor sex was associated with the differences in postvaccination antibody responses. We also evaluated 18 clinical-stage therapeutic antibody products and an antibody mimetic protein product obtained directly from the manufacturers. Five monoclonal antibodies, the antibody mimetic protein, three antibody cocktails, and two polyclonal antibody preparations retained measurable neutralization activity against Omicron with a varying degree of potency. Of these, only three retained potencies comparable to the D614G variant. Two therapeutic antibody cocktails in the tested panel that are authorized for emergency use in the United States did not neutralize Omicron. These findings underscore the potential benefit of mRNA vaccine boosters for protection against Omicron and the need for rapid development of antibody therapeutics that maintain potency against emerging variants.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacina BNT162 , COVID-19/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas de mRNA
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab623, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35141345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are the standard for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. If less invasive alternatives to NP swabs (eg, oropharyngeal [OP] or nasal swabs [NS]) are comparably sensitive, the use of these techniques may be preferable in terms of comfort, convenience, and safety. METHODS: This study compared the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in swab samples collected on the same day among participants with at least one positive PCR test. RESULTS: Overall, 755 participants had at least one set of paired swabs. Concordance between NP and other swab types was 75% (NS), 72% (OP), 54% (rectal swabs [RS]), and 78% (NS/OP combined). Kappa values were moderate for the NS, OP, and NS/OP comparisons (0.50, 0.45, and 0.54, respectively). Highest sensitivity relative to NP (0.87) was observed with a combination of NS/OP tests (positive if either NS or OP was positive). Sensitivity of the non-NP swab types was highest in the first week postsymptom onset and decreased thereafter. Similarly, virus RNA quantity was highest in the NP swabs as compared with NS, OP, and RS within two weeks postsymptom onset. OP and NS performance decreased as virus RNA quantity decreased. No differences were noted between NS specimens collected at home or in clinic. CONCLUSIONS: NP swabs detected more SARS-CoV-2 cases than non-NP swabs, and the sensitivity of the non-NP swabs decreased with time postsymptom onset. While other swabs may be simpler to collect, NP swabs present the best chance of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA, which is essential for clinical care as well as genomic surveillance.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 897-900, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117878

RESUMO

Little is known about severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 "vaccine-breakthrough" infections (VBIs). Here we characterize 24 VBIs in predominantly young healthy persons. While none required hospitalization, a proportion endorsed severe symptoms and shed live virus as high as 4.13 × 103 plaque-forming units/mL. Infecting genotypes included both variant-of-concern (VOC) and non-VOC strains.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Variação Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab556, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated clinical outcomes, functional burden, and complications 1 month after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in a prospective US Military Health System (MHS) cohort of active duty, retiree, and dependent populations using serial patient-reported outcome surveys and electronic medical record (EMR) review. METHODS: MHS beneficiaries presenting at 9 sites across the United States with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test, a COVID-19-like illness, or a high-risk SARS-CoV-2 exposure were eligible for enrollment. Medical history and clinical outcomes were collected through structured interviews and International Classification of Diseases-based EMR review. Risk factors associated with hospitalization were determined by multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1202 participants were enrolled. There were 1070 laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases and 132 SARS-CoV-2-negative participants. In the first month post-symptom onset among the SARS-CoV-2-positive cases, there were 212 hospitalizations, 80% requiring oxygen, 20 ICU admissions, and 10 deaths. Risk factors for COVID-19-associated hospitalization included race (increased for Asian, Black, and Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic White), age (age 45-64 and 65+ compared with <45), and obesity (BMI≥30 compared with BMI<30). Over 2% of survey respondents reported the need for supplemental oxygen, and 31% had not returned to normal daily activities at 1 month post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, reporting Asian, Black, or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and obesity are associated with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization. A proportion of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections require long-term oxygen therapy; the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on short-term functional status was substantial. A significant number of MHS beneficiaries had not yet returned to normal activities by 1 month.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2010-2019, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the longevity and quality of cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enhances understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immunity that influences clinical outcomes. Prior studies suggest SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are present in peripheral blood 10 months after infection. Analysis of the function, durability, and diversity of cellular response long after natural infection, over a range of ages and disease phenotypes, is needed to identify preventative and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We identified participants in our multisite longitudinal, prospective cohort study 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection representing a range of disease severity. We investigated function, phenotypes, and frequency of T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 using intracellular cytokine staining and spectral flow cytometry, and compared magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and T cells were detected 12 months postinfection. Severe acute illness was associated with higher frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies at 12 months. In contrast, polyfunctional and cytotoxic T cells responsive to SARS-CoV-2 were identified in participants over a wide spectrum of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection induces polyfunctional memory T cells detectable at 12 months postinfection, with higher frequency noted in those who experienced severe disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Memória Imunológica , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 703887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367162

RESUMO

The only licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia®, increases risk of severe dengue when given to individuals without prior dengue virus (DENV) infection but is protective against future disease in those with prior DENV immunity. The World Health Organization has recommended using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to determine history of prior DENV infection and suitability for vaccination. Dengue experts recommend that these assays be highly specific (≥98%) to avoid erroneously vaccinating individuals without prior DENV infection, as well as be sensitive enough (≥95%) to detect individuals with a single prior DENV infection. We evaluated one existing and two newly developed anti-flavivirus RDTs using samples collected >6 months post-infection from individuals in non-endemic and DENV and ZIKV endemic areas. We first evaluated the IgG component of the SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM RDT, which was developed to assist in confirming acute/recent DENV infections (n=93 samples). When evaluated following the manufacturer's instructions, the SD BIOLINE Dengue RDT had 100% specificity for both non-endemic and endemic samples but low sensitivity for detecting DENV seropositivity (0% non-endemic, 41% endemic). Sensitivity increased (53% non-endemic, 98% endemic) when tests were allowed to run beyond manufacturer recommendations (0.5 up to 3 hours), but specificity decreased in endemic samples (36%). When tests were evaluated using a quantitative reader, optimal specificity could be achieved (≥98%) while still retaining sensitivity at earlier timepoints in non-endemic (44-88%) and endemic samples (31-55%). We next evaluated novel dengue and Zika RDTs developed by Excivion to detect prior DENV or ZIKV infections and reduce cross-flavivirus reactivity (n=207 samples). When evaluated visually, the Excivion Dengue RDT had sensitivity and specificity values of 79%, but when evaluated with a quantitative reader, optimal specificity could be achieved (≥98%) while still maintaining moderate sensitivity (48-75%). The Excivion Zika RDT had high specificity (>98%) and sensitivity (>93%) when evaluated quantitatively, suggesting it may be used alongside dengue RDTs to minimize misclassification due to cross-reactivity. Our findings demonstrate the potential of RDTs to be used for dengue pre-vaccination screening to reduce vaccine-induced priming for severe dengue and show how assay design adaptations as well quantitative evaluation can further improve RDTs for this purpose.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Dengue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Dengue/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Dengue/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 43: 102139, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most common illnesses affecting modern-day travelers, including military personnel. Previous work has shown that afflicted travelers may alter their itineraries and be confined to bed rest due to symptoms, and military personnel may become incapable of completing operational requirements. Examination of signs, symptoms, and severity of diarrheagenic pathogens can inform clinical diagnosis and prioritization of future surveillance and research activities. METHODS: Utilizing a global laboratory network, culture and molecular testing were performed in parallel at each site on a group of core pathogens, and definitions for acute diarrhea (AD), severe AD, acute gastroenteritis (AGE), and severe AGE were determined using data elements in the modified Vesikari scale. We included 210 cases of TD reporting all variables of interest in our severity assessment analysis. RESULTS: Out of all cases, 156/210 (74%) met criteria for severe AD and 35/210 (17%) for severe AGE. Examination of severity by pathogen revealed that, at non-military sites, 17/19 (89%) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (EPEC) infections, 28/32 (88%) of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) infections, and 13/15 (87%) of Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) infections resulted in severe AD cases. At the military site, all infections of ETEC (6/6), Shigella-EIEC (4/4), and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) resulted in AD. Norovirus infections at non-military and military sites resulted in 27% (14/51) and 33% (3/9) severe AGE cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a high percentage of participants enrolled at both military and non-military sites experienced severe AD with concerning numbers of severe cases at non-military sites reporting hospitalization and reductions in performance. Since travelers with mild TD symptoms are less likely to present to health care workers than those with more severe TD, there is a potential selection bias in this study that may have overestimated the proportion of more severe outcomes among all individuals who could have participated in the GTD study. Future research should examine other covariates among pathogen and host, such as treatment and comorbid conditions, that may contribute to the presence of signs and symptoms and their severity.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Militares , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fezes , Humanos , Viagem
14.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1462-1472, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34331541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity remain unclear. After verifying that obesity was a correlate of severe COVID-19 in US Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries, we compared immunological and virological phenotypes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in both obese and nonobese participants. METHODS: COVID-19-infected MHS beneficiaries were enrolled, and anthropometric, clinical, and demographic data were collected. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 peak IgG humoral response and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction viral load in obese and nonobese patients, stratified by hospitalization, utilizing logistic regression models. RESULTS: Data from 511 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, among whom 24% were obese and 14% severely obese. Obesity was independently associated with hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.18) and need for oxygen therapy (aOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.61-7.11). In outpatients, severely obese had a log10 (1.89) higher nucleocapsid (N1) genome equivalents (GE)/reaction and log10 (2.62) higher N2 GE/reaction than nonobese (P = 0.03 and P < .001, respectively). We noted a correlation between body mass index and peak anti-spike protein IgG in inpatients and outpatients (coefficient = 5.48, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is a strong correlate of COVID-19 severity in MHS beneficiaries. These findings offer new pathophysiological insights into the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde Militar , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177926

RESUMO

We investigated serological responses following a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020 on a US Marine recruit training base. 147 participants that were isolated during an outbreak of respiratory illness were enrolled in this study, with visits approximately 6 and 10 weeks post-outbreak (PO). This cohort is comprised of young healthy adults, ages 18-26, with a high rate of asymptomatic infection or mild symptoms, and therefore differs from previously reported longitudinal studies on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2, which often focus on more diverse age populations and worse clinical presentation. 80.9% (119/147) of the participants presented with circulating IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain (RBD) at 6 weeks PO, of whom 97.3% (111/114) remained positive, with significantly decreased levels, at 10 weeks PO. Neutralizing activity was detected in all sera from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants tested (n=38) at 6 and 10 weeks PO, without significant loss between time points. IgG and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD, S1, S2, and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, as well neutralization activity, were generally comparable between those participants that had asymptomatic infection or mild disease. A multiplex assay including S proteins from SARS-CoV-2 and related zoonotic and human endemic betacoronaviruses revealed a positive correlation for polyclonal cross-reactivity to S after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Overall, young adults that experienced asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection developed comparable humoral responses, with no decrease in neutralizing activity at least up to 10 weeks after infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , Militares , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Formação de Anticorpos , Doenças Assintomáticas , Estudos de Coortes , Surtos de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab271, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is common among military personnel deployed to tropical and subtropical regions. It remains unclear how TD and subsequent antibiotic treatment impact the resident microflora within the gut, especially given increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance among enteric pathogens and acquisition of multidrug-resistant organisms. We examined functional properties of the fecal microflora in response to TD, along with subsequent antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Fecal samples from US and UK military service members deployed to Djibouti, Kenya, and Honduras who presented with acute watery diarrhea were collected. A sample was collected at acute presentation to the clinic (day 0, before antibiotics), as well as 7 and/or 21 days following a single dose of antibiotics (azithromycin [500 mg], levofloxacin [500 mg], or rifaximin [1650 mg], all with loperamide). Each stool sample underwent culture and TaqMan reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses for pathogen and antibiotic resistance gene detection. Purified DNA from each sample was analyzed using the HumiChip3.1 functional gene array. RESULTS: In total, 108 day 1 samples, 50 day 7 samples, and 94 day 21 samples were available for analysis from 119 subjects. Geographic location and disease severity were associated with distinct functional compositions of fecal samples. There were no overt functional differences between pre- and postantibiotic treatment samples, nor was there increased acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants for any of the antibiotic regimens. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that single-dose antibiotic regimens may not drastically alter the functional or antibiotic resistance composition of fecal microflora, which should inform clinical practice guidelines and antimicrobial stewardship. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01618591.

18.
medRxiv ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594376

RESUMO

Sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays remain critical for community and hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 sero-surveillance. With the rollout of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, such assays must be able to distinguish vaccine from natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and related human coronaviruses. Here, we developed and implemented multiplex microsphere-based immunoassay strategies for COVD-19 antibody studies that incorporates spike protein trimers of SARS-CoV-2 and the endemic seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoV), enabling high throughout measurement of pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies. We varied SARS-CoV-2 antigen compositions within the multiplex assay, allowing direct comparisons of the effects of spike protein, receptor-binding domain protein (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) based SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Multiplex immunoassay performance characteristics are antigen-dependent, and sensitivities and specificities range 92-99% and 94-100%, respectively, for human subject samples collected as early as 7-10 days from symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD had a strong correlative relationship for the detection of IgG. Correlation between detectable IgG reactive with spike and NP also had strong relationship, however, several PCR-positive and spike IgG-positive serum samples were NP IgG-negative. This spike and NP multiplex immunoassay has the potential to be useful for differentiation between vaccination and natural infection induced antibody responses. We also assessed the induction of de novo SARS-CoV-2 IgG cross reactions with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV spike proteins. Furthermore, multiplex immunoassays that incorporate spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs will permit investigations into the influence of HCoV antibodies on COVID-19 clinical outcomes and SARS-CoV-2 antibody durability.

19.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981057

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the highly contagious Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 along with its high number of mutations in the spike gene has raised alarm about the effectiveness of current medical countermeasures. To address this concern, we measured neutralizing antibodies against Omicron in three important settings: (1) post-vaccination sera after two and three immunizations with the Pfizer/BNT162b2 vaccine, (2) convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by different variants, and (3) clinical-stage therapeutic antibodies. Using a pseudovirus neutralization assay, we found that titers against Omicron were low or undetectable after two immunizations and in most convalescent sera. A booster vaccination significantly increased titers against Omicron to levels comparable to those seen against the ancestral (D614G) variant after two immunizations. Neither age nor sex were associated with differences in post-vaccination antibody responses. Only three of 24 therapeutic antibodies tested retained their full potency against Omicron and high-level resistance was seen against fifteen. These findings underscore the potential benefit of booster mRNA vaccines for protection against Omicron and the need for additional therapeutic antibodies that are more robust to highly mutated variants. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Third dose of Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine significantly boosts neutralizing antibodies to the Omicron variant compared to a second dose, while neutralization of Omicron by convalescent sera, two-dose vaccine-elicited sera, or therapeutic antibodies is variable and often low.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 383(25): 2407-2416, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of public health measures to control the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has not been well studied in young adults. METHODS: We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infections among U.S. Marine Corps recruits who underwent a 2-week quarantine at home followed by a second supervised 2-week quarantine at a closed college campus that involved mask wearing, social distancing, and daily temperature and symptom monitoring. Study volunteers were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by means of quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) assay of nares swab specimens obtained between the time of arrival and the second day of supervised quarantine and on days 7 and 14. Recruits who did not volunteer for the study underwent qPCR testing only on day 14, at the end of the quarantine period. We performed phylogenetic analysis of viral genomes obtained from infected study volunteers to identify clusters and to assess the epidemiologic features of infections. RESULTS: A total of 1848 recruits volunteered to participate in the study; within 2 days after arrival on campus, 16 (0.9%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 15 of whom were asymptomatic. An additional 35 participants (1.9%) tested positive on day 7 or on day 14. Five of the 51 participants (9.8%) who tested positive at any time had symptoms in the week before a positive qPCR test. Of the recruits who declined to participate in the study, 26 (1.7%) of the 1554 recruits with available qPCR results tested positive on day 14. No SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified through clinical qPCR testing performed as a result of daily symptom monitoring. Analysis of 36 SARS-CoV-2 genomes obtained from 32 participants revealed six transmission clusters among 18 participants. Epidemiologic analysis supported multiple local transmission events, including transmission between roommates and among recruits within the same platoon. CONCLUSIONS: Among Marine Corps recruits, approximately 2% who had previously had negative results for SARS-CoV-2 at the beginning of supervised quarantine, and less than 2% of recruits with unknown previous status, tested positive by day 14. Most recruits who tested positive were asymptomatic, and no infections were detected through daily symptom monitoring. Transmission clusters occurred within platoons. (Funded by the Defense Health Agency and others.).


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Assintomáticas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/genética , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
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