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1.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(9): 1514-1525, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465156

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate the ability to kneel after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without patellar resurfacing, and its effect on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Secondary aims included identifying which kneeling positions were most important to patients, and the influence of radiological parameters on the ability to kneel before and after TKA. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study involved 209 patients who underwent single radius cruciate-retaining TKA without patellar resurfacing. Preoperative EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and the ability to achieve four kneeling positions were assessed including a single leg kneel, a double leg kneel, a high-flexion kneel, and a praying position. The severity of radiological osteoarthritis (OA) was graded and the pattern of OA was recorded intraoperatively. The flexion of the femoral component, posterior condylar offset, and anterior femoral offset were measured radiologically. At two to four years postoperatively, 151 patients with a mean age of 70.0 years (SD 9.44) were included. Their mean BMI was 30.4 kg/m2 (SD 5.36) and 60 were male (40%). They completed EQ-5D, OKS, and Kujala scores, assessments of the ability to kneel, and a visual analogue scale for anterior knee pain and satisfaction. RESULTS: The ability to kneel in the four positions improved in between 29 (19%) and 53 patients (35%) after TKA, but declined in between 35 (23%) and 46 patients (30%). Single-leg kneeling was most important to patients. After TKA, 62 patients (41%) were unable to achieve a single-leg kneel, 76 (50%) were unable to achieve a double-leg kneel, 102 (68%) were unable to achieve a high-flexion kneel and 61 (40%) were unable to achieve a praying position. Posterolateral cartilage loss significantly affected preoperative deep flexion kneeling (p = 0.019). A postoperative inability to kneel was significantly associated with worse OKS, Kujala scores, and satisfaction (p < 0.05). Multivariable regression analysis identified significant independent associations with the ability to kneel after TKA (p < 0.05): better preoperative EQ-5D and flexion of the femoral component for single-leg kneeling; the ability to achieve it preoperatively and flexion of the femoral component for double-leg kneeling; male sex for high-flexion kneeling; and the ability to achieve it preoperatively, anterior femoral offset, and patellar cartilage loss for the praying position. CONCLUSION: The ability to kneel was important to patients and significantly influenced knee-specific PROMs, but was poorly restored by TKA with equal chances of improvement or decline. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(9):1514-1525.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Articulação Patelofemoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Patelofemoral/fisiopatologia , Articulação Patelofemoral/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Bone Jt Open ; 2(7): 522-529, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254832

RESUMO

AIMS: It is unclear whether acute plate fixation facilitates earlier return of normal shoulder function following a displaced mid-shaft clavicular fracture compared with nonoperative management when union occurs. The primary aim of this study was to establish whether acute plate fixation was associated with a greater return of normal shoulder function when compared with nonoperative management in patients who unite their fractures. The secondary aim was to investigate whether there were identifiable predictors associated with return of normal shoulder function in patients who achieve union with nonoperative management. METHODS: Patient data from a randomized controlled trial were used to compare acute plate fixation with nonoperative management of united fractures. Return of shoulder function was based on the age- and sex-matched Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores for the cohort. Independent predictors of an early recovery of normal shoulder function were investigated using a separate prospective series of consecutive nonoperative displaced mid-shaft clavicular fractures recruited over a two-year period (aged ≥ 16 years). Patient demographics and functional recovery were assessed over the six months post-injury using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: Data from the randomized controlled trial consisted of 86 patients who underwent operative fixation compared with 76 patients that united with nonoperative treatment. The recovery of normal shoulder function, as defined by a DASH score within the predicted 95% confidence interval for each respective patient, was similar between each group at six weeks (operative 26.7% vs nonoperative 25.0%, p = 0.800), three months (52.3% vs 44.2%, p = 0.768), and six months post-injury (86.0% vs 90.8%, p = 0.349). The mean DASH score and return to work were also comparable at each timepoint. In the prospective cohort, 86.5% (n = 173/200) achieved union by six months post-injury (follow-up rate 88.5%, n = 200/226). Regression analysis found that no specific patient, injury, or fracture predictor was associated with an early return of function at six or 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Return of normal shoulder function was comparable between acute plate fixation and nonoperative management when union was achieved. One in two patients will have recovery of normal shoulder function at three months, increasing to nine out of ten patients at six months following injury when union occurs, irrespective of initial treatment. Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(7):522-529.

4.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(4): 602-609, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789471

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure the effect of hospital case volume on the survival of revision total knee arthroplasty (RTKA). METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of Scottish Arthroplasty Project data, a nationwide audit which prospectively collects data on all arthroplasty procedures performed in Scotland. The primary outcome was RTKA survival at ten years. The primary explanatory variable was the effect of hospital case volume per year on RTKA survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the lifespan of RTKA. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate relative revision risks over time. Hazard ratios (HRs) were reported with 95% CI, and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2019, 8,301 patients (8,894 knees) underwent RTKA surgery in Scotland (median age at RTKA 70 years (interquartile range (IQR) 63 to 76); median follow-up 6.2 years (IQR 3.0 to 10.2). In all, 4,764 (53.6%) were female, and 781 (8.8%) were treated for infection. Of these 8,894 knees, 957 (10.8%) underwent a second revision procedure. Male sex, younger age at index revision, and positive infection status were associated with need for re-revision. The ten-year survival estimate for RTKA was 87.3% (95% CI 86.5 to 88.1). Adjusting for sex, age, surgeon volume, and indication for revision, high hospital case volume was significantly associated with lower risk of re-revision (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.94, p < 0.001)). The risk of re-revision steadily declined in centres performing > 20 cases per year; risk reduction was 16% with > 20 cases; 22% with > 30 cases; and 28% with > 40 cases. The lowest level of risk was associated with the highest volume centres. CONCLUSION: The majority of RTKA in Scotland survive up to ten years. Increasing yearly hospital case volume above 20 cases is independently associated with a significant risk reduction of re-revision. Development of high-volume tertiary centres may lead to an improvement in the overall survival of RTKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(4):602-609.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Prótese do Joelho , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Bone Jt Open ; 2(3): 203-210, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739125

RESUMO

AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a national suspension of "non-urgent" elective hip and knee arthroplasty. The study aims to measure the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) volume in Scotland. Secondary objectives are to measure the success of restarting elective services and model the time required to bridge the gap left by the first period of suspension. METHODS: A retrospective observational study using the Scottish Arthroplasty Project dataset. All patients undergoing elective THAs and TKAs during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2020 were included. A negative binomial regression model using historical case-volume and mid-year population estimates was built to project the future case-volume of THA and TKA in Scotland. The median monthly case volume was calculated for the period 2008 to 2019 (baseline) and compared to the actual monthly case volume for 2020. The time taken to eliminate the deficit was calculated based upon the projected monthly workload and with a potential workload between 100% to 120% of baseline. RESULTS: Compared to the period 2008 to 2019, primary TKA and THA volume fell by 61.1% and 53.6%, respectively. Since restarting elective services, Scottish hospitals have achieved approximately 40% to 50% of baseline monthly activity. With no changes in current workload, by 2021 there would be a reduction of 9,180 and 10,170 for THA and TKA, respectively. Conversely, working at 120% baseline monthly output, it would take over four years to eliminate the deficit for both TKA and THA. CONCLUSION: This national study demonstrates the significant impact that COVID-19 pandemic has had on overall THA and TKA volume. In the six months after resuming elective services, Scottish hospitals averaged less than 50% normal monthly output. Loss of operating capacity will increase treatment delays and likely worsen overall morbidity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2021;2(3):203-210.

6.
Knee ; 29: 110-115, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Definition and clinical diagnosis of instability in TKA is challenging. Sensitive and objective biomechanical tools to aid diagnosis are currently lacking. This proof-of-concept study evaluates the use of pressure mat analyses to identify abnormal biomechanical loading patterns associated with TKA instability within an outpatient clinical setting. METHODS: Twenty participants were examined: 10 patients with suspected unilateral TKA instability and 10 healthy controls. Participants underwent bilateral stance and gait tests measuring time and limb loading pressure parameters. Gait was divided into three phases: heel strike, mid-foot and toe off. Pressure recordings are expressed relative to bodyweight. Between-limb loading discrepancies were calculated in TKA patients and controls, and these differences were then compared between groups. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. RESULTS: TKA patients consistentlyoffloadedpressure away from the operated limb, whereas healthy controls exhibited more even limb loading throughout bilateral stance (p < 0.05). TKA patients exhibited greater discrepancy in overall step contact time between limbs (-0.09 s ± 0.16 s; p = 0.016) compared to controls (0.06 s ± 0.08 s; p = 0.04). Post-hoc tests showed significant between-group differences during midfoot (-0.04 s ± 0.07 s; p = 0.03) and toe-off (0.05 s ± 0.14 s; p = 0.013). Between-group differences in limb loading discrepancy were evident at heel strike (-9.24% ± 2.11%; p = 0.0166) and toe-off (-10.34% ± 5.51%; p = 0.0496). DISCUSSION: Pedobarographic measurements demonstrated differences in mechanical loading patterns in patients with TKA instability compared to healthy controls during functional tasks and warrants further investigation. This may prove to be a useful clinical diagnostic tool in identifying patients that would benefit from revision surgery or physical therapy.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
7.
Bone Joint Res ; 10(2): 113-121, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543996

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate if union of clavicle fractures can be predicted at six weeks post-injury by the presence of bridging callus on ultrasound. METHODS: Adult patients managed nonoperatively with a displaced mid-shaft clavicle were recruited prospectively. Ultrasound evaluation of the fracture was undertaken to determine if sonographic bridging callus was present. Clinical risk factors at six weeks were used to stratify patients at high risk of nonunion with a combination of Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH) ≥ 40, fracture movement on examination, or absence of callus on radiograph. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients completed follow-up at six months with a nonunion incidence of 16.7% (n = 18/112). Sonographic bridging callus was detected in 62.5% (n = 70/112) of the cohort at six weeks post-injury. If present, union occurred in 98.6% of the fractures (n = 69/70). If absent, nonunion developed in 40.5% of cases (n = 17/42). The sensitivity to predict union with sonographic bridging callus at six weeks was 73.4% and the specificity was 94.4%. Regression analysis found that failure to detect sonographic bridging callus at six weeks was associated with older age, female sex, simple fracture pattern, smoking, and greater fracture displacement (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.48). Of the cohort, 30.4% (n = 34/112) had absent sonographic bridging callus in addition to one or more of the clinical risk factors at six weeks that predispose to nonunion. If one was present the nonunion rate was 35%, 60% with two, and 100% when combined with all three. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound combined with clinical risk factors can accurately predict fracture healing at six weeks following a displaced midshaft clavicle fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(2):113-121.

8.
Cartilage ; 12(3): 362-376, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30762428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Septic arthritis results from joint infection by Staphylococcus aureus, which produces potent α-toxin causing cell death, potentially leading to permanent cartilage damage. Treatment is by joint irrigation and antibiotics, although it is unclear if, following treatment with antibiotics which cause bacterial lysis, there is release of additional stored α-toxin. DESIGN: A rabbit erythrocyte hemolysis assay was optimised to assess biologically-active α-toxin from cultured S. aureus α-toxin strain DU5946. Hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically following addition of a bacteriostatic antibiotic (linezolid) or a bacteriolytic antibiotic (penicillin). A bovine cartilage model of septic arthritis was used to test the protective effects of antibiotics against S. aureus infection. RESULTS: During S. aureus culture, α-toxin levels increased rapidly but the rate of rise was quickly (within 20 minutes) suppressed by linezolid (25 µg/mL). Penicillin also reduced the increase in α-toxin levels; however, the time course was relatively slow compared to linezolid even at high concentrations (50,000 U/mL). The efficacy of penicillin (250,000 U/mL) at reducing the rise in α-toxin was approximately 8% less than that of linezolid (P < 0.05) suggesting the presence of additional toxin. This could be due to a delayed action of penicillin, and/or release of a small pool of stored α-toxin from dying bacteria. In a bovine cartilage model, however, there was no difference between the protection of in situ chondrocytes against S. aureus by penicillin or linezolid (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that equally effective protection of chondrocytes against S. aureus septic arthritis may be obtained by the bacteriostatic or bacteriolytic antibiotics tested.

9.
Bone Joint Res ; 9(11): 798-807, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174473

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as potential predictive, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers, relevant to many pathophysiological conditions including limb immobilization, osteoarthritis, sarcopenia, and cachexia. Impaired musculoskeletal homeostasis leads to distinct muscle atrophies. Understanding miRNA involvement in the molecular mechanisms underpinning conditions such as muscle wasting may be critical to developing new strategies to improve patient management. MicroRNAs are powerful post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in muscle and, importantly, are also detectable in the circulation. MicroRNAs are established modulators of muscle satellite stem cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation, however, there have been limited human studies that investigate miRNAs in muscle wasting. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge as to the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle differentiation and atrophy, synthesizing the findings of published data. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(11):798-807.

10.
BMJ ; 371: m3576, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a progressive course of outpatient physiotherapy offers superior outcomes to a single physiotherapy review and home exercise based intervention when targeted at patients with a predicted poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Parallel group randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 13 secondary and tertiary care centres in the UK providing postoperative physiotherapy. PARTICIPANTS: 334 participants with knee osteoarthritis who were defined as at risk of a poor outcome after total knee arthroplasty, based on the Oxford knee score, at six weeks postoperatively. 163 were allocated to therapist led outpatient rehabilitation and 171 to a home exercise based protocol. INTERVENTIONS: All participants were reviewed by a physiotherapist and commenced 18 sessions of rehabilitation over six weeks, either as therapist led outpatient rehabilitation (progressive goal oriented functional rehabilitation protocol, modified weekly in one-one contact sessions) or as physiotherapy review followed by a home exercise based regimen (without progressive input from a physiotherapist). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was Oxford knee score at 52 weeks, with a 4 point difference between groups considered to be clinically meaningful. Secondary outcomes included additional patient reported outcome measures of pain and function at 14, 26, and 52 weeks post-surgery. RESULTS: 334 patients were randomised. Eight were lost to follow-up. Intervention compliance was more than 85%. The between group difference in Oxford knee score at 52 weeks was 1.91 (95% confidence interval -0.18 to 3.99) points, favouring the outpatient rehabilitation arm (P=0.07). When all time point data were analysed, the between group difference in Oxford knee score was a non-clinically meaningful 2.25 points (0.61 to 3.90, P=0.01). No between group differences were found for secondary outcomes of average pain (0.25 points, -0.78 to 0.28, P=0.36) or worst pain (0.22 points, -0.71 to 0.41, P=0.50) at 52 weeks or earlier time points, or of satisfaction with outcome (odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.62, P=0.75) or post-intervention function (4.64 seconds, 95% confidence interval -14.25 to 4.96, P=0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient therapist led rehabilitation was not superior to a single physiotherapist review and home exercise based regimen in patients at risk of poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty. No clinically relevant differences were observed across primary or secondary outcome measures. TRIALS REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23357609 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01849445.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/reabilitação , Dor Pós-Operatória/reabilitação , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Idoso , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Trials ; 21(1): 209, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients' pre-operative health and physical function is known to influence their post-operative outcomes. In patients with knee osteoarthritis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological options are often not optimised prior to joint replacement. This results in some patients undergoing surgery when they are not as fit as they could be. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a pre-operative package of non-operative care versus standard care prior to joint replacement. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicentre, randomised controlled feasibility trial of patients undergoing primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis. Sixty patients will be recruited and randomised (2:1) to intervention or standard care arms. Data will be collected at baseline (before the start of the intervention), around the end of the intervention period and a minimum of 90 days after the planned date of surgery. Adherence will be reviewed each week during the intervention period (by telephone or in person). Participants will be randomised to a pre-operative package of non-operative care or standard care. The non-operative care will consist of (1) a weight-loss programme, (2) a set of exercises, (3) provision of advice on analgesia use and (4) provision of insoles. The intervention will be started as soon as possible after patients have been added to the waiting list for joint replacement surgery to take advantage of the incentive for behavioural change that this will create. The primary outcomes of this study are feasibility outcomes which will indicate whether the intervention and study protocol is feasible and acceptable and whether a full-scale effectiveness trial is warranted. The following will be measured and used to inform study feasibility: rate of recruitment, rate of retention at 90-day follow-up review after planned surgery date, and adherence to the intervention estimated through review questionnaires and weight change (for those receiving the weight-loss aspect of intervention). In addition the following information will be assessed qualitatively: analysis of qualitative interviews exploring acceptability, feasibility, adherence and possible barriers to implementing the intervention, and acceptability of the different outcome measures. DISCUSSION: The aims of the study specifically relate to testing the feasibility and acceptability of the proposed effectiveness trial intervention and the feasibility of the trial methods. This study forms the important first step in developing and assessing whether the intervention has the potential to be assessed in a future fully powered effectiveness trial. The findings will also be used to refine the design of the effectiveness trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ID: ISRCTN96684272. Registered on 18 April 2018.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estado Nutricional , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Programas de Redução de Peso
17.
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(7): 557-566, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear if clinical recovery following a midshaft clavicle fracture can accurately predict fracture-healing. The additional information that can be assessed at 6 weeks after injury may have superior predictive value compared with information available at the time of the injury. METHODS: A prospective study of all patients (≥16 years of age) who sustained a fully displaced midshaft clavicle fracture was performed. We assessed patient demographic characteristics, injury factors, functional scores, and radiographic predictors with a standardized protocol at 6 weeks. Conditional stepwise regression modeling was used to assess which factors independently predicted nonunion at 6 months after the injury as determined by computed tomography (CT). The nonunion predictor 6-week model was compared with a previously validated model based on factors available at the time of the injury, which included smoking, comminution, and fracture displacement. RESULTS: At 6 months, 200 patients completed follow-up. The CT-defined nonunion rate was 14% (27 of 200). Of the functional scores, the QuickDASH (the abbreviated version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire) had the highest accuracy on receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis with a 39.8-point threshold, above which was associated with nonunion (area under curve [AUC], 76.8%; p < 0.001). Sixty-nine percent of the cohort had a QuickDASH score of <40 points at 6 weeks, and 95% (131 of 138) of these patients had fracture union. On regression modeling, a QuickDASH score of ≥40 points (p = 0.001), no callus on radiographs (p = 0.004), and fracture movement on examination (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of nonunion. If none were present, the predicted nonunion risk was 3%, found in 40% (80 of 200) of the cohort. Conversely, if ≥2 of the predictors were present, found in 23.5% of the cohort, the predicted nonunion risk was 60%. The nonunion predictor model at 6 weeks appeared to have superior accuracy (AUC, 87.3%) when compared with the nonunion predictor model at the time of injury (AUC, 64.8%) for fracture-healing on ROC curve analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed assessment at 6 weeks following displaced midshaft clavicle fracture enables an accurate prediction of patients who are likely to have union with nonoperative management. One in 4 patients are at an increased risk of nonunion and may benefit from operative intervention. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.


Assuntos
Clavícula/lesões , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas não Consolidadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Injury ; 49 Suppl 1: S78-S82, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929699

RESUMO

Approximately a third of patients presenting with long-bone non-union have undergone plate fixation as their primary procedure. In the assessment of a potential fracture non-union it is critical to understand the plating technique that the surgeon was intending to achieve at the primary procedure, i.e. whether it was direct or indirect fracture repair. The distinction between delayed union and non-union is a diagnostic dilemma especially in plated fractures, healing by primary bone repair. The distinction is important as nonunions are not necessarily part of the same spectrum as delayed unions. The etiology of a fracture non-union is usually multifactorial and the factors can be broadly categorized into mechanical factors, biological (local and systemic) factors, and infection. Infection is present in ~40% of fracture non-unions, often after open fractures or impaired wound healing, but in 5% of all non-unions infection is present without any clinical or serological suspicion. Methods to improve the sensitivity of investigation in the search of infection include the use of; sonication of implants, direct inoculation of theatre specimens into broth, and histological examination of non-union site tissue. Awareness should be given to the potential anti-osteogenic effect of bisphosphonates (in primary fracture repair) and certain classes of antibiotics. Early cases of delayed/non-union with sufficient mechanical stability and biologically active bone can be managed by stimulation of fracture healing. Late presenting non-union typically requires revision of the fixation construct and stimulation of the callus to induce fracture union.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Fraturas do Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas do Úmero/fisiopatologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/complicações , Adulto , Placas Ósseas/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Fraturas não Consolidadas/etiologia , Fraturas não Consolidadas/cirurgia , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Reoperação , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cartilage ; 9(3): 313-320, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29156946

RESUMO

Objectives During arthroscopic or open joint surgery, articular cartilage may be subjected to mechanical insults by accident or design. These may lead to chondrocyte death, cartilage breakdown and posttraumatic osteoarthritis. We have shown that increasing osmolarity of routinely used normal saline protected chondrocytes against injuries that may occur during orthopedic surgery. Often several liters of irrigation fluid are used during an orthopedic procedure, which is usually kept at room temperature, but is sometimes chilled. Here, we compared the effect of normal and hyperosmolar saline solution at different temperatures on chondrocyte viability following cartilage injury using in vitro and in vivo models of scalpel-induced injury. Design Cartilage injury was induced in bovine osteochondral explants and the patellar groove of rats in vivo by a single pass of a scalpel blade in the presence of normal saline (300 mOsm) or hyperosmolar saline solution (600 mOsm, sucrose addition) at 4°C, 21°C, or 37°C. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled and visualized by confocal microscopy to assess cell death. Results Hyperosmolar saline reduced scalpel-induced chondrocyte death in both bovine and rat cartilage by ~50% at all temperatures studied (4°C, 21°C, 37°C; P < 0.05). Raising temperature of both irrigation solutions to 37°C reduced scalpel-induced cell death ( P < 0.05). Conclusions Increasing the osmolarity of normal saline and raising the temperature of the irrigation solutions to 37°C reduced chondrocyte death associated with scalpel-induced injury in both in vitro and in vivo cartilage injury models. A hyperosmolar saline irrigation solution at 37°C may protect cartilage by decreasing the risk of chondrocyte death during mechanical injury.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cartilagens/tratamento farmacológico , Cartilagem Articular/lesões , Cartilagem/lesões , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Modelos Animais , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/normas , Concentração Osmolar , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Solução Salina/farmacologia , Temperatura , Irrigação Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos
20.
J Arthroplasty ; 32(9): 2755-2761, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome scores gain increasing importance in quantifying clinical success and procedure remuneration. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of comorbidity on joint-specific outcome and general health in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Longitudinal data on THA procedures were used to evaluate the association between comorbidity and surgical outcome in terms of joint-specific measures and general health (Forgotten Joint Score-12 [FJS-12], Oxford Hip Score [OHS], and Short Form-12) at 1-year follow-up. Comorbidities comprised the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), low back pain (LBP), pain from other joints (POJ), and body mass index. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 251 THA patients (age: 67.7 ± 11.8 years; 58.2% female). Most common conditions were POJ (75.9%), LBP (55.1%), connective tissue disease (12.1%), and diabetes (5.6%). With regard to postoperative improvement, we did not find statistically significant differences between patients with or without CCI comorbidities (FJS-12, +38.7 vs +43.2, P = .370; OHS, +15.6 vs +17.9, P = .100) or POJ (FJS-12, +39.9 vs +45.1, P = .325; OHS, +17.3 vs +16.6, P = .645). Patients with LBP showed less improvement on the FJS-12 than those without LBP (+35.6 vs +49.1; P = .002), whereas no difference was found for the OHS (+17.9 vs +16.5; P = .266). CONCLUSION: Patients with comorbid conditions report lower preoperative and postoperative outcome scores compared with patients with no such conditions; however, there was no statistically significant association of CCI comorbidities and POJ with postoperative improvement in joint-specific outcomes. LBP was found to have a negative impact on postoperative improvement in terms of joint awareness.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Artralgia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
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