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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that filaggrin loss-of-function mutations modify the impact of allergen exposure on the development of allergic sensitization. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early-life exposure to inhalant allergens increases the risk of specific sensitization, and whether filaggrin mutations modulate these odds. METHODS: In a population-based birth cohort, we measured mite, cat and dog allergen levels in dust samples collected from homes within the first year of life. Sensitization was assessed at 6 time-points between infancy and age 16 years. Genotyping was performed for six filaggrin mutations. RESULTS: In the longitudinal multivariable model (age 1-16 years), we observed a significant interaction between filaggrin and Fel d 1 exposure on cat sensitization, with the effect of exposure being significantly greater among children with filaggrin mutations compared to those without (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.80, p=0.035). The increase in risk of mite sensitization with increasing Der p 1 exposure was consistently higher among children with filaggrin mutations, but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Different association were observed for dog: there was a significant interaction between filaggrin and dog ownership, but the risk of sensitization to any allergen was significantly lower among children with filaggrin mutations who were exposed to dog in infancy (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.86, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Filaggrin loss-of function mutations modify the relationship between allergen exposure and sensitization, but effects differ at different ages and between different allergens.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13656, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541123

RESUMO

Spiders are commonly found in terrestrial environments and many rely heavily on their silks for fitness related tasks such as reproduction and dispersal. Although rare, a few species occupy aquatic or semi-aquatic habitats and for them, silk-related specializations are also essential to survive in aquatic environments. Most spider silks studied to date are from cob-web and orb-web weaving species, leaving the silks from many other terrestrial spiders as well as water-associated spiders largely undescribed. Here, we characterize silks from three Dictynoidea species: the aquatic spiders Argyroneta aquatica and Desis marina as well as the terrestrial Badumna longinqua. From silk gland RNA-Seq libraries, we report a total of 47 different homologs of the spidroin (spider fibroin) gene family. Some of these 47 spidroins correspond to known spidroin types (aciniform, ampullate, cribellar, pyriform, and tubuliform), while other spidroins represent novel branches of the spidroin gene family. We also report a hydrophobic amino acid motif (GV) that, to date, is found only in the spidroins of aquatic and semi-aquatic spiders. Comparison of spider silk sequences to the silks from other water-associated arthropods, shows that there is a diversity of strategies to function in aquatic environments.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of GWAS-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity, and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of thirty studies consisting of up to 13,005 cases (≥95th percentile of BMI achieved 2-18 years old) and 15,599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1,888 cases and 4,689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing eighteen previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene: METTL15). The variant was nominally associated in only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than ten SNPs (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases (eczema, wheeze and rhinitis) in children often present as heterogeneous phenotypes. Understanding genetic associations of specific patterns of symptoms might facilitate understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between allergic disease-related variants identified in a recent genome-wide association study and latent classes of allergic diseases (LCADs) in two population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: Eight previously defined LCADs between birth and 11 years: "No disease," "Atopic march," "Persistent eczema and wheeze," "Persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis," "Persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis," "Transient wheeze," "Eczema only" and "Rhinitis only" were used as the study outcome. Weighted multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations between 135 SNPs (and a polygenic risk score, PRS) and LCADs among 6345 individuals from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Heterogeneity across LCADs was assessed before and after Bonferroni correction. Results were replicated in Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) (n = 896) and pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: We found strong evidence for differential genetic associations across the LCADs; pooled PRS heterogeneity P-value = 3.3 × 10-14 , excluding "no disease" class. The associations between the PRS and LCADs in MAAS were remarkably similar to ALSPAC. Two SNPs (a protein-truncating variant in FLG and a SNP within an intron of GSDMB) had evidence for differential association (pooled P-values ≤ 0.006). The FLG locus was differentially associated across LCADs that included eczema, with stronger associations for LCADs with comorbid wheeze and rhinitis. The GSDMB locus in contrast was equally associated across LCADs that included wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We have shown complex, but distinct patterns of genetic associations with LCADs, suggesting that heterogeneous mechanisms underlie individual disease trajectories. Establishing the combination of allergic diseases with which each genetic variant is associated may inform therapeutic development and/or predictive modelling.

5.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 13(10): 929-936, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369320

RESUMO

Introduction: Amongst allergic asthmatics, high allergen exposure increases asthma severity. However, there is no consensus on the role of mite allergen avoidance in the management of asthma, and various guidelines differ in their recommendations. Areas covered: Several systematic reviews/meta-analyses on mite avoidance in the management of asthma have been published, and their findings have been used for a call to provide a recommendation in British guidelines that dust-mite control measures should not be recommended. However, there are several problems with such analysis (such as combining studies in adults and children), and we question whether these are appropriate tools to evaluate available evidence about mite allergen avoidance, and whether it is correct to rely disproportionately on the results of meta-analyses/systematic reviews to inform clinical practice in this area. Recent evidence in children suggests that mite-impermeable bed encasings reduce emergency hospital attendance with severe asthma exacerbations. Expert opinion: The practical questions include how to achieve a sufficient real-life reduction allergen exposure, and how to identify patients who will benefit from effective intervention. The intervention should start early in the natural history of asthma, and consideration for choosing patients should include using the titre of allergen-specific IgE antibodies or the size of skin test wheal as an indicator.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 25-33, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145940

RESUMO

Despite the development of novel treatments, improvement in the design of delivery devices, and new technologies for monitoring and improving adherence, the burden of asthma is not decreasing. Predicting an individual patient's response to asthma drugs remains challenging, and the provision of personalized treatment remains elusive. Although biomarkers, such as allergic sensitization and blood eosinophilia, might be important predictors of response to inhaled corticosteroids in preschool children, these relatively cheap and available investigations are seldom used in clinical practice to select patients for corticosteroid prescription. However, for the majority of patients, response to different treatments cannot be accurately predicted. One of the key factors preventing further advances is the reductionist view of asthma as a single disease, which is forcing patients with different asthma subtypes into a single group for empiric treatment. This inevitably results in treatment failures and, for some, an unacceptable risk/benefit ratio. The approach to asthma today is an example of the traditional symptom (diagnosis)-based, one-size-fits-all approach rather than a stratified approach, and our guidelines-driven management based on a unitary diagnosis might not be the optimal way to deliver care. The only way to deliver stratified medicine and find a cure is through the understanding of asthma endotypes. We propose that the way to discover endotypes, biomarkers, and personalized treatments is through the iterative process based on interpretation of big data analytics from birth and patient cohorts, responses to treatments in randomized controlled trials, and in vitro mechanistic studies using human samples and experimental animal models, with technological and methodological advances at its core.

7.
Allergy ; 74(10): 1835-1851, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953574

RESUMO

Inflammation, structural, and functional abnormalities within the airways are key features of asthma. Although these processes are well documented, their expression varies across the heterogeneous spectrum of asthma. Type 2 inflammatory responses are characterized by increased levels of eosinophils, FeNO, and type 2 cytokines in blood and/or airways. Presently, type 2 asthma is the best-defined endotype, typically found in patients with allergic asthma, but surprisingly also in nonallergic patients with (severe) asthma. The etiology of asthma with non-type 2 inflammation is less clear. During the past decade, targeted therapies, including biologicals and small molecules, have been increasingly integrated into treatment strategies of severe asthma. These treatments block specific inflammatory pathways or single mediators. Single or composite biomarkers help to identify patients who will benefit from these treatments. So far, only a few inflammatory biomarkers have been validated for clinical application. The European Academy of Allergy & Clinical Immunology Task Force on Biomarkers in Asthma was initiated to review different biomarker sampling methods and to investigate clinical applicability of new and existing inflammatory biomarkers (point-of-care) to support diagnosis, targeted treatment, and monitoring of severe asthma. Subsequently, we discuss existing and novel targeted therapies for asthma as well as applicable biomarkers.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(6): 847-857, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 ( NPSR1) and Retinoid Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha (RORA ) interact biologically, are both known candidate genes for asthma, and are involved in controlling circadian rhythm. Thus, we assessed (1) whether interactions between RORA and NPSR1 specifically affect the nocturnal asthma phenotype and (2) how this may differ from other asthma phenotypes. METHODS: Interaction effects between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RORA and 35 SNPs in NPSR1 on asthma and nocturnal asthma symptoms were determined in 1432 subjects (763 asthmatics [192 with nocturnal asthma symptoms]; 669 controls) from the Multicenter Asthma Genetic in Childhood/International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood studies. The results were validated and extended in children from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (N = 723) and the Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm and Epidemiological cohort (N = 1646). RESULTS: RORA* NPSR1 interactions seemed to affect both asthma and nocturnal asthma. In stratified analyses, however, interactions mainly affected nocturnal asthma and less so asthma without nocturnal symptoms or asthma severity. Results were replicated in two independent cohorts and seemed to remain constant over time throughout youth. CONCLUSION: RORA* NPSR1 interactions appear to be involved in mechanisms specific for nocturnal asthma. In contrast to previous studies focusing on the role of beta 2 receptor polymorphisms in nocturnal asthma as a feature of asthma control or severity in general, our data suggest that changes in circadian rhythm control are associated with nighttime asthma symptoms.

9.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(7): 868-876, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888842

RESUMO

Rationale: Pooling data from multiple cohorts and extending the time frame across childhood should minimize study-specific effects, enabling better characterization of childhood wheezing. Objectives: To analyze wheezing patterns from early childhood to adolescence using combined data from five birth cohorts. Methods: We used latent class analysis to derive wheeze phenotypes among 7,719 participants from five birth cohorts with complete report of wheeze at five time periods. We tested the associations of derived phenotypes with late asthma outcomes and lung function, and investigated the uncertainty in phenotype assignment. Results: We identified five phenotypes: never/infrequent wheeze (52.1%), early onset preschool remitting (23.9%), early onset midchildhood remitting (9%), persistent (7.9%), and late-onset wheeze (7.1%). Compared with the never/infrequent wheeze, all phenotypes had higher odds of asthma and lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity in adolescence. The association with asthma was strongest for persistent wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 56.54; 95% confidence interval, 43.75-73.06). We observed considerable within-class heterogeneity at the individual level, with 913 (12%) children having low membership probability (<0.60) of any phenotype. Class membership certainty was highest in persistent and never/infrequent, and lowest in late-onset wheeze (with 51% of participants having membership probabilities <0.80). Individual wheezing patterns were particularly heterogeneous in late-onset wheeze, whereas many children assigned to early onset preschool remitting class reported wheezing at later time points. Conclusions: All wheeze phenotypes had significantly diminished lung function in school-age children, suggesting that the notion that early life episodic wheeze has a benign prognosis may not be true for a proportion of transient wheezers. We observed considerable within-phenotype heterogeneity in individual wheezing patterns.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(3): 894-913, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639346

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects up to 20% of children worldwide and is an increasing public health problem, particularly in developed countries. Although AD in infants and young children can resolve, there is a well-recognized increased risk of sequential progression from AD to other atopic diseases, including food allergy (FA), allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, a process referred to as the atopic march. The mechanisms underlying the development of AD and subsequent progression to other atopic comorbidities, particularly FA, are incompletely understood and the subject of intense investigation. Other major research objectives are the development of effective strategies to prevent AD and FA, as well as therapeutic interventions to inhibit the atopic march. In 2017, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop to discuss current understanding and important advances in these research areas and to identify gaps in knowledge and future research directions. International and national experts in the field were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes. Summaries of workshop presentations, key conclusions, and recommendations are presented herein.

11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(1): 20-34, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few genetic studies that focus on moderate-to-severe asthma exist. We aimed to identity novel genetic variants associated with moderate-to-severe asthma, see whether previously identified genetic variants for all types of asthma contribute to moderate-to-severe asthma, and provide novel mechanistic insights using expression analyses in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this genome-wide association study, we used a two-stage case-control design. In stage 1, we genotyped patient-level data from two UK cohorts (the Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP] initiative and the Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes [U-BIOPRED] project) and used data from the UK Biobank to collect patient-level genomic data for cases and controls of European ancestry in a 1:5 ratio. Cases were defined as having moderate-to-severe asthma if they were taking appropriate medication or had been diagnosed by a doctor. Controls were defined as not having asthma, rhinitis, eczema, allergy, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis as diagnosed by a doctor. For stage 2, an independent cohort of cases and controls (1:5) was selected from the UK Biobank only, with no overlap with stage 1 samples. In stage 1 we undertook a genome-wide association study of moderate-to-severe asthma, and in stage 2 we followed up independent variants that reached the significance threshold of p less than 1 × 10-6 in stage 1. We set genome-wide significance at p less than 5 × 10-8. For novel signals, we investigated their effect on all types of asthma (mild, moderate, and severe). For all signals meeting genome-wide significance, we investigated their effect on gene expression in patients with asthma and controls. FINDINGS: We included 5135 cases and 25 675 controls for stage 1, and 5414 cases and 21 471 controls for stage 2. We identified 24 genome-wide significant signals of association with moderate-to-severe asthma, including several signals in innate or adaptive immune-response genes. Three novel signals were identified: rs10905284 in GATA3 (coded allele A, odds ratio [OR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·88-0·93; p=1·76 × 10-10), rs11603634 in the MUC5AC region (coded allele G, OR 1·09, 1·06-1·12; p=2·32 × 10-8), and rs560026225 near KIAA1109 (coded allele GATT, OR 1·12, 1·08-1·16; p=3·06 × 10-9). The MUC5AC signal was not associated with asthma when analyses included mild asthma. The rs11603634 G allele was associated with increased expression of MUC5AC mRNA in bronchial epithelial brush samples via proxy SNP rs11602802; (p=2·50 × 10-5) and MUC5AC mRNA was increased in bronchial epithelial samples from patients with severe asthma (in two independent analyses, p=0·039 and p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: We found substantial shared genetic architecture between mild and moderate-to-severe asthma. We also report for the first time genetic variants associated with the risk of developing moderate-to-severe asthma that regulate mucin production. Finally, we identify candidate causal genes in these loci and provide increased insight into this difficult to treat population. FUNDING: Asthma UK, AirPROM, U-BIOPRED, UK Medical Research Council, and Rosetrees Trust.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mucina-5AC , Proteínas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Appetite ; 135: 33-42, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593835

RESUMO

Children living in Out-of-Home Care (OoHC) are thought to be especially vulnerable to developing problematic eating behaviours due to their likelihood of having insecure attachment styles and emotion regulation deficits. Despite this increased risk, our understanding of problematic eating among children in OoHC is limited. Therefore, this study aimed to; (1) Explore the rate of problematic eating behaviours among children living in OoHC, specifically residential and foster care; (2) Investigate how carers manage problematic eating and (3) Understand carers' perceptions of the role of attachment and emotion regulation in relation to problematic eating in OoHC. Semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and surveys were conducted with residential care staff (n = 36) and foster carers (n = 8) in Victoria, Australia. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed for themes, and frequency data from the survey were generated. Residential and foster carers reported that approximately 38% of the children in their care displayed problematic eating behaviours at a clinical level. Both residential and foster carers commonly understood these behaviours as a function of the child's experiences of food deprivation and limited access to healthy foods prior to entering care which, they believe, has contributed to problems with regulating food intake and/or willingness to try new foods. Carers also commonly reported that the children in their care struggle to form attachments or regulate their emotions, which impacts carers ability to manage problematic eating. It is recommended that future interventions prioritise educating community service organisations (CSOs), responsible for delivering OoHC, to better recognise and address problematic eating behaviours. This will enable CSOs to train their residential and foster carers about how best to respond to and manage problematic eating behaviours.

13.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current published asthma predictive tools have moderate positive likelihood ratios (LR+) but high negative likelihood ratios (-LR) based on their recommended cut-offs, which limit their clinical usefulness. OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple clinically applicable asthma prediction tool within a population-based birth cohort. METHOD: Children from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) attended follow-up at ages 3, 8 and 11 years. Data on pre-school wheeze was extracted from primary-care records. Parents completed validated respiratory questionnaires. Children were skin prick tested (SPT). Asthma at 8/11 years (school -age) was defined as parentally-reported (1) physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous 12 months or (2) ≥3 wheeze attacks in the previous 12 months. An asthma prediction tool (MAAS APT) was developed using logistic regression of characteristics at age 3 years to predict school-age asthma. RESULTS: Of 336 children with physician-confirmed wheeze by age 3 years, 117(35%) had school-age asthma. Logistic regression selected 5 significant risk factors which formed the basis of the MAAS APT: wheeze after exercise; wheeze causing breathlessness; cough on exertion; current eczema and SPT sensitisation(maximum score 5). A total of 281(84%) children had complete data at age 3 years and were used to test the MAAS APT. Children scoring ≥3 were at high risk of having asthma at school-age(PPV>75%; +LR 6.3,-LR 0.6), whereas children who had a score of 0 had very low risk(PPV 9.3%; LR 0.2). CONCLUSION: MAAS APT is a simple asthma prediction tool which could easily be applied in clinical and research settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
PLoS Med ; 15(11): e1002691, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergic sensitisation and asthma is complex; the data about the strength of this association are conflicting. We propose that the discrepancies arise in part because allergic sensitisation may not be a single entity (as considered conventionally) but a collection of several different classes of sensitisation. We hypothesise that pairings between immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to individual allergenic molecules (components), rather than IgE responses to 'informative' molecules, are associated with increased risk of asthma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cross-sectional analysis among 461 children aged 11 years participating in a population-based birth cohort, we measured serum-specific IgE responses to 112 allergen components using a multiplex array (ImmunoCAP Immuno­Solid phase Allergy Chip [ISAC]). We characterised sensitivity to 44 active components (specific immunoglobulin E [sIgE] > 0.30 units in at least 5% of children) among the 213 (46.2%) participants sensitised to at least one of these 44 components. We adopted several machine learning methodologies that offer a powerful framework to investigate the highly complex sIgE-asthma relationship. Firstly, we applied network analysis and hierarchical clustering (HC) to explore the connectivity structure of component-specific IgEs and identify clusters of component-specific sensitisation ('component clusters'). Of the 44 components included in the model, 33 grouped in seven clusters (C.sIgE-1-7), and the remaining 11 formed singleton clusters. Cluster membership mapped closely to the structural homology of proteins and/or their biological source. Components in the pathogenesis-related (PR)-10 proteins cluster (C.sIgE-5) were central to the network and mediated connections between components from grass (C.sIgE-4), trees (C.sIgE-6), and profilin clusters (C.sIgE-7) with those in mite (C.sIgE-1), lipocalins (C.sIgE-3), and peanut clusters (C.sIgE-2). We then used HC to identify four common 'sensitisation clusters' among study participants: (1) multiple sensitisation (sIgE to multiple components across all seven component clusters and singleton components), (2) predominantly dust mite sensitisation (IgE responses mainly to components from C.sIgE-1), (3) predominantly grass and tree sensitisation (sIgE to multiple components across C.sIgE-4-7), and (4) lower-grade sensitisation. We used a bipartite network to explore the relationship between component clusters, sensitisation clusters, and asthma, and the joint density-based nonparametric differential interaction network analysis and classification (JDINAC) to test whether pairwise interactions of component-specific IgEs are associated with asthma. JDINAC with pairwise interactions provided a good balance between sensitivity (0.84) and specificity (0.87), and outperformed penalised logistic regression with individual sIgE components in predicting asthma, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, compared with 0.73. We then inferred the differential network of pairwise component-specific IgE interactions, which demonstrated that 18 pairs of components predicted asthma. These findings were confirmed in an independent sample of children aged 8 years who participated in the same birth cohort but did not have component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) data at age 11 years. The main limitation of our study was the exclusion of potentially important allergens caused by both the ISAC chip resolution as well as the filtering step. Clustering and the network analyses might have provided different solutions if additional components had been available. CONCLUSIONS: Interactions between pairs of sIgE components are associated with increased risk of asthma and may provide the basis for designing diagnostic tools for asthma.

15.
Elife ; 72018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320550

RESUMO

Events in early life contribute to subsequent risk of asthma; however, the causes and trajectories of childhood wheeze are heterogeneous and do not always result in asthma. Similarly, not all atopic individuals develop wheeze, and vice versa. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Using unsupervised model-based cluster analysis, we identified latent clusters within a prospective birth cohort with deep immunological and respiratory phenotyping. We characterised each cluster in terms of immunological profile and disease risk, and replicated our results in external cohorts from the UK and USA. We discovered three distinct trajectories, one of which is a high-risk 'atopic' cluster with increased propensity for allergic diseases throughout childhood. Atopy contributes varyingly to later wheeze depending on cluster membership. Our findings demonstrate the utility of unsupervised analysis in elucidating heterogeneity in asthma pathogenesis and provide a foundation for improving management and prevention of childhood asthma.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(455)2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135247

RESUMO

It is anticipated that bioactive fragments of the extracellular matrix (matrikines) can influence the development and progression of chronic diseases. The enzyme leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) mediates opposing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activities, through the generation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and degradation of proneutrophilic matrikine Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP), respectively. We show that abrogation of LTB4 signaling ameliorated inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine asthma model, yet global loss of LTA4H exacerbated AHR, despite the absence of LTB4 This exacerbated AHR was attributable to a neutrophil-independent capacity of PGP to promote pathological airway epithelial remodeling. Thus, we demonstrate a disconnect between airway inflammation and AHR and the ability of a matrikine to promote an epithelial remodeling phenotype that negatively affects lung function. Subsequently, we show that substantial quantities of PGP are detectable in the sputum of moderate-severe asthmatics in two distinct cohorts of patients. These studies have implications for our understanding of remodeling phenotypes in asthma and may rationalize the failure of LTA4H inhibitors in the clinic.

18.
Br J Nutr ; 120(8): 891-900, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132432

RESUMO

SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, P for trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (P for trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(7): 526-534, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maximal lung function in early adulthood is an important determinant of mortality and COPD. We investigated whether distinct trajectories of lung function are present during childhood and whether these extend to adulthood and infancy. METHODS: To ascertain trajectories of FEV1, we studied two population-based birth cohorts (MAAS and ALSPAC) with repeat spirometry from childhood into early adulthood (1046 participants from 5-16 years and 1390 participants from 8-24 years). We used a third cohort (PIAF) with repeat lung function measures in infancy (V'maxFRC) and childhood (FEV1; 196 participants from 1 month to 18 years of age) to investigate whether these childhood trajectories extend from early life. We identified trajectories using latent profile modelling. We created an allele score to investigate genetic associations of trajectories, and constructed a multivariable model to identify their early-life predictors. FINDINGS: We identified four childhood FEV1 trajectories: persistently high, normal, below average, and persistently low. The persistently low trajectory (129 [5%] of 2436 participants) was associated with persistent wheezing and asthma throughout follow-up. In genetic analysis, compared with the normal trajectory, the pooled relative risk ratio per allele was 0·96 (95% CI 0·92-1·01; p=0·13) for persistently high, 1·01 (0·99-1·02; p=0·49) for below average, and 1·05 (0·98-1·13; p=0·13) for persistently low. Most children in the low V'maxFRC trajectory in infancy did not progress to the low FEV1 trajectory in childhood. Early-life factors associated with the persistently low trajectory included recurrent wheeze with severe wheezing exacerbations, early allergic sensitisation, and tobacco smoke exposure. INTERPRETATION: Reduction of childhood smoke exposure and minimisation of the risk of early-life sensitisation and wheezing exacerbations might reduce the risk of diminished lung function in early adulthood. FUNDING: None.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(2): 485-496.e16, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the most common cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy and resulting in overdiagnosis and adverse effect on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, we used the mast cell activation test (MAT). METHODS: Primary human blood-derived mast cells (MCs) were generated from peripheral blood precursors, sensitized with patients' sera, and then incubated with allergen. MC degranulation was assessed by means of flow cytometry and mediator release. We compared the diagnostic performance of MATs with that of existing diagnostic tools to assess in a cohort of peanut-sensitized subjects undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge. RESULTS: Human blood-derived MCs sensitized with sera from patients with peanut, grass pollen, and Hymenoptera (wasp venom) allergy demonstrated allergen-specific and dose-dependent degranulation, as determined based on both expression of surface activation markers (CD63 and CD107a) and functional assays (prostaglandin D2 and ß-hexosaminidase release). In this cohort of peanut-sensitized subjects, the MAT was found to have superior discrimination performance compared with other testing modalities, including component-resolved diagnostics and basophil activation tests. Using functional principle component analysis, we identified 5 clusters or patterns of reactivity in the resulting dose-response curves, which at preliminary analysis corresponded to the reaction phenotypes seen at challenge. CONCLUSION: The MAT is a robust tool that can confer superior diagnostic performance compared with existing allergy diagnostics and might be useful to explore differences in effector cell function between basophils and MCs during allergic reactions.

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