Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 127
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
J Invest Dermatol ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493396

RESUMO

Dermatofibromas are common benign skin lesions, the etiology of which is poorly understood. We identified two unrelated pedigrees in which there was autosomal dominant transmission of multiple dermatofibromas. Whole exome sequencing revealed a rare shared heterozygous missense variant in the F13A1 gene encoding factor XIII subunit A (FXIII-A), a transglutaminase involved in hemostasis, wound healing, tumor growth, and apoptosis. The variant (p.Lys679Met) has an allele frequency of 0.0002 and is predicted to be a damaging mutation. Recombinant human Lys679Met FXIII-A demonstrated reduced fibrin crosslinking activity in vitro. Of note, the treatment of fibroblasts with media containing Lys679Met FXIII-A led to enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and type I collagen synthesis. Immunostaining revealed co-localization between FXIII-A and α4ß1 integrins, more prominently for Lys679Met FXIII-A than the wild type. In addition, both the α4ß1 inhibitors and the mutation of the FXIII-A Isoleucine-Leucine-Aspartate-Threonine (ILDT) motif prevented Lys679Met FXIII-A-dependent proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Our data suggest that the Lys679Met mutation may lead to a conformational change in the FXIII-A protein that enhances α4-integrin binding and provides insight into an unexpected role for FXIII-A in the pathobiology of familial dermatofibroma.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1162-1168, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for approximately 15% of invasive breast carcinomas and is commonly associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Both have been shown to have higher familial risks than the more common ductal cancers. However, there are little data on the prevalence of the known high and moderate penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes in ILC. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline variants in CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 in sporadic ILC and LCIS diagnosed in women ages ≤60 years. METHODS: Access Array technology (Fluidigm) was used to amplify all exons of CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, TP53, CHEK2, and PALB2 using a custom-made targeted sequencing panel in 1,434 cases of ILC and 368 cases of pure LCIS together with 1,611 controls. RESULTS: Case-control analysis revealed an excess of pathogenic variants in BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, and CDH1 in women with ILC. CHEK2 was the only gene that showed an association with pure LCIS [OR = 9.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.42-28.66, P = 1.4 × 10-5] with a larger effect size seen in LCIS compared with ILC (OR = 4.31; 95% CI, 1.61-11.58, P = 1.7 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Eleven percent of patients with ILC ages ≤40 years carried germline variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. IMPACT: Women with ILC ages ≤40 years should be offered genetic screening using a panel of genes that includes BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, and CDH1.

5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 58, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive ductal breast cancer, and approximately 20% of screen-detected tumours are pure DCIS. Most risk factors for breast cancer have similar associations with DCIS and IDC; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of the known high and moderate penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes in DCIS and which women with DCIS should be referred for genetic screening. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline variants in BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, PALB2 and TP53 in DCIS in women aged less than 50 years of age. METHODS: After DNA extraction from the peripheral blood, Access Array technology (Fluidigm) was used to amplify all exons of these five known breast cancer predisposition genes using a custom made targeted sequencing panel in 655 cases of pure DCIS presenting in women under the age of 50 years together with 1611 controls. RESULTS: Case-control analysis revealed an excess of pathogenic variants in BRCA2 (OR = 27.96, 95%CI 6.56-119.26, P = 2.0 × 10-10) and CHEK2 (OR = 8.04, 95%CI 2.93-22.05, P = 9.0 × 10-6), with weaker associations with PALB2 (P = 0.003), BRCA1 (P = 0.007) and TP53 (P = 0.02). For oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive DCIS the frequency of pathogenic variants was 9% under the age of 50 (14% with a family history of breast cancer) and 29% under the age of 40 (42% with a family history of breast cancer). For ER-negative DCIS, the frequency was 9% (16% with a family history of breast cancer) and 8% (11% with a family history of breast cancer) under the ages of 50 and 40, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that breast tumourigenesis in women with pathogenic variants in BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, BRCA1 and TP53 can involve a DCIS precursor stage and that the focus of genetic testing in DCIS should be on women under the age of 40 with ER-positive DCIS.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1951, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028252

RESUMO

This Article contains an error in the last sentence of the 'Variant analysis suggests they are pathogenic' section of the Results, which incorrectly reads 'No truncated PIEZO1 protein products were identified in western blot analysis in GLD1:II.3 and GLD2:II.2 (Fig. 2, Supplementary Fig. 6), suggesting that the truncated protein is not stable and therefore degraded.' This should read 'No full-size PIEZO1 protein products were identified in western blot analysis in GLD1:II.3 and GLD2:II.2 (Fig. 2, Supplementary Fig. 6); the three nonsense mutations are predicted to lead to premature termination of the protein, hence it is possible that those truncated proteins will be non-functional or even unstable and degraded.' The error has not been fixed in the PDF or HTML versions of the Article.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 948-956, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982612

RESUMO

The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1869, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015479

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming widely used in clinical medicine in diagnostic contexts and to inform treatment choice. Here we evaluate the potential of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION long-read sequencer for routine WGS by sequencing the reference sample NA12878 and the genome of an individual with ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and severe immune dysregulation. We develop and apply a novel reference panel-free analytical method to infer and then exploit phase information which improves single-nucleotide variant (SNV) calling performance from otherwise modest levels. In the clinical sample, we identify and directly phase two non-synonymous de novo variants in SAMD9L, (OMIM #159550) inferring that they lie on the same paternal haplotype. Whilst consensus SNV-calling error rates from ONT data remain substantially higher than those from short-read methods, we demonstrate the substantial benefits of analytical innovation. Ongoing improvements to base-calling and SNV-calling methodology must continue for nanopore sequencing to establish itself as a primary method for clinical WGS.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Nanoporos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/instrumentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nanotecnologia , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Pancitopenia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/instrumentação
10.
Eur Respir J ; 53(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655285

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important consequence of pulmonary embolism that is associated with abnormalities in haemostasis. We investigated the ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (VWF) axis in CTEPH, including its relationship with disease severity, inflammation, ABO groups and ADAMTS13 genetic variants.ADAMTS13 and VWF plasma antigen levels were measured in patients with CTEPH (n=208), chronic thromboembolic disease without pulmonary hypertension (CTED) (n=35), resolved pulmonary embolism (n=28), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=30) and healthy controls (n=68). CTEPH genetic ABO associations and protein quantitative trait loci were investigated. ADAMTS13-VWF axis abnormalities were assessed in CTEPH and healthy control subsets by measuring ADAMTS13 activity, D-dimers and VWF multimeric size.Patients with CTEPH had decreased ADAMTS13 (adjusted ß -23.4%, 95% CI -30.9- -15.1%, p<0.001) and increased VWF levels (ß +75.5%, 95% CI 44.8-113%, p<0.001) compared to healthy controls. ADAMTS13 levels remained low after reversal of pulmonary hypertension by pulmonary endarterectomy surgery and were equally reduced in CTED. We identified a genetic variant near the ADAMTS13 gene associated with ADAMTS13 protein that accounted for ∼8% of the variation in levels.The ADAMTS13-VWF axis is dysregulated in CTEPH. This is unrelated to pulmonary hypertension, disease severity or markers of systemic inflammation and implicates the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in CTEPH pathobiology.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2120-2130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic therapies can be highly effective for the treatment of severe psoriasis, but response for individual patients can vary according to drug. Predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection could improve patient outcomes and treatment cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test whether HLA-C*06:02, the primary genetic susceptibility allele for psoriasis, predisposes patients to respond differently to the 2 most commonly prescribed biologics for psoriasis: adalimumab (anti-TNF-α) and ustekinumab (anti-IL-12/23). METHODS: This study uses a national psoriasis registry that includes longitudinal treatment and response observations and detailed clinical data. HLA alleles were imputed from genome-wide genotype data for 1326 patients for whom 90% reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI90) response status was observed after 3, 6, or 12 months of treatment. We developed regression models of PASI90 response, examining the interaction between HLA-C*06:02 and drug type (adalimumab or ustekinumab) while accounting for potentially confounding clinical variables. RESULTS: HLA-C*06:02-negative patients were significantly more likely to respond to adalimumab than ustekinumab at all time points (most strongly at 6 months: odds ratio [OR], 2.95; P = 5.85 × 10-7), and the difference was greater in HLA-C*06:02-negative patients with psoriatic arthritis (OR, 5.98; P = 6.89 × 10-5). Biologic-naive patients who were HLA-C*06:02 positive and psoriatic arthritis negative demonstrated significantly poorer response to adalimumab at 12 months (OR, 0.31; P = 3.42 × 10-4). Results from HLA-wide analyses were consistent with HLA-C*06:02 itself being the primary effect allele. We found no evidence for genetic interaction between HLA-C*06:02 and ERAP1. CONCLUSION: This large observational study suggests that reference to HLA-C*06:02 status could offer substantial clinical benefit when selecting treatments for severe psoriasis.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5075, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542056

RESUMO

Acne vulgaris is a highly heritable common, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin for which five genetic risk loci have so far been identified. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of 3823 cases and 16,144 controls followed by meta-analysis with summary statistics from a previous study, with a total sample size of 26,722. We identify 20 independent association signals at 15 risk loci, 12 of which have not been previously implicated in the disease. Likely causal variants disrupt the coding region of WNT10A and a P63 transcription factor binding site in SEMA4B. Risk alleles at the 1q25 locus are associated with increased expression of LAMC2, in which biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa. These findings indicate that variation affecting the structure and maintenance of the skin, in particular the pilosebaceous unit, is a critical aspect of the genetic predisposition to severe acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/genética , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Humanos , Laminina/biossíntese , Laminina/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Propionibacterium acnes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Semaforinas/genética , Pele/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética
14.
J Pediatr ; 203: 423-428.e11, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a monogenic basis explains sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) using an exome-wide focus. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 427 unrelated cases of SIDS (257 male; average age = 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole-exome sequencing. Exome-wide rare variant analyses were carried out with 278 SIDS cases of European ancestry (173 male; average age = 2.7 ± 1.98 months) and 973 ethnic-matched controls based on 6 genetic models. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also was performed. The cohort was collected in collaboration with coroners, medical examiners, and pathologists by St George's University of London, United Kingdom, and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Whole-exome sequencing was performed at the Genomic Laboratory, Kings College London, United Kingdom, or Mayo Clinic's Medical Genome Facility, Rochester, Minnesota. RESULTS: Although no exome-wide significant (P < 2.5 × 10-6) difference in burden of ultra-rare variants was detected for any gene, 405 genes had a greater prevalence (P < .05) of ultra-rare nonsynonymous variants among cases with 17 genes at P < .005. Some of these potentially overrepresented genes may represent biologically plausible novel candidate genes for a monogenic basis for a portion of patients with SIDS. The top canonical pathway identified was glucocorticoid biosynthesis (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of exome-wide significant genetic associations indicates an extreme heterogeneity of etiologies underlying SIDS. Our approach to understanding the genetic mechanisms of SIDS has far reaching implications for the SIDS research community as a whole and may catalyze new evidence-based SIDS research across multiple disciplines. Perturbations in glucocorticoid biosynthesis may represent a novel SIDS-associated biological pathway for future SIDS investigative research.

15.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139991

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest cause of sudden death of an infant; however, the genetic basis remains poorly understood. We aimed to identify noncardiac genes underpinning SIDS and determine their prevalence compared with ethnically matched controls. METHODS: Using exome sequencing we assessed the yield of ultrarare nonsynonymous variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≤0.00005, dominant model; MAF ≤0.01, recessive model) in 278 European SIDS cases (62% male; average age =2.7 ± 2 months) versus 973 European controls across 61 noncardiac SIDS-susceptibility genes. The variants were classified according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria. Case-control, gene-collapsing analysis was performed in eight candidate biological pathways previously implicated in SIDS pathogenesis. RESULTS: Overall 43/278 SIDS cases harbored an ultrarare single-nucleotide variant compared with 114/973 controls (15.5 vs. 11.7%, p=0.10). Only 2/61 noncardiac genes were significantly overrepresented in cases compared with controls (ECE1, 3/278 [1%] vs. 1/973 [0.1%] p=0.036; SLC6A4, 2/278 [0.7%] vs. 1/973 [0.1%] p=0.049). There was no difference in yield of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants between cases and controls (1/278 [0.36%] vs. 4/973 [0.41%]; p=1.0). Gene-collapsing analysis did not identify any specific biological pathways to be significantly associated with SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: A monogenic basis for SIDS amongst the previously implicated noncardiac genes and their encoded biological pathways is negligible.

16.
Circulation ; 137(25): 2705-2715, 2018 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Potentially lethal cardiac channelopathies/cardiomyopathies may underlie a substantial portion of sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY). The whole-exome molecular autopsy represents the latest approach to postmortem genetic testing for SUDY. However, proper variant adjudication in the setting of SUDY can be challenging. METHODS: From January 2012 through December 2013, 25 consecutive cases of SUDY from 1 to 40 years of age (average age at death 27±5.7 years; 13 white, 12 black) from Cook County, Illinois, were referred after a negative (n=16) or equivocal (n=9) conventional autopsy. A whole-exome molecular autopsy with analysis of 99 sudden death-susceptibility genes was performed. The predicted pathogenicity of ultrarare, nonsynonymous variants was determined using the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. RESULTS: Overall, 27 ultrarare nonsynonymous variants were seen in 16/25 (64%) victims of SUDY. Among black individuals, 9/12 (75%) had an ultrarare nonsynonymous variant compared with 7/13 (54%) white individuals. Of the 27 variants, 10 were considered pathogenic or likely pathogenic in 7/25 (28%) individuals in accordance with the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 5/16 (31%) of autopsy-negative cases and in 2/6 (33%) victims of SUDY with equivocal findings of cardiomyopathy. Overall, 6 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in 4/25 (16%) cases were congruent with the phenotypic findings at autopsy and therefore considered clinically actionable. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-exome molecular autopsy with gene-specific surveillance is an effective approach for the detection of potential pathogenic variants in SUDY cases. However, systematic variant adjudication is crucial to ensure accurate and proper care for surviving family members.

19.
Lancet ; 391(10129): 1483-1492, 2018 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of post-neonatal infant death in high-income countries. Central respiratory system dysfunction seems to contribute to these deaths. Excitation that drives contraction of skeletal respiratory muscles is controlled by the sodium channel NaV1.4, which is encoded by the gene SCN4A. Variants in NaV1.4 that directly alter skeletal muscle excitability can cause myotonia, periodic paralysis, congenital myopathy, and myasthenic syndrome. SCN4A variants have also been found in infants with life-threatening apnoea and laryngospasm. We therefore hypothesised that rare, functionally disruptive SCN4A variants might be over-represented in infants who died from SIDS. METHODS: We did a case-control study, including two consecutive cohorts that included 278 SIDS cases of European ancestry and 729 ethnically matched controls without a history of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neurological disease. We compared the frequency of rare variants in SCN4A between groups (minor allele frequency <0·00005 in the Exome Aggregation Consortium). We assessed biophysical characterisation of the variant channels using a heterologous expression system. FINDINGS: Four (1·4%) of the 278 infants in the SIDS cohort had a rare functionally disruptive SCN4A variant compared with none (0%) of 729 ethnically matched controls (p=0·0057). INTERPRETATION: Rare SCN4A variants that directly alter NaV1.4 function occur in infants who had died from SIDS. These variants are predicted to significantly alter muscle membrane excitability and compromise respiratory and laryngeal function. These findings indicate that dysfunction of muscle sodium channels is a potentially modifiable risk factor in a subset of infant sudden deaths. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, the British Heart Foundation, Biotronik, Cardiac Risk in the Young, Higher Education Funding Council for England, Dravet Syndrome UK, the Epilepsy Society, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health, and the Mayo Clinic Windland Smith Rice Comprehensive Sudden Cardiac Death Program.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/genética , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/fisiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(11): 1217-1227, 2018 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of postneonatal mortality. Genetic heart diseases (GHDs) underlie some cases of SIDS. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the spectrum and prevalence of GHD-associated mutations as a potential monogenic basis for SIDS. METHODS: A cohort of 419 unrelated SIDS cases (257 male; average age 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole exome sequencing and a targeted analysis of 90 GHD-susceptibility genes. The yield of "potentially informative," ultra-rare variants (minor allele frequency <0.00005) in GHD-associated genes was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 53 of 419 (12.6%) SIDS cases had ≥1 "potentially informative," GHD-associated variant. The yield was 14.9% (21 of 141) for mixed-European ancestry cases and 11.5% (32 of 278) for European ancestry SIDS cases. Infants older than 4 months were more likely to host a "potentially informative" GHD-associated variant. There was significant overrepresentation of ultra-rare nonsynonymous variants in European SIDS cases (18 of 278 [6.5%]) versus European control subjects (30 of 973 [3.1%]; p = 0.013) when combining all 4 major cardiac channelopathy genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, and RYR2). According to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines, only 18 of 419 (4.3%) SIDS cases hosted a "pathogenic" or "likely pathogenic" variant. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 15% of more than 400 SIDS cases had a "potentially informative" variant in a GHD-susceptibility gene, predominantly in the 4- to 12-month age group. Only 4.3% of cases possessed immediately clinically actionable variants. Consistent with previous studies, ultra-rare, nonsynonymous variants within the major cardiac channelopathy-associated genes were overrepresented in SIDS cases in infants of European ethnicity. These findings have major implications for the investigation of SIDS cases and families.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA