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1.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161406

RESUMO

Sterol-C4-methyl oxidase (SC4MOL) deficiency was recently described as an autosomal recessive cholesterol biosynthesis disorder caused by mutations in the MSMO1 (sometimes also referred to as SC4MOL) gene. To date, 5 patients from 4 unrelated families with SC4MOL deficiency have been reported. Diagnosis can be challenging as the biochemical accumulation of methylsterols can affect global development and cause skin and ocular pathology. Herein, we describe 2 siblings from a consanguineous Turkish family with SC4MOL deficiency presenting with psoriasiform dermatitis, ocular abnormalities (nystagmus, optic hypoplasia, myopia, and strabismus), severe intellectual disability, and growth and motor delay. We undertook whole-exome sequencing and identified a new homozygous missense mutation c.81A>C; p.Asn27Thr in MSMO1. Segregation analysis in all available family members confirmed recessive inheritance of the mutation. The siblings were treated with a combination of oral and topical statin and cholesterol which resulted in clinical improvement. This study demonstrates how genomics-based diagnosis and therapy can be helpful in clinical practice.

3.
Epilepsia ; 61(5): 995-1007, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the extent of neurodevelopmental impairments and identify the genetic etiologies in a large cohort of patients with epilepsy with myoclonic atonic seizures (MAE). METHODS: We deeply phenotyped MAE patients for epilepsy features, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using standardized neuropsychological instruments. We performed exome analysis (whole exome sequencing) filtered on epilepsy and neuropsychiatric gene sets to identify genetic etiologies. RESULTS: We analyzed 101 patients with MAE (70% male). The median age of seizure onset was 34 months (range = 6-72 months). The main seizure types were myoclonic atonic or atonic in 100%, generalized tonic-clonic in 72%, myoclonic in 69%, absence in 60%, and tonic seizures in 19% of patients. We observed intellectual disability in 62% of patients, with extremely low adaptive behavioral scores in 69%. In addition, 24% exhibited symptoms of autism and 37% exhibited attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms. We discovered pathogenic variants in 12 (14%) of 85 patients, including five previously published patients. These were pathogenic genetic variants in SYNGAP1 (n = 3), KIAA2022 (n = 2), and SLC6A1 (n = 2), as well as KCNA2, SCN2A, STX1B, KCNB1, and MECP2 (n = 1 each). We also identified three new candidate genes, ASH1L, CHD4, and SMARCA2 in one patient each. SIGNIFICANCE: MAE is associated with significant neurodevelopmental impairment. MAE is genetically heterogeneous, and we identified a pathogenic genetic etiology in 14% of this cohort by exome analysis. These findings suggest that MAE is a manifestation of several etiologies rather than a discrete syndromic entity.

4.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(3): adv00030, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971603

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease caused by the interplay between multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. This review summarises recent progress in elucidating the genetic basis of psoriasis, particularly through large genome-wide association studies. We illustrate the power of genetic analyses for disease stratification. Psoriasis can be stratified by phenotype (common plaque versus rare pustular variants), or by outcome (prognosis, comorbidities, response to treatment); recent progress has been made in delineating the genetic contribution in each of these areas. We also highlight how genetic data can directly inform the development of effective psoriasis treatments.


Assuntos
Fenótipo , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(3): 624-635.e7, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493396

RESUMO

Dermatofibromas are common benign skin lesions, the etiology of which is poorly understood. We identified two unrelated pedigrees in which there was autosomal dominant transmission of multiple dermatofibromas. Whole exome sequencing revealed a rare shared heterozygous missense variant in the F13A1 gene encoding factor XIII subunit A (FXIII-A), a transglutaminase involved in hemostasis, wound healing, tumor growth, and apoptosis. The variant (p.Lys679Met) has an allele frequency of 0.0002 and is predicted to be a damaging mutation. Recombinant human Lys679Met FXIII-A demonstrated reduced fibrin crosslinking activity in vitro. Of note, the treatment of fibroblasts with media containing Lys679Met FXIII-A led to enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and type I collagen synthesis. Immunostaining revealed co-localization between FXIII-A and α4ß1 integrins, more prominently for Lys679Met FXIII-A than the wild type. In addition, both the α4ß1 inhibitors and the mutation of the FXIII-A Isoleucine-Leucine-Aspartate-Threonine (ILDT) motif prevented Lys679Met FXIII-A-dependent proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. Our data suggest that the Lys679Met mutation may lead to a conformational change in the FXIII-A protein that enhances α4-integrin binding and provides insight into an unexpected role for FXIII-A in the pathobiology of familial dermatofibroma.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1162-1168, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for approximately 15% of invasive breast carcinomas and is commonly associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Both have been shown to have higher familial risks than the more common ductal cancers. However, there are little data on the prevalence of the known high and moderate penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes in ILC. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline variants in CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 in sporadic ILC and LCIS diagnosed in women ages ≤60 years. METHODS: Access Array technology (Fluidigm) was used to amplify all exons of CDH1, BRCA2, BRCA1, TP53, CHEK2, and PALB2 using a custom-made targeted sequencing panel in 1,434 cases of ILC and 368 cases of pure LCIS together with 1,611 controls. RESULTS: Case-control analysis revealed an excess of pathogenic variants in BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, and CDH1 in women with ILC. CHEK2 was the only gene that showed an association with pure LCIS [OR = 9.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.42-28.66, P = 1.4 × 10-5] with a larger effect size seen in LCIS compared with ILC (OR = 4.31; 95% CI, 1.61-11.58, P = 1.7 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Eleven percent of patients with ILC ages ≤40 years carried germline variants in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. IMPACT: Women with ILC ages ≤40 years should be offered genetic screening using a panel of genes that includes BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, and CDH1.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 58, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor of invasive ductal breast cancer, and approximately 20% of screen-detected tumours are pure DCIS. Most risk factors for breast cancer have similar associations with DCIS and IDC; however, there is limited data on the prevalence of the known high and moderate penetrance breast cancer predisposition genes in DCIS and which women with DCIS should be referred for genetic screening. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of germline variants in BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, PALB2 and TP53 in DCIS in women aged less than 50 years of age. METHODS: After DNA extraction from the peripheral blood, Access Array technology (Fluidigm) was used to amplify all exons of these five known breast cancer predisposition genes using a custom made targeted sequencing panel in 655 cases of pure DCIS presenting in women under the age of 50 years together with 1611 controls. RESULTS: Case-control analysis revealed an excess of pathogenic variants in BRCA2 (OR = 27.96, 95%CI 6.56-119.26, P = 2.0 × 10-10) and CHEK2 (OR = 8.04, 95%CI 2.93-22.05, P = 9.0 × 10-6), with weaker associations with PALB2 (P = 0.003), BRCA1 (P = 0.007) and TP53 (P = 0.02). For oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive DCIS the frequency of pathogenic variants was 9% under the age of 50 (14% with a family history of breast cancer) and 29% under the age of 40 (42% with a family history of breast cancer). For ER-negative DCIS, the frequency was 9% (16% with a family history of breast cancer) and 8% (11% with a family history of breast cancer) under the ages of 50 and 40, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that breast tumourigenesis in women with pathogenic variants in BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, BRCA1 and TP53 can involve a DCIS precursor stage and that the focus of genetic testing in DCIS should be on women under the age of 40 with ER-positive DCIS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/genética , Frequência do Gene , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Biologia Computacional , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
NPJ Parkinsons Dis ; 5: 8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123700

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the etiology of monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD). Yet the role that mitochondrial processes play in the most common form of the disease; sporadic PD, is yet to be fully established. Here, we comprehensively assessed the role of mitochondrial function-associated genes in sporadic PD by leveraging improvements in the scale and analysis of PD GWAS data with recent advances in our understanding of the genetics of mitochondrial disease. We calculated a mitochondrial-specific polygenic risk score (PRS) and showed that cumulative small effect variants within both our primary and secondary gene lists are significantly associated with increased PD risk. We further reported that the PRS of the secondary mitochondrial gene list was significantly associated with later age at onset. Finally, to identify possible functional genomic associations we implemented Mendelian randomization, which showed that 14 of these mitochondrial function-associated genes showed functional consequence associated with PD risk. Further analysis suggested that the 14 identified genes are not only involved in mitophagy, but implicate new mitochondrial processes. Our data suggests that therapeutics targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics and proteostasis pathways distinct from mitophagy could be beneficial to treating the early stage of PD.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 948-956, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982612

RESUMO

The occurrence of non-epileptic hyperkinetic movements in the context of developmental epileptic encephalopathies is an increasingly recognized phenomenon. Identification of causative mutations provides an important insight into common pathogenic mechanisms that cause both seizures and abnormal motor control. We report bi-allelic loss-of-function CACNA1B variants in six children from three unrelated families whose affected members present with a complex and progressive neurological syndrome. All affected individuals presented with epileptic encephalopathy, severe neurodevelopmental delay (often with regression), and a hyperkinetic movement disorder. Additional neurological features included postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. Five children died in childhood or adolescence (mean age of death: 9 years), mainly as a result of secondary respiratory complications. CACNA1B encodes the pore-forming subunit of the pre-synaptic neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.2/N-type, crucial for SNARE-mediated neurotransmission, particularly in the early postnatal period. Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CACNA1B are predicted to cause disruption of Ca2+ influx, leading to impaired synaptic neurotransmission. The resultant effect on neuronal function is likely to be important in the development of involuntary movements and epilepsy. Overall, our findings provide further evidence for the key role of Cav2.2 in normal human neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo N/genética , Cálcio/metabolismo , Discinesias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Transmissão Sináptica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Discinesias/patologia , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Linhagem
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1951, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028252

RESUMO

This Article contains an error in the last sentence of the 'Variant analysis suggests they are pathogenic' section of the Results, which incorrectly reads 'No truncated PIEZO1 protein products were identified in western blot analysis in GLD1:II.3 and GLD2:II.2 (Fig. 2, Supplementary Fig. 6), suggesting that the truncated protein is not stable and therefore degraded.' This should read 'No full-size PIEZO1 protein products were identified in western blot analysis in GLD1:II.3 and GLD2:II.2 (Fig. 2, Supplementary Fig. 6); the three nonsense mutations are predicted to lead to premature termination of the protein, hence it is possible that those truncated proteins will be non-functional or even unstable and degraded.' The error has not been fixed in the PDF or HTML versions of the Article.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1869, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015479

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming widely used in clinical medicine in diagnostic contexts and to inform treatment choice. Here we evaluate the potential of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION long-read sequencer for routine WGS by sequencing the reference sample NA12878 and the genome of an individual with ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and severe immune dysregulation. We develop and apply a novel reference panel-free analytical method to infer and then exploit phase information which improves single-nucleotide variant (SNV) calling performance from otherwise modest levels. In the clinical sample, we identify and directly phase two non-synonymous de novo variants in SAMD9L, (OMIM #159550) inferring that they lie on the same paternal haplotype. Whilst consensus SNV-calling error rates from ONT data remain substantially higher than those from short-read methods, we demonstrate the substantial benefits of analytical innovation. Ongoing improvements to base-calling and SNV-calling methodology must continue for nanopore sequencing to establish itself as a primary method for clinical WGS.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Nanoporos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adulto , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/instrumentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nanotecnologia , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Pancitopenia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/instrumentação
15.
Eur Respir J ; 53(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655285

RESUMO

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an important consequence of pulmonary embolism that is associated with abnormalities in haemostasis. We investigated the ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (VWF) axis in CTEPH, including its relationship with disease severity, inflammation, ABO groups and ADAMTS13 genetic variants.ADAMTS13 and VWF plasma antigen levels were measured in patients with CTEPH (n=208), chronic thromboembolic disease without pulmonary hypertension (CTED) (n=35), resolved pulmonary embolism (n=28), idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=30) and healthy controls (n=68). CTEPH genetic ABO associations and protein quantitative trait loci were investigated. ADAMTS13-VWF axis abnormalities were assessed in CTEPH and healthy control subsets by measuring ADAMTS13 activity, D-dimers and VWF multimeric size.Patients with CTEPH had decreased ADAMTS13 (adjusted ß -23.4%, 95% CI -30.9- -15.1%, p<0.001) and increased VWF levels (ß +75.5%, 95% CI 44.8-113%, p<0.001) compared to healthy controls. ADAMTS13 levels remained low after reversal of pulmonary hypertension by pulmonary endarterectomy surgery and were equally reduced in CTED. We identified a genetic variant near the ADAMTS13 gene associated with ADAMTS13 protein that accounted for ∼8% of the variation in levels.The ADAMTS13-VWF axis is dysregulated in CTEPH. This is unrelated to pulmonary hypertension, disease severity or markers of systemic inflammation and implicates the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in CTEPH pathobiology.

16.
Genet Med ; 21(3): 641-649, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139991

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest cause of sudden death of an infant; however, the genetic basis remains poorly understood. We aimed to identify noncardiac genes underpinning SIDS and determine their prevalence compared with ethnically matched controls. METHODS: Using exome sequencing we assessed the yield of ultrarare nonsynonymous variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≤0.00005, dominant model; MAF ≤0.01, recessive model) in 278 European SIDS cases (62% male; average age =2.7 ± 2 months) versus 973 European controls across 61 noncardiac SIDS-susceptibility genes. The variants were classified according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria. Case-control, gene-collapsing analysis was performed in eight candidate biological pathways previously implicated in SIDS pathogenesis. RESULTS: Overall 43/278 SIDS cases harbored an ultrarare single-nucleotide variant compared with 114/973 controls (15.5 vs. 11.7%, p=0.10). Only 2/61 noncardiac genes were significantly overrepresented in cases compared with controls (ECE1, 3/278 [1%] vs. 1/973 [0.1%] p=0.036; SLC6A4, 2/278 [0.7%] vs. 1/973 [0.1%] p=0.049). There was no difference in yield of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants between cases and controls (1/278 [0.36%] vs. 4/973 [0.41%]; p=1.0). Gene-collapsing analysis did not identify any specific biological pathways to be significantly associated with SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: A monogenic basis for SIDS amongst the previously implicated noncardiac genes and their encoded biological pathways is negligible.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Alelos , Autopsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Exoma , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mutação , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2120-2130, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biologic therapies can be highly effective for the treatment of severe psoriasis, but response for individual patients can vary according to drug. Predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection could improve patient outcomes and treatment cost-effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test whether HLA-C*06:02, the primary genetic susceptibility allele for psoriasis, predisposes patients to respond differently to the 2 most commonly prescribed biologics for psoriasis: adalimumab (anti-TNF-α) and ustekinumab (anti-IL-12/23). METHODS: This study uses a national psoriasis registry that includes longitudinal treatment and response observations and detailed clinical data. HLA alleles were imputed from genome-wide genotype data for 1326 patients for whom 90% reduction in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score (PASI90) response status was observed after 3, 6, or 12 months of treatment. We developed regression models of PASI90 response, examining the interaction between HLA-C*06:02 and drug type (adalimumab or ustekinumab) while accounting for potentially confounding clinical variables. RESULTS: HLA-C*06:02-negative patients were significantly more likely to respond to adalimumab than ustekinumab at all time points (most strongly at 6 months: odds ratio [OR], 2.95; P = 5.85 × 10-7), and the difference was greater in HLA-C*06:02-negative patients with psoriatic arthritis (OR, 5.98; P = 6.89 × 10-5). Biologic-naive patients who were HLA-C*06:02 positive and psoriatic arthritis negative demonstrated significantly poorer response to adalimumab at 12 months (OR, 0.31; P = 3.42 × 10-4). Results from HLA-wide analyses were consistent with HLA-C*06:02 itself being the primary effect allele. We found no evidence for genetic interaction between HLA-C*06:02 and ERAP1. CONCLUSION: This large observational study suggests that reference to HLA-C*06:02 status could offer substantial clinical benefit when selecting treatments for severe psoriasis.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Terapia Biológica/métodos , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Psoríase/genética , Ustekinumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5075, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542056

RESUMO

Acne vulgaris is a highly heritable common, chronic inflammatory disease of the skin for which five genetic risk loci have so far been identified. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study of 3823 cases and 16,144 controls followed by meta-analysis with summary statistics from a previous study, with a total sample size of 26,722. We identify 20 independent association signals at 15 risk loci, 12 of which have not been previously implicated in the disease. Likely causal variants disrupt the coding region of WNT10A and a P63 transcription factor binding site in SEMA4B. Risk alleles at the 1q25 locus are associated with increased expression of LAMC2, in which biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa. These findings indicate that variation affecting the structure and maintenance of the skin, in particular the pilosebaceous unit, is a critical aspect of the genetic predisposition to severe acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/genética , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Humanos , Laminina/biossíntese , Laminina/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Propionibacterium acnes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Semaforinas/genética , Pele/patologia , Proteínas Wnt/genética
20.
J Pediatr ; 203: 423-428.e11, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a monogenic basis explains sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) using an exome-wide focus. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort of 427 unrelated cases of SIDS (257 male; average age = 2.7 ± 1.9 months) underwent whole-exome sequencing. Exome-wide rare variant analyses were carried out with 278 SIDS cases of European ancestry (173 male; average age = 2.7 ± 1.98 months) and 973 ethnic-matched controls based on 6 genetic models. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis also was performed. The cohort was collected in collaboration with coroners, medical examiners, and pathologists by St George's University of London, United Kingdom, and Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Whole-exome sequencing was performed at the Genomic Laboratory, Kings College London, United Kingdom, or Mayo Clinic's Medical Genome Facility, Rochester, Minnesota. RESULTS: Although no exome-wide significant (P < 2.5 × 10-6) difference in burden of ultra-rare variants was detected for any gene, 405 genes had a greater prevalence (P < .05) of ultra-rare nonsynonymous variants among cases with 17 genes at P < .005. Some of these potentially overrepresented genes may represent biologically plausible novel candidate genes for a monogenic basis for a portion of patients with SIDS. The top canonical pathway identified was glucocorticoid biosynthesis (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of exome-wide significant genetic associations indicates an extreme heterogeneity of etiologies underlying SIDS. Our approach to understanding the genetic mechanisms of SIDS has far reaching implications for the SIDS research community as a whole and may catalyze new evidence-based SIDS research across multiple disciplines. Perturbations in glucocorticoid biosynthesis may represent a novel SIDS-associated biological pathway for future SIDS investigative research.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Morte Súbita do Lactente/genética , Autopsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Minnesota , Mutação , Morte Súbita do Lactente/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita do Lactente/etnologia , Reino Unido
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