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1.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(11): e13701, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether patients with IBS displayed altered mucosal mast cell (MC) numbers and proportions of MCs co-localizing with nerves compared with healthy subjects (HS) and whether these MC characteristics correlated with IBS symptoms, elements of the epithelial barrier, or visceral sensitivity. METHODS: Mucosal MC characteristics were determined using immunoassay. IBS symptoms, gene expression of elements of the epithelial barrier, fecal serine protease activity, and visceral sensitivity were assessed. KEY RESULTS: The MC numbers per mm2 were 2.0 (0.0-6.0) in patients with IBS (n = 43) and 3.5 (1.1-9.1) in HS (n = 20, P = .26). Of these, MCs were 0.0 (0.0-20) % vs 3.1 (0.0-18) % (P = .76) in IBS and HS, respectively, in co-localization with nerve fibers. MC characteristics were equivalent in the different IBS subtypes. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified two distinct groups among patients with IBS: MC high (higher MC numbers and proportions of MCs co-localizing with nerves) and MC low (lower MC numbers and proportions of MCs co-localizing with nerves). The MC high and MC low groups could not be discriminated with regard to IBS symptoms, parameters of visceral sensitivity, gene expression of elements of the epithelial barrier, and fecal protease activity. CONCLUSION AND INFERENCES: There was no evidence of increased infiltration or altered localization of MCs in the colonic mucosa of patients with IBS. These MC characteristics were not linked to global IBS symptoms or mucosal expression of elements of the epithelial barrier. These findings indicate that quantity and location of mucosal MCs are factors not involved in the pathophysiology of IBS.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505870

RESUMO

Even though irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been known for more than 150 years, it still remains one of the research challenges of the 21st century. According to the current diagnostic Rome IV criteria, IBS is characterized by abdominal pain associated with defecation and/or a change in bowel habit, in the absence of detectable organic causes. Symptoms interfere with the daily life of patients, reduce health-related quality of life and lower the work productivity. Despite the high prevalence of approximately 10%, its pathophysiology is only partly understood and seems multifactorial. However, many patients report symptoms to be meal-related and certain ingested foods may generate an exaggerated gastrointestinal response. Patients tend to avoid and even exclude certain food products to relieve their symptoms, which could affect nutritional quality. We performed a narrative paper review of the existing and emerging evidence regarding dietary management of IBS patients, with the aim to enhance our understanding of how to move towards an individualized dietary approach for IBS patients in the near future.

3.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 42(4): 332-341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365423

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome is a common and often chronic functional bowel disorder that can cause severe disruption of daily functioning in those affected, with subsequent high healthcare utilization and work absenteeism. Nurses represent an underutilized group in the current management of irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this study was to systematically develop a person-centered support intervention in irritable bowel syndrome and evaluate this in a pilot study. The development followed the revised framework for complex interventions from the Medical Research Council and involved literature reviews and multiprofessional expert groups. The intervention was then tested in a pilot study including 17 patients and evaluated through validated questionnaires measuring irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, and self-efficacy as well as through interviews. There was a significant improvement in irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity between baseline and follow-up, but not for self-efficacy or gastrointestinal-specific anxiety. The patients' perceptions of participating in the intervention were positive and induced a learning process; they were able to form a supportive relationship with the nurse and their ability to self-manage improved. The promising results from this small pilot study in terms of feasibility, potential efficacy, and the patients' positive feedback make this intervention a suitable candidate for a larger controlled trial.

4.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(7): 925-933, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287334

RESUMO

Background: A common and debilitating symptom in patients with chronic liver disease is fatigue (CLD). Muscle dysfunction has been suggested to be a key mechanism of fatigue in CLD. Objective: We aimed to evaluate fatigue and the potential association with muscle performance and physical activity in outpatients with CLD. Methods: Two-hundred seventy outpatients with CLD were included, (52 ± 15 years, mean ± SD; 151 females) with autoimmune hepatitis (n = 49), primary biliary cholangitis (n = 45), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 46), chronic hepatitis B (n = 57) or C (n = 73). Patients with a Child-Pugh >6 were excluded. The questionnaire Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) was used to evaluate fatigue, and physical activity was evaluated through a self-reported level of physical activity. Muscle function was assessed with four muscle tests, walking speed, handgrip strength, standing heel-rise test (SHT) and 'Timed Up and Go' test (TUG). Results: The median total FIS score was 30 (40% had FIS > 40, considered high-fatigue). Diminished muscle performance was observed in the SHT (% of predicted value: 53 ± 26%) and with maximum grip strength (85 ± 20%). The FIS score was significantly different between groups of CLDs (p = .004). In multivariate analysis the TUG (p = .001), SHT (p = .005), antidepressants (p < .001), and level of physical activity (p = .001) were associated with fatigue (R2 = 29%). Subjects with higher levels of physical activity had lower FIS (p < .001). Conclusions: In patients with CLD, fatigue was associated with low muscle performance and reduced level of physical activity, which could be a potential therapeutic target.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The diagnostic criteria for fecal incontinence (FI) were made more restrictive in the Rome IV revision. We aimed to determine the characteristics of FI patients defined by the Rome IV criteria, assess how FI frequency and amount affect quality of life, identify risk factors, and compare prevalence values among countries. METHODS: We performed an internet-based survey of 5931 subjects in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, from September to December 2015. Subjects were stratified by country, sex, and age. Responders answered questions about diagnosis, health care use, and risk factors. We performed multivariate linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for FI. RESULTS: FI was reported by 957 subjects (16.1%) but only 196 (3.3%) fulfilled the Rome IV criteria. Frequency of FI was less than twice a month for 672/957 subjects (70.2%) and less than 6 months for 285/957 subjects (29.8%). Quality of life was significantly impaired in all subjects with FI compared to subjects with fecal continence. The strongest risk factors for FI were diarrhea, urgency to defecate, and abdominal pain. FI was more prevalent in the United States than in the United Kingdom. Between-country differences were due to less diarrhea and urgency in the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: Rome IV FI prevalence is lower than previous estimates because the new criteria exclude many individuals with less frequent or short duration FI. These excluded patients have impaired quality of life. It might be appropriate to make a diagnosis of FI for all patients with FI ≥2 times in 3 months and to provide additional information on frequency, duration, and amount of stool lost to assist clinicians in treatment selection.

6.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(8): e13619, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety or depression, in other words, psychological distress, are common comorbidities in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but their interaction with pathophysiological factors and other symptoms are unclear. METHODS: Patients with IBS (Rome III criteria), thoroughly characterized regarding pathophysiology (colonic transit time, visceral sensitivity, and autonomic nervous system [ANS] function), symptom profile (IBS severity, somatic symptoms, gastrointestinal [GI]-specific anxiety and fatigue), and quality of life, were explored for differences regarding pathophysiology and symptoms between patients with and without reported psychological distress in univariate and multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis [PCA] with Hotelling's T2 and Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis [OPLS-DA]). KEY RESULTS: When using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score ≥8 as cut-off score, including both borderline and clinically significant cases, 345 (44.9%) out of 769 IBS patients reported anxiety, and 198 (25.7%) depression. In univariate analyses, patients reporting psychological distress demonstrated more severe GI and non-GI symptoms, fatigue, GI-specific anxiety and lower quality of life, and differences for some pathophysiological measures. IBS patients with and without reported psychological distress showed significant differences between the multivariate means in symptom reporting (PCA; both P < 0.001), and in pathophysiological measures in patients with and without anxiety (P = 0.018). Visceral hypersensitivity, altered ANS function, more severe GI-specific anxiety, fatigue, and higher somatic non-GI symptoms were the factors that most strongly separated patients with and without psychological distress (OPLS-DA). CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Reported anxiety and depression are common in IBS patients, and our study demonstrates that they are interwoven in the complex pathophysiological and clinical picture of IBS.

7.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 69, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) is a complex disorder with gastrointestinal and nervous system components. The study aim was to assess the economic burden of moderate to severe IBS-C in six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK). METHODS: An observational, one year retrospective-prospective (6 months each) study of patients diagnosed in the last five years with IBS-C (Rome III criteria) and moderate to severe disease at inclusion (IBS Symptom Severity Scale score ≥ 175). The primary objective was to assess the direct cost to European healthcare systems. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-five patients were included, 60% (range: 43.1-78.8%) suffered from severe IBS-C. During follow-up 11.1-24.0% of patients had a hospitalisation/emergency room (ER) visit, median stay range: 1.5-12.0 days and 41.1-90.4% took prescription drugs for IBS-C. 21.4-50.8% of employed patients took sick leave (mean: 11.6-64.1 days). The mean annual direct cost to the healthcare systems was €937.1- €2108.0. The total direct cost (combined costs to healthcare systems and patient) for IBS-C was €1421.7-€2487.1. CONCLUSIONS: IBS-C is not a life-threatening condition; however, it has large impact on healthcare systems and society. Direct and indirect costs for moderate to severe IBS-C were high with the largest direct cost driver being hospitalisations/ER visits.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Custos de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/economia , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Licença Médica/economia
8.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(7): e13603, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), measured with rectal balloon distensions, using a barostat, has been suggested to be a phenomenon that is reduced due to habituation at repeated investigations. We investigated the stability of rectal sensitivity in patients with IBS who had undergone a previous rectal barostat study and assessed variations in symptom pattern and severity in relation to rectal sensory function. METHOD: Irritable bowel syndrome patients, who had previously been undergone a rectal barostat study, were included. All patients underwent a second study 8-12 years later. Symptoms were characterized by use of questionnaires. KEY RESULTS: We included 26 subjects (17 females, median age at the index investigation 44.5 (21-61) years). Pressure and volume sensory thresholds were unchanged at the follow-up compared with the index investigation (P > 0.05 for all). At the index investigation, 8/26 patients had rectal hypersensitivity of which four were reclassified as normosensitive, and sixfrom normo- to hypersensitive, meaning that 10/26 patients were hypersensitive at the follow-up investigation. IBS-QOL had improved significantly in six of nine domains at follow-up (P < 0.05 for all). There were no differences in anxiety, depression, IBS symptom severity, or somatization (P > 0.05) at follow-up. None of these were associated with change in rectal sensitivity at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: Rectal hypersensitivity and IBS symptoms remained stable at the group level over 8-12 years in IBS patients, even though individual fluctuations were noted. Our findings contradict previous findings indicating that visceral hypersensitivity is an unstable trait.

9.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 391-402.e2, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the link between pathophysiologic factors and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or whether these factors have cumulative effects on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We investigated whether pathophysiologic alterations associated with IBS have cumulative or independent effects on PROs. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 3 cohorts of patients with IBS (n = 407; 74% female; mean age, 36 ± 12 years), based on Rome II or Rome III criteria, seen at a specialized unit for functional gastrointestinal disorders in Sweden from 2002 through 2014. All patients underwent assessments of colonic transit time (radiopaque markers); compliance, allodynia, and hyperalgesia (rectal barostat); anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), as pathophysiologic factors. Dysfunction was defined by available normal values. PROs included IBS symptom severity, somatic symptom severity, and disease-specific quality of life. RESULTS: Allodynia was observed in 36% of patients, hyperalgesia in 22%, accelerated colonic transit in 18%, delayed transit in 7%, anxiety in 52%, and depression in 24%: each of these factors was associated with severity of at least 1 symptom of IBS. Rectal compliance was not associated with more severe symptoms of IBS. At least 3 pathophysiologic factors were present in 20% of patients, 2 in 30%, 1 in 31%, and none in 18%. With increasing number of pathophysiologic abnormalities, there was a gradual increase in IBS symptom severity (P < .0001) and somatic symptom severity (P < .0001), and a gradual reduction in quality of life (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Visceral hypersensitivity, including allodynia and hyperalgesia, abnormal colonic transit, and psychologic factors are all associated with IBS symptoms. These factors have a cumulative effect on gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal symptoms, as well as on quality of life, in patients with IBS and are therefore relevant treatment targets.


Assuntos
Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hiperalgesia/psicologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Dor Visceral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colo/inervação , Colo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Crohns Colitis ; 13(11): 1450-1458, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alterations in the immunopathogenesis in ulcerative colitis [UC] during the disease course have been proposed. We therefore aimed to determine mucosal and systemic immune profiles in individual patients at the time of diagnosis [early disease] and after 10 years [late disease]. METHODS: Patients with UC provided serum and mucosal biopsies during a flare in early and in late disease. Serum samples were analysed using the Olink Proseek Inflammation panel. mRNA gene expression of biopsies was analysed using the Qiagen RT2 Profiler PCR Arrays Antibacterial response and T Helper Cell Differentiation. RESULTS: Orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analyses [OPLS-DA] demonstrated that the profile of 15 serum proteins discriminated in early and late disease [R2 = 0.84, Q2 = 0.65] in 15 UC patients. Eight of these proteins were differently expressed between the groups [Q <0.05]. Further, OPLS-DA of the mRNA profiles in biopsies strongly discriminated early and late disease with high predictability [R2 = 0.96, Q2 = 0.89]; 42 genes were differently expressed at the two time points [Q <0.05]. Finally, principal component analysis showed that T helper [Th] 1- and Th2-related genes were associated with early disease and late disease, respectively, and hierarchical cluster analysis was able to cluster patients with early from late disease with only minor overlap. CONCLUSIONS: Mucosal and systemic immune profiles differ between early and late disease in patients with active UC, with a transition from a Th1- to a Th2-driven disease in the intestine. Improved understanding of the variation in immunopathogenesis during the disease course in UC is important to guide individualised treatment decision making.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to assess the effect of a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 (FMP) on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and exhaled H2 and CH4 during a nutrient and lactulose challenge in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We included 125 patients with IBS (Rome III). Fasted subjects were served a 400ml liquid test meal containing 25g lactulose. The intensity of eight GI symptoms and the amount of exhaled H2 and CH4 were assessed before and during 4h after meal intake. The challenge was repeated after 14 days consumption of FMP or a control product in a double-blind, randomized, parallel design. The metabolic potential of fecal microbiota was profiled using 16S MiSeq analysis of samples obtained before and after the intervention. RESULTS: 106 patients with IBS were randomized. No difference between FMP or control groups was found on GI symptoms or breath H2 and CH4 in the whole cohort. A post-hoc analysis in patients stratified according to their fasting H2 levels showed that in high H2 producers (fasting H2 level≥10ppm, n = 35), FMP consumption reduced fasting H2 levels (p = 0.003) and H2 production during the challenge (p = 0.002) and tended to decrease GI discomfort (p = 0.05) vs. control product. The Prevotella/Bacteroides metabolic potential at baseline was higher in high H2 producers (p<0.05) vs. low H2 producers and FMP consumption reduced this ratio (p<0.05) vs. control product. CONCLUSIONS: The response to a fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2494 (FMP) in patients with IBS seems to be associated with the metabolic potential of the gut microbiota. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01252550. These results were presented as congress posters at Digestive Disease Week 2016 in San Diego, USA and United European Gastroenterology Week 2016 in Vienna, Austria.

12.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 45, 2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that interactions among the brain, gut, and microbiota may affect the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As disruptions in central and peripheral serotonergic signaling pathways have been found in patients with IBS, we explored the hypothesis that the abundance of serotonin-modulating microbes of the order Clostridiales is associated with functional connectivity of somatosensory brain regions and gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor function. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 65 patients with IBS and 21 healthy individuals (controls) recruited from 2011 through 2013 at a secondary/tertiary care outpatient clinic in Sweden. Study participants underwent functional brain imaging, rectal balloon distension, a nutrient and lactulose challenge test, and assessment of oroanal transit time within a month. They also submitted stool samples, which were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. A tripartite network analysis based on graph theory was used to investigate the interactions among bacteria in the order Clostridiales, connectivity of brain regions in the somatosensory network, and GI sensorimotor function. RESULTS: We found associations between GI sensorimotor function and gut microbes in stool samples from controls, but not in samples from IBS patients. The largest differences between controls and patients with IBS were observed in the Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Clostridium XIVa, and Coprococcus subnetworks. We found connectivity of subcortical (thalamus, caudate, and putamen) and cortical (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices) regions to be involved in mediating interactions among these networks. CONCLUSIONS: In a comparison of patients with IBS and controls, we observed disruptions in the interactions between the brain, gut, and gut microbial metabolites in patients with IBS-these involve mainly subcortical but also cortical regions of brain. These disruptions may contribute to altered perception of pain in patients with IBS and may be mediated by microbial modulation of the gut serotonergic system.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Clostridiaceae/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiopatologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Clostridiaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(8): 1678-1689, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793351

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of person-centred inpatient care on care processes in terms of satisfaction with care and person-centred content in medical records, and to evaluate effects on self-reported health and self-efficacy. BACKGROUND: Internal medicine inpatient care is complex, covering patients varying in age, medical conditions, health status, and other aspects. There has been limited research on the impact of person-centred care (PCC) on satisfaction with care and health outcomes in internal medicine care environments regardless of diagnosis and care pathway. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study with pre- and postmeasurements. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to an internal medicine inpatient unit were consecutively included over 16 weeks in 2014 and 24 weeks in 2015-2016. Data were collected before a person-centred inpatient care intervention (N = 204) and 12 months after the intervention was implemented (N = 177). Data on satisfaction with care and self-reported health were collected at discharge and medical records were reviewed. The intervention included systematically applied person-centred assessment, health plans, and persistent PCC. RESULTS: After the intervention, patients rated higher satisfaction with care regarding essential components of PCC and more patients had received effective pain relief. There were no differences in information on self-care or medications, self-rated health, or self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: Care focused on the foundations of person-centredness seems to enhance both patients' perceptions of satisfaction and symptom management. Situational aspects such as care pathways should be considered when implementing person-centred inpatient care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICALTRIALS. GOV, REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03725813.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 601, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679604

RESUMO

The adequate storage of fecal samples from clinical trials is crucial if analyses are to be performed later and in long-term studies. However, it is unknown whether the composition of the microbiota is preserved during long-term stool storage (>1 year). We therefore evaluated the influence of long-term storage on the microbiota composition of human stool samples collected in RNAlater and stored for approximately five years at -80 °C. We compared storage effects on stool samples from 24 subjects with the effects of technical variation due to different sequencing runs and biological variation (intra- and inter-subject), in another 101 subjects, based on alpha-diversity, beta-diversity and taxonomic composition. We also evaluated the impact of initial alpha-diversity and fecal microbiota composition on beta-diversity instability upon storage. Overall, long-term stool storage at -80 °C had only limited effects on the microbiota composition of human feces. The magnitude of changes in alpha- and beta- diversity and taxonomic composition after long-term storage was similar to inter-sequencing variation and smaller than biological variation (both intra- and inter-subject). The likelihood of fecal samples being affected by long-term storage correlated with the initial relative abundance of some genera and tend to be affected by initial taxonomic richness.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Scalable and effective treatments are needed for children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). We performed a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy delivered online (internet CBT) compared to usual therapy. METHODS: We studied children (8-12 years old) diagnosed with FAPDs, based on the Rome IV criteria, in Sweden from September 2016 through April 2017. The patients were randomly assigned to groups that received 10 weeks of therapist-guided, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (internet CBT, n=46) or usual treatment (treatments within the healthcare and school systems, including medications and visits to doctors and other healthcare professionals; n=44). The primary outcome was Global child-rated gastrointestinal symptom severity assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Gastrointestinal Symptom scale. All outcomes were collected from September 2016 through January 2018. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and parental responses to children's symptoms. Societal costs and costs for healthcare consumption were collected during the treatment. RESULTS: Children who received internet CBT had a significantly larger improvement in gastrointestinal symptom severity with a medium effect size (Cohen's d=0.46; 95% CI, 0.05-0.88; number needed to treat, 3.8) compared with children who received the usual treatment. The children's quality of life, gastrointestinal-specific anxiety, avoidance behaviors, and parental responses to children's symptoms also improved significantly in the internet CBT group compared with the usual treatment group. The effects of internet CBT persisted through 36 weeks of follow up. Children who received internet CBT had significantly less healthcare use than children who received usual treatment, with an average cost difference of US $137 (P=.011). We calculated a cost saving of US $1050 for every child treated with internet CBT compared with usual treatment. CONCLUSION: In a randomized trial of pediatric patients with FAPDs, we found internet CBT to be clinically and cost effective compared with usual treatment. Internet CBT has the potential to increase the availability of treatment for a number of patients and reduce healthcare costs. ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT02873078.

16.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13483, 2018 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous clinical sample of IBS patients, subgroups characterized by profiles of GI and non-GI symptoms were identified. We aimed to replicate these subgroups and symptom associations in participants fulfilling IBS diagnostic criteria from a population-based study and relate them to healthcare utilization. METHODS: An Internet-based health survey was completed by general population adults from United States, Canada, and UK. Respondents fulfilling IBS diagnosis (Rome III and IV) were analyzed for latent subgroups using Gaussian mixture model analysis. Symptom measures were derived from validated questionnaires: IBS-related GI symptoms (Rome IV), extraintestinal somatic symptoms (PHQ-12), and psychological symptoms (SF-8). KEY RESULTS: A total of 637 respondents fulfilled Rome III criteria (average age 46 years, range 18-87, 66% females) and 341 Rome IV criteria (average age 44, range 18-77, 64% female) for IBS. Seven subgroups were identified in the Rome III cohort, characterized by profiles of GI symptoms (constipation-related, diarrhea-related, and mixed, respectively), and further distinguished by the presence or absence of non-GI comorbidities. The Rome IV cohort showed five similar but less distinct subgroups with a preponderance of mixed symptom profiles. Higher severity of non-GI comorbidities was associated with more frequent healthcare visits and medication usage. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: In line with previous findings in a clinical IBS cohort, we were able to identify population-based subgroups characterized by a combination of GI symptoms with the additional distinction made by varying severity of non-GI symptoms and with differences in healthcare utilization.

17.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13496, 2018 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used to assess symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Current end-of-day questionnaires have several limitations including sensitivity to recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments across momentary states in daily life and therefore less sensitive to these limitations. This study describes the development of a novel PROM based on ESM technology. METHODS: An initial draft of the PROM was developed based on literature. Focus group interviews with FD patients according to Rome IV criteria, and an expert meeting with international opinion leaders in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders were conducted in order to select items for the PROM. Cognitive interviews were performed to evaluate patients' understanding of the selected items and to create the definitive PROM. KEY RESULTS: A systematic literature search revealed 59 items across four domains (ie, physical status; mood and psychological factors; context and environment; and nutrition, medication, and substance use). After patient focus group interviews and an international expert meeting, the number of items was reduced to 33. Cognitive interviews resulted in some minor linguistic changes in order to improve patients' understanding. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: A novel digital ESM-based PROM for real-time symptom assessment in patients with functional dyspepsia was developed. This novel PROM has the potential to identify individual symptom patterns and specific triggers for dyspeptic symptoms, and optimize treatment strategies.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16821, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429499

RESUMO

Altered fecal levels of chromogranins (Cg) and secretogranins (Sg) are demonstrated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but their role in IBS pathophysiology remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if granins are associated with bacterial composition, immune activation and IBS symptoms. Protein levels of fecal granins (CgA, CgB, SgII and SgIII) were analysed with immunoassays. Mucosal mRNA expression of granins, TPH1 and immune markers were evaluated with RT-qPCR. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on fecal and mucosal bacteria. The intestinal granin profile, based on fecal protein levels and mucosal mRNA expression, could not discriminate between IBS patients (n = 88) and healthy subjects (HS, n = 33). IBS patients dominated by high fecal or mucosal granin levels, respectively, did not differ in symptom or immune profiles. Fecal-dominated and mucosal-dominated granin clusters of IBS patients and HS, demonstrated separate fecal and mucosal bacterial profiles and high fecal abundance of granins were associated with a less diverse bacterial composition and the Bacteroides enterotype. The intestinal granin profiles of IBS patients and HS are linked to the intestinal bacterial composition, diversity and enterotypes. These findings suggest that granins may be one of several host-produced factors regulating the microbiota composition of the intestine.

19.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e13486, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults. We sought to determine whether fecal granins are altered in children with IBS and associated with symptoms. METHODS: Children (7-12 years of age) with IBS and healthy controls (HC) kept daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Stool samples were analyzed for chromogranins A and B (CgA, CgB) and secretogranins II and III (SgII, SgIII). Children also completed psychological measures to assess anxiety, depression, somatization, and internalizing symptoms. KEY RESULTS: Fecal CgB and SgIII concentrations were higher in all the boys (IBS plus HC, n = 48) than in all the girls (IBS plus HC, n = 75) (P = 0.02 and P = 0.046, respectively). CgA and SgIII were greater in children with IBS (n = 52) vs HC (n = 69) (P = 0.01, P = 0.017, respectively). CgB and SgII did not differ between groups. In children with IBS, the number of pain episodes per week and mean daily pain rating correlated positively with all four granins. The number of stools per day correlated positively with CgB and SgII, and the percent of diarrheal stools (6 or 7 on the Bristol Scale) correlated inversely with all four granins in boys but not in girls. Fecal granins did not correlate with psychological measures. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: As measured by fecal granins, there is evidence of neuroimmune activation in children with IBS. Granins are related to abdominal pain symptoms, stooling frequency, and stool form in children with IBS. Sex influences the fecal concentration of CgB and SgIII.

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