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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 925-935, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982609

RESUMO

Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) plays key roles in regulating development and function of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, including microglia and osteoclasts. Mono-allelic mutations of CSF1R are known to cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS), an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we report seven affected individuals from three unrelated families who had bi-allelic CSF1R mutations. In addition to early-onset HDLS-like neurological disorders, they had brain malformations and skeletal dysplasia compatible to dysosteosclerosis (DOS) or Pyle disease. We identified five CSF1R mutations that were homozygous or compound heterozygous in these affected individuals. Two of them were deep intronic mutations resulting in abnormal inclusion of intron sequences in the mRNA. Compared with Csf1r-null mice, the skeletal and neural phenotypes of the affected individuals appeared milder and variable, suggesting that at least one of the mutations in each affected individual is hypomorphic. Our results characterized a unique human skeletal phenotype caused by CSF1R deficiency and implied that bi-allelic CSF1R mutations cause a spectrum of neurological and skeletal disorders, probably depending on the residual CSF1R function.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 2009-2016, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063090

RESUMO

Our understanding of the molecular basis of the genetic disorders of the skeleton has steadily increased, as the application of high-throughput sequencing technology has expanded. One of the newcomers is Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Faden-Alkuraya type. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the clinical, radiographic, and molecular findings of this entity in five affected individuals from two unrelated families. All patients have short stature, extremity deformities, facial dysmorphism and intellectual disability. The skeletal hallmarks include (a) mild spondylar dysplasia, (b) epimetaphyseal dysplasia of the long bones associated with coxa vara and genu valgum, (c) brachymesophalangy with cone-shaped epiphyses, and (d) craniosynostosis. Unlike the previously reported clinical findings, all patients except one are normocephalic, and all share the clinical findings including craniosynostosis, varying degrees of intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal findings including pes planus, prominent heels, and pectus deformity. Interestingly one of the patients presented with a cemento-ossifying fibrous lesion of the maxilla. Whole exome sequencing revealed a novel homozygous [c.377delT] [p.Ile126fs*] frameshift mutation at exon 2 in one family, while Sanger sequencing revealed a novel homozygous splice site mutation [c.516+2T>A] at exon 4/intron 4 border of RSPRY1 in the other family. In conclusion; we provide further evidence that Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Faden-Alkuraya type is a RSPRY1-associated skeletal dysplasia with a distinctive phenotype composed of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, cono-brachydactyly, and craniosynostosis along with recognizable facial features and intellectual disability.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3143-3152, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28988429

RESUMO

Two sisters from a consanguineous couple were seen in genetics department for facial dysmorphic features and glaucoma. They both had broad foreheads, hypertelorism, megalocorneas, thick eyebrows with synophrys, flat malar regions, broad and bulbous noses, and mild prognathism. Both had glaucoma, younger one also had cataracts and phthisis bulbi. Other findings included bilateral partial cutaneous syndactyly of 2nd and 3rd fingers, history of impacted teeth with dentigerous cyst in the elder one, and intellectual disability (mild and borderline). The sisters were considered to have Elsahy-Waters syndrome. In order to elucidate the underlying molecular cause, sisters and their healthy parents were genotyped by SNP arrays, followed by homozygosity mapping. Homozygous regions were further analyzed by exome sequencing in one affected individual. A homozygous indel variant segregating with the condition was detected in CDH11 (c.1116_1117delinsGATCATCAG, p.(Ile372MetfsTer9)), which was then validated by using Sanger sequencing. CDH11 encodes cadherin 11 (osteo-cadherin) that regulates cell-cell adhesion, cell polarization and migration, as well as osteogenic differentiation. Further experiments revealed that CDH11 expression was decreased in patient-derived fibroblasts as compared to the heterozygous parent and another healthy donor. Immunostaining showed absence of the protein expression in patient fibroblasts. In addition, cell proliferation rate was slow and osteogenic differentiation potential was delayed. We consider that this study reveals loss-of-function mutations in CDH11 as a probable cause of this phenotype. Next generation sequencing in further patients would both prove this gene as causative, and finely delineate this clinical spectrum further contributing in identification of other possibly involved gene(s).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Caderinas/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Mutação com Perda de Função , Osteogênese/genética , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(8): 1643-53, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23335589

RESUMO

Costello syndrome is a congenital disorder comprising a characteristic face, severe feeding difficulties, skeletal, cardiac and skin abnormalities, intellectual disability and predisposition to malignancies. It is caused by heterozygous germline HRAS mutations mostly affecting Gly(12) or Gly(13), which impair HRAS-GTPase activity and result in increased downstream signal flow independent of incoming signals. Functional analyses of rarer HRAS mutations identified in individuals with attenuated Costello syndrome phenotypes revealed altered GDP/GTP nucleotide affinities (p.K117R) and inefficient effector binding (p.E37dup). Thus, both phenotypic and functional variability associated with HRAS mutations are evident. Here, we report on a novel heterozygous HRAS germline mutation (c.187_207dup, p.E63_D69dup) in a girl presenting with a phenotype at the milder end of the Costello syndrome spectrum. The p.E63_D69dup mutation impaired co-precipitation of recombinant HRAS with NF1 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) suggesting constitutive HRAS(E63_D69dup) activation due to GAP insensitivity. Indeed, we identified strongly augmented active HRAS(E63_D69dup) that co-precipitated with effectors RAF1, RAL guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator and phospholipase C1. However, we could not pull down active HRAS(E63_D69dup) using the target protein PIK3CA, indicating a compromised association between active HRAS(E63_D69dup) and PIK3CA. Accordingly, overexpression of HRAS(E63_D69dup) increased steady-state phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 downstream of RAF, whereas AKT phosphorylation downstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) was not enhanced. By analyzing signaling dynamics, we found that HRAS(E63_D69dup) has impaired reagibility to stimuli resulting in reduced and disrupted capacity to transduce incoming signals to the RAF-MAPK and PI3K-AKT cascade, respectively. We suggest that disrupted HRAS reagibility, as we demonstrate for the p.E63_D69dup mutation, is a previously unappreciated molecular pathomechanism underlying Costello syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Costello/genética , Patologia Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Síndrome de Costello/metabolismo , Síndrome de Costello/patologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Camundongos , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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