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1.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 182, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not develop functional speech and remain non-verbal or minimally verbal even after years of speech, language and educational interventions. A wide range of interventions have been developed for improving communication in ASD, but none have proved effective in eliciting functional language in ASD children. Research has found that people with ASD are more likely to have perfect pitch and prefer music to language. Further, it seems that language delay tends to co-occur with better musical skills. Brain imaging research has found that music alongside words increases the attention that people with ASD pay to spoken words. METHODS: In this protocol, we describe our music-assisted programmes (MAP) that will use music to attract the attention of people with ASD to speech. MAP may open the brain pathways to language and therefore help improve communication skills for people with ASD more than standard communication protocols. In particular, we aim to develop and test whether individualised, easily used MAP would increase spoken language in 24-60-month-old, nonverbal or minimally verbal children with ASD. We will develop a structured training method, delivered through naturalistic, interactive activities (e.g. songs) to teach language to ASD children. We will test this by comparing two groups: one undertaking music-assisted programmes, and the other receiving speech and language therapy in the way that is recommended in NHS clinics. Participants will be allocated to groups randomly. The feasibility of MAP will be assessed through estimations of recruitment and retention rates, the sensitivity and reliability of the outcome measures, the intensity and frequency of the trial, the usability of the MAP app (beta version), and the burden of the assessments for the children and parents. DISCUSSION: This feasibility randomised controlled trial will establish the acceptability and estimate the power of the MAP intervention to improve early word learning in children with ASD. In the longer term, this research will help us develop an app for parents or carers of children with ASD to design their own songs and implement their own individualised MAP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN12536062 . Registered on 26 June 2019.

2.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202000888, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34369809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this project was to develop a set of patient-reported outcome measures for adolescents and adults who meet criteria for a psychotic disorder. METHODS: A research team and an international consensus working group, including service users, clinicians, and researchers, worked together in an iterative process by using a modified Delphi consensus technique that included videoconferencing calls, online surveys, and focus groups. The research team conducted systematic literature searches to identify outcomes, outcome measures, and risk adjustment factors. After identifying outcomes important to service users, the consensus working group selected outcome measures, risk adjustment factors, and the final set of outcome measures. International stakeholder groups consisting of >100 professionals and service users reviewed and commented on the final set. RESULTS: The consensus working group identified four outcome domains: symptoms, recovery, functioning, and treatment. The domains encompassed 14 outcomes of importance to service users. The research team identified 131 measures from the literature. The consensus working group selected nine measures in an outcome set that takes approximately 35 minutes to complete. CONCLUSIONS: A set of patient-reported outcome measures for use in routine clinical practice was identified. The set is free to service users, is available in at least two languages, and reflects outcomes important to users. Clinicians can use the set to improve clinical decision making, and administrators and researchers can use it to learn from comparing program outcomes.

3.
Autism ; 25(5): 1234-1245, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423522

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Parent caregivers play an essential role in the lives of individuals on the autism spectrum. The demands of caregiving can have negative effects on the mental and physical wellbeing of parents. Different types of formal support have been developed to help parents to cope with caregiving; however, many parents struggle to access services due to limited availability and busy schedules. The Internet could offer parents more accessible and flexible support. We asked 17 parents what content they would like to include in an online resource. Parents told us about their experiences trying to access and use existing formal support and websites. They overwhelmingly supported the development of an online resource informed by their suggestions. Parents emphasised the need for easier access to information through educational components and direct access to healthcare professionals online. Parents also wanted help with finding existing services and reliable, locally relevant information. Parents stressed the need for a safe environment to meet and chat with other parents online. This research forms the first stage in the development process of an online health resource for parents.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Cuidadores , Criança , Humanos , Pais
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 534, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support is being introduced into mental health services internationally, often in response to workforce policy. Earlier systematic reviews incorporate different modalities of peer support (i.e. group and one-to-one), offer inconsistent evidence of effectiveness, and also indicate substantial heterogeneity and issues of quality in the evidence base at that time. An updated review, focussed on one-to-one peer support, is timely given current policy interest. This study aims to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of one-to-one peer support interventions for adults using mental health services, and to explore heterogeneity in peer support interventions. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases from inception until 13 June 2019. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias, and meta-analyses conducted where multiple trials provided usable data. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies reporting nineteen trials were eligible, providing data from 3329 participants. While seven trials were of low to moderate risk of bias, incomplete reporting of data in many studies suggested bias in the evidence base. Peer support interventions included peer workers in paraclinical roles (e.g. case manager), providing structured behavioural interventions, or more flexible support for recovery. Meta-analyses were conducted for eleven outcomes, with evidence that one-to-one peer support may have a modest positive impact on self-reported recovery and empowerment. There was no impact on clinical symptoms or service use. Analyses of heterogeneity suggest that peer support might improve social network support. CONCLUSIONS: One-to-one peer support in mental health services might impact positively on psychosocial outcomes, but is unlikely to improve clinical outcomes. In order to better inform the introduction of peer support into mental health services, improvement of the evidence base requires complete reporting of outcome data, selection of outcomes that relate to intervention mechanisms, exploration of heterogeneity in the implementation of peer support and focused reviews of specific types of one-to-one peer support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero identifier: CRD42015025621 .


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e20581, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital interventions targeting common mental disorders (CMDs) or symptoms of CMDs are growing rapidly and gaining popularity, probably in response to the increased prevalence of CMDs and better awareness of early help-seeking and self-care. However, no previous systematic reviews that focus on these novel interventions were found. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to scope entirely web-based interventions that provided screening and signposting for treatment, including self-management strategies, for people with CMDs or subthreshold symptoms. In addition, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions for mental well-being and mental health outcomes. METHODS: Ten electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE were searched from January 1, 1999, to early April 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated a digital intervention (1) targeting adults with symptoms of CMDs, (2) providing both screening and signposting to other resources including self-care, and (3) delivered entirely through the internet. Intervention characteristics including target population, platform used, key design features, and outcome measure results were extracted and compared. Trial outcome results were included in a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of users' well-being and mental health outcomes. We also rated the meta-analysis results with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations approach to establish the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: The electronic searches yielded 21 papers describing 16 discrete digital interventions. These interventions were investigated in 19 unique trials including 1 (5%) health economic study. Most studies were conducted in Australia and North America. The targeted populations varied from the general population to allied health professionals. All interventions offered algorithm-driven screening with measures to assess symptom levels and to assign treatment options including automatic web-based psychoeducation, self-care strategies, and signposting to existing services. A meta-analysis of usable trial data showed that digital interventions improved well-being (3 randomized controlled trials [RCTs]; n=1307; standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.40; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.51; I2=28%; fixed effect), symptoms of mental illness (6 RCTs; n=992; SMD -0.29; 95% CI -0.49 to -0.09; I2=51%; random effects), and work and social functioning (3 RCTs; n=795; SMD -0.16; 95% CI -0.30 to -0.02; I2=0%; fixed effect) compared with waitlist or attention control. However, some follow-up data failed to show any sustained effects beyond the post intervention time point. Data on mechanisms of change and cost-effectiveness were also lacking, precluding further analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Digital mental health interventions to assess and signpost people experiencing symptoms of CMDs appear to be acceptable to a sufficient number of people and appear to have enough evidence for effectiveness to warrant further study. We recommend that future studies incorporate economic analysis and process evaluation to assess the mechanisms of action and cost-effectiveness to aid scaling of the implementation.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Internet , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
6.
BJPsych Bull ; : 1-7, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475375

RESUMO

In times of crisis, people have historically had to band together to overcome. What happens when they cannot? This article examines the reality of people forced to isolate from one another during one of the most turbulent events of their lives: the COVID-19 pandemic. Connecting the dots of topics including fear, social stigmas, global public response and previous disease outbreaks, this article discusses the negative mental health effects that individuals and communities will likely suffer as the result of social distancing, isolation and physical infection.

7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 129, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis often causes significant distress and impacts not only in the individuals, but also those close to them. Many relatives and friends ('carers') provide long-term support and need resources to assist them. We have co-produced a digital mental health intervention called COPe-support (Carers fOr People with Psychosis e-support) to provide carers with flexible access to high quality psychoeducation and interactive support from experts and peers. This study evaluates the effectiveness of COPe-support to promote mental wellbeing and caregiving experiences in carers. METHODS: This study is a single-blind, parallel arm, individually randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing COPe-support, with attention control. Both groups continue to receive usual care. COPe-support provides interactive web-based psychoeducation on psychosis-related issues, wellbeing-promotion and network support through forums. The attention-control is a non-interactive online information resource pack. Carers living in England are eligible if they provide at least weekly support to a family member or close friend affected by psychosis, and use internet communication (including emails) daily. All trial procedures are run online, including collection of outcome measurements which participants will directly input into our secure platform. Following baseline assessment, a web-based randomization system will be used to allocate 360 carers to either arm. Participants have unlimited access to the allocated condition for 40 weeks. Data collection is at three time points (10, 20, and 40 weeks after randomization). Analyses will be conducted by trial statisticians blinded to allocation. The primary outcome is mental wellbeing measured by Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS), at 20 weeks. As well as an intention-to-treat analysis, a complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis will be conducted to estimate the intervention effect in participants who have accessed COPe-support content twice or more. The secondary objectives and analysis will examine other health and caregiving-related outcomes and explore mechanisms. In a process evaluation, we will interview 20% of the intervention arm participants regarding the acceptability of COPe-support. We will explore in detail participants' usage patterns. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of COPe-support in promoting wellbeing and caregiving experiences in carers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The RCT is registered with the Current Controlled Trials registration (ISRCTN 89563420, registration date: 02/03/2018).


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Internet , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Grupo Associado , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Apoio Social
8.
Digit Health ; 5: 2055207619871148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489205

RESUMO

Background: Existing research suggests that eHealth interventions targeting family carers of individuals with long-term illness offer a promising approach to care delivery. In particular, digital psychoeducational interventions with interactive psychosocial support are well-received with high rates of satisfaction and acceptability. However, development of such interventions for psychosis carers is lacking. We developed a multi-component eHealth intervention specifically for carers of individuals affected by psychosis, called COPe-support (Carers fOr People with Psychosis e-support). Objective: Using mixed methods to evaluate usability, system heuristics and perceived acceptability, we conducted a usability study to establish the suitability of the intervention prototype for the target user group. Methods: Twenty-three carers were recruited to the study and participated in a think-aloud test or a remote online trial of the intervention. Qualitative feedback, post-use System Usability Scale (SUS) scores, and real-world usage data collected from the tests were analysed. These were also supplemented with heuristic evaluation data provided by an independent eLearning technology expert. Results: Participants evaluated the intervention content as useful and helpful, and indicated that the system had satisfactory usability with a mean SUS score of 73%, above the usability quality benchmark threshold. Study results identified some minor usability issues, which were corroborated with the eLearning expert's heuristic evaluation findings. We used these results to refine the COPe-support intervention. Conclusions: The usability study with end-users and service providers identified real-life usage and usability issues. The study results helped us refine COPe-support and its delivery strategy before its launch as part of a large-scale clinical trial.

9.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e14374, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosis, including schizophrenia, is the most common severe mental illness affecting 1% of the population worldwide. A large number of people provide long-term support and care for a relative with psychosis. Although psychoeducational interventions, especially those delivered through a face-to-face group format, have an established evidence base for improving the caregiving experience, well-being, and health outcomes, large-scale implementation and access remain limited. There is a demand for such provision to be made through the internet for greater flexibility and wider access. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to integrate participatory research methodologies by the public, patients, and carers into the eHealth (electronic health) intervention design and build process to improve the product's usability and acceptability. METHODS: We adapted a structured eHealth intervention build method to include participatory research activities involving key stakeholders and end users to co-design and coproduce our intervention. An expert advisory group (EAG) comprising public involvement members led the formative design and build work using an agile build process. Carers independent from the study were consulted on the evolving drafts of the intervention prototype through focus group meetings. These results were fed back into the intervention build work continuously to ensure end users' input inform every stage of the process. RESULTS: An EAG comprising individuals with lived experience of psychosis, carers, health care professionals, researchers, voluntary organization workers, and eLearning experts (n=14) was established. A total of 4 coproduction workshops were held over 1 year during which the alpha and beta prototypes were designed and built through the participatory research work. Alongside this, 2 rounds of focus group study with carers (n=24, in 4 groups) were conducted to seek consultation on end users' views and ideas to optimize the intervention design and usability. Finally, the EAG carried out a Web-based walk-through exercise on the intervention prototype and further refined it to make it ready for an online usability test. The final product contains multiple sections providing information on psychosis and related caregiving topics and interactive discussion forums with experts and peers for psychosocial support. It provides psychoeducation and psychosocial support for carers through the internet, promoting flexible access and individualized choices of information and support. CONCLUSIONS: The participatory research work led to the coproduction of a eHealth intervention called COPe-support (Carers fOr People with Psychosis e-support). We believe the study methodology, results, and output have optimized the intervention design and usability, fitting the end users' needs and usage pattern. COPe-support is currently being tested for its effectiveness in promoting carers' health outcome through an online randomized controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN89563420; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89563420.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Educação em Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 591, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515108

RESUMO

Background: Approximately 3% of women in community samples develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. Higher prevalence rates are reported for high risk samples. Postpartum PTSD can adversely affect women's wellbeing, mother-infant relationships and child development. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPT), for postnatal women. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all clinical trials which reported post-traumatic stress symptoms for both the intervention and control groups or at least two time-points, pre- and post-intervention. We searched four databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and OpenGrey. Screening of search results, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were undertaken independently by two reviewers. Results: Eleven studies, reported in 12 papers, involving 2,677 postnatal women were included. All were RCTs, bar one case series. Interventions varied in modality, duration and intensity, and included exposure therapy, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and other psychological approaches. Participants had experienced uncomplicated births, emergency cesarean sections and/or preterm births. Results suggest that TFPT are effective for reducing PTSD symptoms in the short term (up to 3 months postpartum [4 RCTs, n = 301, SMD = -0.50, 95% CI = -0.73 to -0.27]), and medium term (i.e., 3-6 months postpartum [2 RCTs, n = 174, SMD = -1.87, 95% CI = -2.60 to -1.13]). However, there is no robust evidence to suggest whether TFPT can also improve women's recovery from clinically significant PTSD symptoms. Conclusion: Further larger studies, distinguishing between low and high risk groups, and with adequate follow-up, are needed to establish which TFPT are most effective and acceptable for treating postnatal PTSD.

11.
Community Ment Health J ; 54(7): 1057-1063, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29468447

RESUMO

Family Interventions in Psychosis (FIP) have been promoted internationally but have been criticised for being based on western cultural models. This paper reports on a focus group study with 10 Integrated Mental Health Service Managers in Guangzhou, China using thematic analysis. Managers believed FIP might benefit families but identified potential difficulties due to (a) families avoiding services due to the 'shame' of mental illness (b) unrealistic expectations of services amongst families (c) deferral to 'key decision-makers' within families when discussing family issues with workers. The findings indicate that FIP work should focus on interaction between carers in the first instance with service users being introduced into sessions at a later date and that more attention needs to be given by the research community to how FIP may be adapted to cultural norms within China.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Terapia Familiar , Administradores de Instituições de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , China , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental
12.
Br J Nurs ; 27(4): 190-196, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: despite a 450% increase in UK alcohol-related liver disease mortality over the past 30 years, little evidence-based guidance exists regarding preventing recidivism post-liver transplant for alcohol-related liver disease. METHOD: a systematic literature review was conducted to identify demographic variables predictive of alcohol relapse and effective psychosocial interventions for alcohol-related liver disease patients post-liver transplant. RESULTS: variables most significantly predictive of alcohol relapse post-transplant were-less than 12 months pre-liver transplant abstinence; patients with children; poor pre-liver transplant psychosomatic evaluation; non-compliance with post-liver transplant treatment plan; and patients with active insurance policies. Structured management was the most effective psychosocial intervention in preventing alcohol relapse. CONCLUSION: findings should be interpreted cautiously, due to limited and poor-quality evidence. Rigorously designed further research of the psychosocial interventions targeting predictive demographic variables is recommended.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Cooperação do Paciente , Alcoolismo/enfermagem , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Demografia , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado , Período Pós-Operatório , Recidiva , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 60: 109-125, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429856

RESUMO

Family carers of people who have long term illness often experience physical and mental health morbidities, and burden. While there is good evidence to suggest that carers benefit from psychosocial interventions, these have primarily been delivered via face-to-face individual or group-formats. eHealth interventions offer a novel, accessible and self-paced approach to care delivery. Whether these are effective for carers' wellbeing has been little explored. This paper reports the first comprehensive systematic review in this area. A total of 78 studies, describing 62 discrete interventions, were identified. Interventions commonly aimed to promote carers' knowledge, self-efficacy, caregiving appraisal, and reduce global health morbidities. Interventions were offered to carers of people with a wide range of long term illness; dementia has been the most researched area, as reported in 40% of studies. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity in interventions precluded meta-analyses, and so data were analysed narratively. The most popular approach has comprised psychoeducational interventions delivered via an enriched online environment with supplementary modes of communication, such as network support with professionals and peers. Overall, carers appreciate the flexibility and self-paced nature of eHealth interventions, with high rates of satisfaction and acceptability. More studies using robust designs are needed to extend the evidence base.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Telemedicina , Família/psicologia , Humanos
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(1): 390, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, pertussis remains a major health problem among children. During the recent outbreaks of pertussis, maternal antenatal immunisation was introduced in several industrial countries. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the efficacy and safety of the pertussis vaccination that was given to pregnant women to protect infants from pertussis infection. METHODS: We searched literature in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and OpenGrey between inception of the various databases and 16 May 2016. The search terms included 'pertussis', 'whooping cough', 'pertussis vaccine,' 'tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccines' and 'pregnancy' and 'perinatal'. RESULTS: We included 15 articles in this review, which represented 12 study populations, involving a total of 203,835 mother-infant pairs from the US, the UK, Belgium, Israel, and Vietnam. Of the included studies, there were two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the rest were observational studies. Existing evidence suggests that vaccinations administered during 19-37 weeks of gestation are associated with significantly increased antibody levels in the blood of both mothers and their newborns at birth compared to placebo or no vaccination. However, there is a lack of robust evidence to suggest whether these increased antibodies can also reduce the incidence of pertussis (one RCT, n = 48, no incidence in either group) and pertussis-related severe complications (one observational study) or mortality (no study) in infants. Meanwhile, there is no evidence of increased risk of serious complications such as stillbirth (e.g. one RCT, n = 103, RR = 0, meaning no case in the vaccine group), or preterm birth (two RCTs, n = 151, RR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.14-5.21) related to administration of the vaccine during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Given that pertussis infection is increasing in many countries and that newborn babies are at greatest risk of developing severe complications from pertussis, maternal vaccination in the later stages of pregnancy should continue to be supported while further research should fill knowledge gaps and strengthen evidence of its efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Israel , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Vacinação/métodos , Vietnã , Coqueluche/transmissão
15.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 56: 13-24, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578249

RESUMO

Psychoeducational interventions for family carers of people with psychosis are effective for improving compliance and preventing relapse. Whether carers benefit from these interventions has been little explored. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of psychoeducation for improving carers' outcomes, and potential treatment moderators. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English or Chinese in eight databases. Carers' outcomes included wellbeing, quality of life, global morbidities, burden, and expressed emotion. Thirty-two RCTs were included, examining 2858 carers. Intervention duration ranged from 4 to 52weeks, and contact times ranged from 6 to 42hours. At post intervention, findings were equivocal for carers' wellbeing (SMD 0.103, 95% CI -0.186 to 0.392). Conversely, psychoeducation was superior in reducing carers' global morbidities (SMD -0.230, 95% CI -0.386 to -0.075), perceived burden (SMD -0.434, 95% CI -0.567 to -0.31), negative caregiving experiences (SMD -0.210, 95% CI -0.396 to -0.025) and expressed emotion (SMD -0.161, 95% CI -0.367 to -0.045). The lack of available data precluded meta-analysis of outcomes beyond short-term follow-up. Meta-regression revealed no significant associations between intervention modality, duration, or contact time and outcomes. Further research should focus on improving carers' outcomes in the longer-term and identifying factors to optimise intervention design.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos Psicóticos/enfermagem , Cuidadores/educação , Humanos
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011894, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterised by impairments in communication and reciprocal social interaction. These impairments can impact on relationships with family members, augment stress and frustration, and contribute to behaviours that can be described as challenging. Family members of individuals with ASD can experience high rates of carer stress and burden, and poor parental efficacy. While there is evidence to suggest that individuals with ASD and family members derive benefit from psychological interventions designed to reduce stress and mental health morbidity, and enhance coping, most studies to date have targeted the needs of either individuals with ASD, or family members. We wanted to examine whether family (systemic) therapy, aimed at enhancing communication, relationships or coping, is effective for individuals with ASD and their wider family network. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and acceptability of family therapy as a treatment to enhance communication or coping for individuals with ASD and their family members. If possible, we will also seek to establish the economic costs associated with family therapy for this clinical population. SEARCH METHODS: On 16 January 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other databases and three trials registers. We also handsearched reference lists of existing systematic reviews and contacted study authors in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs investigating the effectiveness of family therapy for young people or adults with ASD or family members, or both, delivered via any modality and for an unspecified duration, compared with either standard care, a wait-list control, or an active intervention such as an alternative type of psychological therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened each title and abstract and all full-text reports retrieved. To enhance rigour, 25% of these were independently screened by a third author. MAIN RESULTS: The search yielded 4809 records. Of these, we retrieved 37 full-text reports for further scrutiny, which we subsequently excluded as they did not meet the review inclusion criteria, and identified one study awaiting classification. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of family therapy for ASD, and none of these are RCTs. Further research studies employing methodologically robust trial designs are needed to establish whether family therapy interventions are clinically beneficial for enhancing communication, strengthening relationships, augmenting coping and reducing mental health morbidity for individuals with ASD and family members.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Comunicação , Terapia Familiar , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Humanos
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD011464, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28116752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that individuals who develop severe mental illness (SMI) are also vulnerable to developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), due to increased risk of exposure to traumatic events and social adversity. The effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPIs) for PTSD in the general population is well-established. TFPIs involve identifying and changing unhelpful beliefs about traumatic experiences, processing of traumatic memories, and developing new ways of responding to cues associated with trauma. Little is known about the potential feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of TFPIs for individuals who have a SMI and PTSD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for PTSD symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress arising from trauma in people with SMI. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Study-Based Register (up until March 10, 2016), screened reference lists of relevant reports and reviews, and contacted trial authors for unpublished and/or specific outcome data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated TFPIs for people with SMI and PTSD, and reported useable data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three review authors (DS, MF, IN) independently screened the titles and abstracts of all references identified, and read short-listed full text papers. We assessed risk of bias in each case. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data, on an intention-to-treat basis. We assessed quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and created 'Summary of findings' tables. MAIN RESULTS: Four trials involving a total of 300 adults with SMI and PTSD are included. These trials evaluated three active intervention therapies: trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (TF-CBT), eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), and brief psychoeducation for PTSD, all delivered via individual sessions. Our main outcomes of interest were PTSD symptoms, quality of life/well-being, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, adverse events and health economic outcomes. 1. TF-CBT versus usual care/waiting list Three trials provided data for this comparison, however, continuous outcome data available were more often found to be skewed than unskewed, leading to the necessity of conducting analyses separately for the two types of continuous data. Using the unskewed data only, results showed no significant differences between TF-CBT and usual care in reducing clinician-rated PTSD symptoms at short term (1 RCT, n =13, MD 13.15, 95% CI -4.09 to 30.39,low-quality evidence). Limited unskewed data showed equivocal results between groups in terms of general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 39, MD -0.60, 95% CI -4.47 to 3.27, low-quality evidence), symptoms of psychosis (1 RCT, n = 9, MD -6.93, 95% CI -34.17 to 20.31, low-quality evidence), and anxiety (1 RCT, n = 9, MD 12.57, 95% CI -5.54 to 30.68, very low-quality evidence), at medium term. The only available data on depression symptoms were skewed and were equivocal across groups at medium term (2 RCTs, n = 48, MD 3.26, 95% CI -3.66 to 10.18, very low-quality evidence). TF-CBT was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 100, RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.09 to 2.31, low-quality evidence) at medium term. No data were available for health economic outcomes. Very limited data for PTSD and other symptoms were available over the long term. 2. EMDR versus waiting listOne trial provided data for this comparison. Favourable effects were found for EMDR in terms of PTSD symptom severity at medium term but data were skewed (1 RCT, n = 83, MD -12.31, 95% CI -22.72 to -1.90, very low-quality evidence). EMDR was not associated with more adverse events (1 RCT, n = 102, RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.85, low-quality evidence). No data were available for quality of life, symptoms of co-morbid psychosis, depression, anxiety and health economics.3. TF-CBT versus EMDROne trial compared TF-CBT with EMDR. PTSD symptom severity, based on skewed data (1 RCT, n = 88, MD -1.69, 95% CI -12.63 to 9.23, very low-quality evidence) was similar between treatment groups. No data were available for the other main outcomes.4. TF-CBT versus psychoeducationOne trial compared TF-CBT with psychoeducation. Results were equivocal for PTSD symptom severity (1 RCT, n = 52, MD 0.23, 95% CI -14.66 to 15.12, low-quality evidence) and general quality of life (1 RCT, n = 49, MD 0.11, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.95, low-quality evidence) by medium term. No data were available for the other outcomes of interest. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very few trials have investigated TFPIs for individuals with SMI and PTSD. Results from trials of TF-CBT are limited and inconclusive regarding its effectiveness on PTSD, or on psychotic symptoms or other symptoms of psychological distress. Only one trial evaluated EMDR and provided limited preliminary evidence favouring EMDR compared to waiting list. Comparing TF-CBT head-to-head with EMDR and brief psychoeducation respectively, showed no clear effect for either therapy. Both TF-CBT and EMDR do not appear to cause more (or less) adverse effects, compared to waiting list or usual care; these findings however, are mostly based on low to very low-quality evidence. Further larger scale trials are now needed to provide high-quality evidence to confirm or refute these preliminary findings, and to establish which intervention modalities and techniques are associated with improved outcomes, especially in the long term.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através dos Movimentos Oculares/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Listas de Espera
19.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 30 Suppl 1: 10-21, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals who have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly experience social anxiety (SA). Disentangling SA symptoms from core ASD characteristics is complex, partly due to diagnostic overshadowing and co-occurring alexithymia. Causal and maintaining mechanisms for SA in ASD are underexplored, but it is feasible that there is an ASD specificity to the clinical presentation, with implications for the development of targeted treatments. METHODS: Five focus groups were conducted with multidisciplinary professionals to investigate their perspectives about, and approaches to, working with individuals with ASD and SA. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed two overarching themes: conceptualizing SA in ASD and service provision. Our results suggest that adaptations to service provision are pertinent, so as to accommodate inherent impairments that can mediate assessment and intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies should establish how aspects of the care pathway can be improved for individuals with ASD and SA.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Health Expect ; 20(4): 696-704, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27709734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruitment to clinical research studies can prove complex. This is particularly true of mental health research, given factors such as confidentiality, capacity and consent, or when attempting to recruit family members as opposed to service users themselves. AIM: This study investigated the challenges experienced and strategies employed in the recruitment of siblings of people with first episode psychosis using Early Intervention in Psychosis Services (EIPS) in England. METHODS: As part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an e-health intervention for siblings, we conducted a process evaluation study whereby semistructured interview was undertaken with clinical and research staff involved in recruitment of siblings. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Twelve participants from six EIPS were interviewed. Data analysis revealed seven key themes: (i) limited comprehensive family data available; (ii) data governance and consent issues; (iii) organizational factors; (iv) convoluted recruitment methods; (v) concerns about service users' opinions; (vi) fluidity in siblings' needs and expectations; and (vii) strategies to enhance recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment challenges identified in this study concerned administrative, organizational, process and attitudinal issues. These are similar to other studies recruiting mental health service users as well as family members. Failure to recruit to target implies that studies are underpowered to detect potential statistically or clinically meaningful changes. Future studies should establish how best to enhance family inclusiveness in clinical practice and research.


Assuntos
Seleção de Pacientes , Transtornos Psicóticos , Irmãos/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Inglaterra , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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