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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(4)2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454371

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenteric anastomosis (EUS-GEA) using lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) is emerging as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery across several indications. The aim of this survey is to investigate the perceived feasibility of this technique nationwide, within a working group skilled in interventional endosonography. Materials and Methods: Endoscopists were asked to answer to 49 items on a web-based questionnaire about expertise, peri- and intra-procedural aspects in the three main settings of EUS-GEA performance, budget/refund, and future perspectives. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS® (IBM Corp. Released 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Sixty endosonographers belonging to forty Italian centers were I-EUS app users and were all invited to participate. In total, 29 participants from 24 Italian centers completed the survey. All the participants were endosonographers with a broad range of experience both in the field of EUS (only 10.3% with more than 20 years of experience) and duodenal stenting (only 6.9% placed more than 10 stents in 2020), whereas 86.2% also performed ERCP. A total of 27.6% of participants performed EUS-GEA (3.4% more than 20 during their career); on the other hand, 79.3% of participants routinely performed drainage of peri-pancreatic fluid collections, 62.1% performed biliary drainage, and 62.1% performed gallbladder drainage with LAMS. A total of 89.7% of participants thought that EUS-GEA could be useful in their daily clinical practice, with 100% concluding that this procedure will need to be performed in referral centers in the near future; however, in 55.2% of cases, organizational obstacles may occur and affect the diffusion of the procedure. With regard to indications: 44.8% of participants performed the procedure with palliative intent for malignant indication (96.6% pancreatic adenocarcinoma), and 13.6% also for benign indication. A total of 20.7% of participants experienced adverse events (none severe or fatal, 66.6% moderate). A total of 62.1% of participants considered the procedure technically challenging, although 82.8% considered the risk of adverse events acceptable when considering the benefit. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first survey assessing the perceived feasibility of EUS-guided anastomoses after its advent. There are currently wide variations in practice nationwide, which demonstrate a need to define technical, qualitative, and peri-procedural requirements to carry out this procedure. Therefore, a standardization of these requirements is needed in order to overcome the technical, economical, and organizational obstacles relative to its diffusion.


Assuntos
Colestase , Endossonografia , Stents , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Adenocarcinoma , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/terapia , Endossonografia/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Stents/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct bile ducts visualization through cholangioscopy has gained popularity due to its better diagnostic accuracy than a standard ERCP in indeterminate biliary stricture. AIM: We aimed to review our catheter-based cholangioscopy interventions in patients with indeterminate biliary stenosis, using the SpyGlass Direct Visualization System (SDVS) and summarize our experience in terms of procedures and results. RESULTS: we collected 25 consecutive patients with indeterminate biliary stricture over 3 years. The overall procedural success in our cohort amounted to 96% (24/25). If we focus on the diagnostic procedures, the ability to merely visualize the region of interest/lesion and perform biopsy of the lesion was possible in 96 % (24/25) In our cohort localization in the common bile duct (P = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.27-0.96) was found as positive determining factor for diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual diagnosis by SDVS in our cohort were 100, 83.3 and 96 %, respectively. The use of biopsy or obtaining a histological diagnosis to assist in identifying patients with malignant stenosis, to exclude malignancy and to correctly classify diagnosed patients resulted in a sensitivity of 100 %, a specificity of 73% % with an overall accuracy of 94.4 %. Only a mild adverse event (cholangitis, treated conservatively) occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Today, the SDVS should be considered essential in diagnosing indeterminate biliary strictures, since the procedure is associated with high procedural success in terms of diagnostic accuracy, alters clinical outcome in over 80 % of considered insolvable cases, with an acceptable safety profile.

4.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35208765

RESUMO

Recent evidence regarding microbiota is modifying the cornerstones on pathogenesis and the approaches to several gastrointestinal diseases, including biliary diseases. The burden of biliary diseases, indeed, is progressively increasing, considering that gallstone disease affects up to 20% of the European population. At the same time, neoplasms of the biliary system have an increasing incidence and poor prognosis. Framing the specific state of biliary eubiosis or dysbiosis is made difficult by the use of heterogeneous techniques and the sometimes unwarranted invasive sampling in healthy subjects. The influence of the microbial balance on the health status of the biliary tract could also account for some of the complications surrounding the post-liver-transplant phase. The aim of this extensive narrative review is to summarize the current evidence on this topic, to highlight gaps in the available evidence in order to guide further clinical research in these settings, and, eventually, to provide new tools to treat biliary lithiasis, biliopancreatic cancers, and even cholestatic disease.

5.
Clin Endosc ; 55(1): 49-57, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35135178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has modified the activities of endoscopy units worldwide. Herein, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on anesthesiologist assistance for endoscopic procedures in Lombardy, Italy. METHODS: A questionnaire concerning anesthesiologist assistance provided from October 26 to December 6, 2020, in comparison with the same period in 2019, was sent to endoscopic units in Lombardy. RESULTS: Approximately 54% (34/63) of the units responded. A reduction in the number of all endoscopies (-33.5%; 18792 in 2020 vs. 28264 in 2019) and anesthesiologist-assisted endoscopies (-15.3%; 2652 in 2020 vs. 3132 in 2019) was reported. A greater reduction in anesthesiologist assistance was observed in government community units (-29.5%) than in academic (-14%) and private community units (-4.6%). Among all units, 85% reported a reduction in anesthesiologist assistance; 65% observed a delay/cancellation of procedures; 59%, a restricted patient selection; 17%, the need to transfer some patients to other hospitals; and 32%, a related worsening of procedure quality. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic compromised the anesthesiologist assistance for endoscopic procedures in Lombardy, which worsened the procedure quality mainly in government community units. The COVID-19 "stress test" suggests a more balanced allocation of anesthesiologic resources in the future.

6.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 95(5): 896-904.e1, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) with a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has been proposed as an alternative procedure in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO) and failed ERCP. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective analysis included all cases of EUS-CDS with LAMS performed in patients with DMBO and failed ERCP in 23 Italian centers from January 2016 to July 2020. Primary endpoints were technical and clinical success. Secondary endpoints were the assessment of the adverse event (AE) rate and variables associated with technical success. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-six patients (44.9% women) with a mean age of 73.9 ± 12.6 years were included in the study. The most common etiology of DMBO was pancreatic adenocarcinoma (75%), followed by ampullary cancer (8.6%) and cholangiocarcinoma (6.6%). The common bile duct median diameter was 17.3 ± 3.9 mm. Technical and clinical success were achieved in 239 of 256 (93.3%), and 230 of 239 (96.2%) patients, respectively. The mean follow-up was 151 ± 162 days. Twenty-seven AEs occurred in 25 of 239 patients (10.5%) (3 mild, 21 moderate, and 3 severe). No fatal AEs occurred. Reinterventions to manage AEs with endoscopic or radiologic procedures occurred in 22 patients (9.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that EUS-CDS with LAMSs in patients with DMBO and failed ERCP represent a viable alternative in terms of effectiveness and safety with acceptable AE rates. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03903523.).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Colestase , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/complicações , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Coledocostomia/métodos , Colestase/complicações , Colestase/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/complicações , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Drenagem/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/efeitos adversos
8.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is increasing interest in expanding the use of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) in patients with pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a hospital volume threshold for which patient outcomes could be optimized. METHODS: Data from a large multicenter series of patients with PFCs treated with LAMSs were retrieved. Rate of adverse events (AEs) was the primary outcome. Multivariable models with restricted cubic splines were used to identify a hospital volume threshold by plotting hospital volume against the log odds ratio (OR) of AE rate. Propensity score matching was applied to obtain 2 well-balanced groups according to hospital volume, and univariate/multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of AEs. RESULTS: Overall, 516 patients were included. Increasing hospital volume was associated with a reduced AE rate (P = .03), and the likelihood of experiencing an AE declined as hospital volume increased up to 15 cases. After propensity score matching, 175 patients in the high-volume (>15 cases) and 132 in the low-volume hospital group were compared. Overall, 41 AEs were observed (13.3%), of which 14 (8%) and 27 (20.4%) occurred at high-volume and low-volume centers, respectively (P = .001). Severe and fatal events were observed more frequently in low-volume centers (6% vs 1.7% and 2.2% vs 0%, respectively; P = .05). In multivariate analysis, main pancreatic duct injury (OR, 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-4.67; P = .02), presence of abnormal vessels (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.41-5.02; P = .006), and institutional experience (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.48-5.90; P = .002) were significant predictors of AEs. CONCLUSIONS: With 15 procedures representing the minimum number of cases associated with the lowest risk for postprocedural AEs, hospital volume is associated with improved outcomes. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03903523.).

9.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947946

RESUMO

The clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by intestinal strictures, which can be fibrotic, inflammatory, or mixed, therefore leading to stenosis and eventually symptomatic obstruction. We report two cases of subclinical CD diagnosed after fruit pit ingestion, causing bowel obstruction; additionally, we conducted a narrative review of the scientific literature on cases of intestinal obstruction secondary to impacted bezoars due to fruit pits. Symptoms of gastrointestinal bezoars in CD patients are not diagnostic; and the diagnosis should be based on a combined assessment of history, clinical presentation, imaging examination and endoscopy findings. This report corroborates the concept that CD patients are at a greater risk of bowel obstruction with bezoars generally and shows that accidental ingestion of fruit pits may lead to an unusual presentation of the disease. Therapeutic options in this group of patients differ from the usual approaches implemented in other patients with strictures secondary to CD.

10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357086

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is emerging as an important player in neurodevelopment and aging as well as in brain diseases including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The complex interplay between gut microbiota and the brain, and vice versa, has recently become not only the focus of neuroscience, but also the starting point for research regarding many diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The bi-directional interaction between gut microbiota and the brain is not completely understood. The aim of this review is to sum up the evidencesconcerningthe role of the gut-brain microbiota axis in ischemic stroke and to highlight the more recent evidences about the potential role of the gut-brain microbiota axis in the interaction between inflammatory bowel disease and ischemic stroke.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, standard endoscopic treatment of biliary stones fails in up to 10% of patients, and more invasive procedures such as percutaneous trans-hepatic interventions or surgery might become necessary. The aim of this multi-center retrospective study, based on prospectively-collected data, was to evaluate both the efficacy and the safety of Digital-Single Operator Cholangioscopy (D-SOC) to treat difficult biliary stones, in cases with a previous failure of conventional endoscopic methods. METHODS: Only patients with a previous failure of endoscopic standard treatment and a DSOC- based biliary stone treatment using electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) or laser lithotripsy (LL) were included. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the stone clearance rate per procedure and per patient. Out of 1258 ERCP performed at our (three?) centers, 31 cholangioscopies in 21 patients were solely performed for the treatment of difficult biliary stones using EHL or LL. RESULTS: A complete biliary stone removal was achieved in 67.7% (21/31) of all procedures including initial and repeated examinations, while in 35.4% (11/31) of all procedures an incomplete removal was accomplished of which 36.3% had a partial stone removal. In 22 procedures EHL was adopted as techniques to fragment and remove biliary stones, while in 9 procedures LL was used. In both the techniques, the complete stone removal rate and the incomplete stone removal rate were similar (75% vs 77.7%, p>.05). Furthermore, the success rate of digital DSOC to treat difficult biliary stones was assessed per patient: overall, 100% of patients with difficult biliary stones were successfully treated using D-SOC. Only one patient experienced mild cholangitis classified ad mild adverse event following ASGE (American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) lexicon. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data indicate that digital D-SOC assisted biliary stone treatment is highly efficient for the treatment of difficult biliary stones even in such patients in whom previous conventional endoscopic methods to treat biliary stones have failed. Therefore, D-SOC might be considered the new standard of care for these patients, being both, effective and safe.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technologic advancements in the field of therapeutic endoscopy have led to the development of minimally invasive techniques to create gastrointestinal anastomosis instead of surgical interventions. Examples of the potential clinical applications include bypassing malignant and benign gastric outlet obstruction, providing access to the pancreato-biliary tree in those who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and relieving pancreato-biliary symptoms in afferent loop syndrome. METHODS: starting from the available literature, aim of this narrative review is to summarize indications and techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided visceral anastomoses. RESULTS: A critical review of literature on the new EUS-guided anastomoses. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing evidences are accumulating demonstrating advantages of EUS guided visceral anastomoses. These new procedures represent a novel, minimally invasive alternative for managing different type of intestinal obstruction.

13.
Clin Endosc ; 54(4): 613-617, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765374

RESUMO

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is defined as a metastatic involvement of the peritoneum by several other primary sites and it is characterized by a marked worsening of prognosis, with limited treatment opportunities. Subsequently, PC should be ruled out before any invasive treatment is administered. A new through-the-needle micro-biopsy forceps (MF) was recently introduced that permits micro-histology cores. In this case series, we evaluated the feasibility of MF in the assessment of PC to complete patient diagnostic work-ups. Five consecutive patients referred for endoscopic ultrasound staging were sampled using MF. Sampling was feasible in all patients with a technical success of 100%. No adverse events were reported in any cases. This technique was feasible and safe with a technical success rate of 100%. It permitted sampling of peritoneal irregularity, obtained high-quality tissue fragments in all cases, and enabled an additional assessment, i.e., immunohistochemical staining.

15.
J Clin Med ; 10(2)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450988

RESUMO

Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIPO) is a disease characterized by symptoms and signs of small bowel obstruction in the absence of displayable mechanical obstruction. Due to the known neuropathic capacity of several viruses, and their localization in the intestine, it has been hypothesized that such viruses could be involved in the pathogenesis of CIIPO. The most frequently involved viruses are John Cunningham virus, Herpesviridae, Flaviviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Citomegalovirus. Therefore, the present narrative review aims to sum up some new perspectives in the etiology and pathophysiology of CIIPO.

16.
Surg Endosc ; 35(1): 37-51, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), represent the standard of care for treatment of superficial gastrointestinal lesions. In 2012 a novel technique called underwater endoscopic mucosal resection (U-EMR) was described by Binmoeller and colleagues. This substantial variation from the standard procedure was afterwards applied at endoscopic submucosal dissection (U-ESD) and recently proposed also for peroral endoscopic myotomy (U-POEM) and endoscopic full-thickness resection (U-EFTR). METHODS: This paper aims to perform a comprehensive review of the current literature related to supporting the underwater resection techniques with the aim to evaluate their safety and efficacy. RESULTS: Based on the current literature U-EMR appears to be feasible and safe. Comparison studies showed that U-EMR is associated with higher "en-bloc" and R0 resection rates for colonic lesions, but lower "en-bloc" and R0 resection rates for duodenal non-ampullary lesions, compared to standard EMR. In contrast to U-EMR, little evidence supporting U-ESD are currently available. A single comparison study on gastric lesions showed that U-ESD had shorter procedural times and allowed a similar "en-bloc" resection rates compared to standard ESD. No comparison studies between U-ESD and ESD are available for colonic lesions. Finally, only some anecdotal experiences have been reported for U-POEM or U-EFTR, and the feasibility and effectiveness of these techniques need to be further investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Further prospective studies are necessary to better explore the advantages of underwater techniques compared to the respective standards of care, especially in the setting of U-ESD where consistent data are lacking and where standardization of the technique is needed.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/cirurgia , Mucosa Intestinal/cirurgia , Pólipos Intestinais/cirurgia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Água
18.
Endoscopy ; 53(10): 1037-1047, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage is becoming an option for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) are replacing self-expandable metal stents (SEMS). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of LAMS and SEMS for EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS). METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed using PRISMA protocols. Electronic databases were searched for studies on EUS-CDS. The primary outcome was clinical success. Secondary outcomes were technical success, reintervention, and adverse events. We used the random effects model with the DerSimonian-Laird estimation, and the results were depicted using forest plots. Subgroup analyses were also performed with data stratified by selected variable. RESULTS: Overall, 31 studies (820 patients) were included. The pooled rates of clinical and technical success were 93.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 88.6 %-96.5 %) and 94.8 % (95 %CI 90.2 %-97.3 %) for LAMS, and 91.7 % (95 %CI 88.1 %-94.2 %) and 92.7 % (95 %CI 89.9 %-94.9 %) for SEMS, respectively. The pooled rates of adverse events were 17.1 % (95 %CI 12.5 %-22.8 %) for LAMS and 18.3 % (95 %CI 14.3 %-23.0 %) for SEMS. The pooled rates of reintervention were 10.9 % (95 %CI 7.7 %-15.3 %) for LAMS and 13.9 % (95 %CI 9.6 %-19.7 %) for SEMS. Subgroup analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that LAMS and SEMS are comparable in terms of efficacy for EUS-CDS. Clinical and technical success, post-procedure adverse events, and reintervention rates were similar between LAMS and SEMS use; however, adverse events require further investigation.


Assuntos
Coledocostomia , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis , Coledocostomia/efeitos adversos , Drenagem , Endossonografia , Humanos , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis/efeitos adversos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
19.
Curr Drug Metab ; 22(2): 85-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292108

RESUMO

An adequate bowel preparation is essential for a successful colonoscopy, in particular, in the setting of colorectal cancer screening. However, up to one-quarter of colonoscopies are associated with inadequate bowel preparation, which may result in reduced polyp and adenoma detection rates, prolonged procedural time, and an increased likelihood of repeat the procedure. The ideal intestinal preparation should provide an optimal observation of the mucosa (at least > 90% of the visible surface), with adequate acceptability and safety for the patient. With this premise, a very low-volume 1 L PEG-ASC solution (Plenvu; Norgine, Harefield, United Kingdom) has been recently introduced to improve patients' experience in colonoscopy by reducing the total intake of liquids to be consumed. This could represent a valid option for bowel cleansing, considering CRC screening and surveillance programs, improving both the quality of the examination and the patients' compliance. Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that a "one size fits all" preparation strategy is not feasible and that a bowel preparation regime must always be selected and tailored by the clinician for each patient, evaluating the best options on a case by case basis. This narrative review aims to sum up the evidence regarding new bowel preparation regimens in order to help clinicians to tailor the best choice for patients undergoing colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Catárticos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/tendências , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(39): 5911-5918, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132644

RESUMO

Colonoscopy remains the standard strategy for screening for colorectal cancer around the world due to its efficacy in both detecting adenomatous or pre-cancerous lesions and the capacity to remove them intra-procedurally. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD), thanks to the brand new developed innovations of artificial intelligence, and especially deep-learning techniques, leads to a promising solution to human biases in performance by guarantying decision support during colonoscopy. The application of CAD on real-time colonoscopy helps increasing the adenoma detection rate, and therefore contributes to reduce the incidence of interval cancers improving the effectiveness of colonoscopy screening on critical outcome such as colorectal cancer related mortality. Furthermore, a significant reduction in costs is also expected. In addition, the assistance of the machine will lead to a reduction of the examination time and therefore an optimization of the endoscopic schedule. The aim of this opinion review is to analyze the clinical applications of CAD and artificial intelligence in colonoscopy, as it is reported in literature, addressing evidence, limitations, and future prospects.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Pólipos do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Inteligência Artificial , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico por Computador , Humanos , Patologistas
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