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2.
Heart Fail Clin ; 18(1): 101-113, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776072

RESUMO

In the wide phenotypic spectrum of cardiomyopathies, sudden cardiac death (SCD) has always been the most visible and devastating disease complication. The introduction of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for SCD prevention by the late 1980s has moved the question from how to whom we should protect from SCD, leaving clinicians with a measure of uncertainty regarding the most reliable option to guide identification of the highest-risk patients. In this review, we will go through all the available evidence in the field of arrhythmic expression and arrhythmic risk stratification in the different phenotypes of cardiomyopathies to provide practical suggestions in daily clinical management.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fenótipo
3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 749523, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34888361

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is unknown. Aims and Methods: We sought to (a) determine the prevalence of CA in unselected patients ≥75 years undergoing autopsy, (b) characterize cardiological profiles of CA and non-CA patients by providing clinical-histological correlations, and (c) compare their cardiological profiles. After dedicated staining, the localization (interstitial or vascular) and the distribution (non-diffuse or diffuse) of amyloid deposition were analyzed. Cardiological data at last evaluation were retrospectively assessed for the presence of CA red-flags. Results: CA (50% light chains, 50% transthyretin) was found in 43% (n = 24/56) of the autopsied hearts. Atria were involved in 96% of cases. Amyloid localized both at the perivascular and interstitial levels (95.5 and 85%, respectively) with a slightly predominant non-diffuse distribution (58% of cases). Compared to the other patients, CA patients had a more frequent history of heart failure (HF) (79 vs. 47%, p = 0.014), advanced NYHA functional class (III-IV 25 vs. 6%, p = 0.047), atrial fibrillation (68 vs. 36%, p = 0.019), discrepancy between QRS voltage and left ventricular (LV) thickness (70 vs. 12%, p < 0.001), thicker LV walls (15 vs. 11 mm, p < 0.001), enlarged left atrium (49 vs. 42 mm, p = 0.019) and restrictive filling pattern (56 vs. 19%, p = 0.020). The presence of right ventricular amyloidosis seemed to identify hearts with a higher amyloid burden. Among the CA patients, >30% had ≥3 echocardiographic red-flags of disease. Conclusion: CA can be found in 43% of autopsied hearts from patients ≥75 years old, especially in patients with HF, LV hypertrophy and atrial fibrillation.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884220

RESUMO

Although the overall survival of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) has improved significantly in the last decades, a non-negligible proportion of DCM patients still shows an unfavorable prognosis. DCM patients not only need imaging techniques that are effective in diagnosis, but also suitable for long-term follow-up with frequent re-evaluations. The exponential growth of echocardiography's technology and performance in recent years has resulted in improved diagnostic accuracy, stratification, management and follow-up of patients with DCM. This review summarizes some new developments in echocardiography and their promising applications in DCM. Although nowadays cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) remains the gold standard technique in DCM, the echocardiographic advances and novelties proposed in the manuscript, if properly integrated into clinical practice, could bring echocardiography closer to CMR in terms of accuracy and may certify ultrasound as the technique of choice in the follow-up of DCM patients. The application in DCM patients of novel echocardiographic techniques represents an interesting emergent research area for scholars in the near future.

5.
Life Sci ; : 120193, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864062

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a hormone with both genomic and non-genomic actions. It exerts its activity by binding vitamin D receptor (VDR), which belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors and ligand-activated transcription factors. Since VDR has been found in various tissues, it has been estimated that it regulates approximately 3% of the human genome. Several recent studies have shown pleiotropic effects of vitamin D in various processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair and apoptosis and its involvement in different pathophysiological conditions as inflammation, diabetes mellitus, and anemia. It has been suggested that vitamin D could play an important role in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders. Moderate to strong associations between lower serum vitamin D concentrations and stroke and cardiovascular events have been identified in different analytic approaches, even after controlling for traditional demographic and lifestyle covariates. The mechanisms behind the associations between vitamin D and cerebrovascular and cardiologic profiles have been widely examined both in animal and human studies. Optimization of vitamin D levels in human subjects may improve insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function and lower levels of inflammatory markers. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that altered gene expression of VDR and 1,25D3-membrane-associated rapid response steroid-binding (1,25D3-MARRS) receptor influences the role of vitamin D within neurons and allows them to be more prone to degeneration. This review summarizes the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D signaling and the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite prognostic improvements in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients presenting with cardiogenic shock (CS) have still high mortality. Which are the relevant early prognostic factors despite revascularization in this high-risk population is poorly investigated. METHODS: We analyzed STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and enrolled at the University Hospital of Trieste between 2012 and 2018. A decision tree based on data available at first medical contact (FMC) was built to stratify patients for 30-day mortality. Multivariate analysis was used to explore independent factors associated with 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Among 1222 STEMI patients consecutively enrolled, 7.5% presented with CS. CS compared with no-CS patients had worse 30-day mortality (33% vs 3%, P < 0.01). Considering data available at FMC, CS patients with a combination of age ≥76 years, anterior STEMI and an expected ischemia time > 3 h and 21 min were at the highest mortality risk, with a 30-day mortality of 85.7%. In CS, age (OR 1.246; 95% CI 1.045-1,141; P = 0.003), final TIMI flow 2-3 (OR 0.058; 95% CI 0.004-0.785; P = 0.032) and Ischemia Time (OR = 1.269; 95% CI 1.001-1.609; P = 0.049) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a contemporary real-world population presenting with CS due to STEMI, age is a relevant negative factor whereas an early and successful PCI is positively correlated with survival. However, a subgroup of elderly patients had severe prognosis despite revascularization. Whether pPCI may have an impact on survival in a very limited number of irreversibly critically ill patients remains uncertain and the identification of irreversibly shocked patients remains nowadays challenging.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 765274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917664

RESUMO

Aims: Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) by cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) analysis has shown an incremental prognostic value compared to classical parameters in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM). However, less is known about the role of right ventricular (RV) GLS. Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic impact of RV-GLS by CMR-FT analysis in a population of NICM patients. Methods: In this multicenter study, we examined NICM patients evaluated with a comprehensive CMR-FT study. Major cardiac events (MACEs) were considered as the study primary outcome measure and were defined as a composite of (a) cardiovascular death, (b) cardiac transplant or destination therapy ventricular assist device, (c) hospitalization for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias or implantable cardiac defibrillator appropriate intervention. Heart failure (HF) related events, including hospitalizations and life-threatening arrhythmia-related events were considered as secondary end-points. Receiver operating time-dependent analysis were used to calculate the possible additional effect of RV-GLS to standard evaluation. Results: We consecutively enrolled 273 patients. During a median follow-up of 39 months, 41 patients (15%) experienced MACEs. RV-GLS and LV late gadolinium emerged as the strongest prognostic CMR-FT variables: their association provided an estimated 3-year MACEs rate of 29%. The addition of RV-GLS significantly improved the prognostic accuracy in predicting MACEs with respect to the standard evaluation including LGE (areas under the curve from 0.71 [0.66-0.82] to 0.76 [0.66-0.86], p = 0.03). On competing risk analysis, RV-GLS showed a significant ability to reclassify overall both HF-related and life-threatening arrhythmia-related events, regardless of LV and RV ejection fraction. Conclusions: In NICM patients, RV-GLS showed a significant prognostic role in reclassifying the risk of MACEs, incremental with respect to standard evaluation with standard prognostic parameters.

8.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 3e-7e, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34935773

RESUMO

Hyperkalemia (HK) is a common condition among heart failure (HF) patients, either due to their comorbidities, such as chronic renal failure, or due to the administration of therapies capable of promoting an increase in serum potassium (K+), such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). RAASi are among the most important treatments for HF, especially in patients with reduced ejection fraction. This class of drugs, acting on the neurohormonal mechanisms, that lead to the worsening of hemodynamic compensation, has shown to improve the prognosis of HF patients, both in terms of mortality and HF hospitalizations. HK is a major cause of dose reduction, or even discontinuation, of RAASi, thus, indirectly worsening HF patient's prognosis. Pharmacological strategies for HK treatment in outpatients have long been based solely on therapies of dubious efficacy, such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate, which are difficult to administer in an extended period of time. Reasonably, the use of the new K+ binders (patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) in clinical practice, allowing to reduce serum K+ levels without discontinuing RAASi therapy, will improve the prognosis of patients with HK and HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/epidemiologia , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Prognóstico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
9.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(12): 1017-1023, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845404

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic has renewed interest in providing healthcare services based on the implementation of innovative technologies. Such strategy capillarizes the therapeutic opportunities for larger urban areas, mostly when people are living under extraordinarily difficult circumstances. Improving care delivery in cardiovascular diseases appears particularly feasible when telemedicine is pursued, especially with regard to baseline standard 12-lead electrocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring, and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Nowadays, these first-line cardiovascular examinations are also available in health centers and pharmacies, and in recent months, there has been an increasing demand of such local services in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding technical requirements and standards of interpretation that ensure a high quality clinical consultation.The purpose of this position paper is to provide critical requirements for the type/model of devices to be used, training dedicated to healthcare personnel, ensuring security of sensitive data, highlighting type of platforms to be used, as well as for maintaining high reporting quality and standards.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787731

RESUMO

The variation between rest and peak stress end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ΔESPVR) is an index of myocardial contractility, easily obtained during routine stress echocardiography and never tested during dipyridamole stress-cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). We assessed the ΔESPVR index in patients with known/suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent dipyridamole stress-CMR. One-hundred consecutive patients (24 females, 63.76 ± 10.17 years) were considered. ESPVR index was evaluated at rest and stress from raw measurement of systolic arterial pressure and end-systolic volume by biplane Simpson's method. The ΔESPVR index showed a good inter-operator reproducibility. Mean ΔESPVR index was 0.48 ± 1.45 mmHg/mL/m2. ΔESPVR index was significantly lower in males than in females. ΔESPVR index was not correlated to rest left ventricular end-diastolic volume index or ejection fraction. Forty-six of 85 patients had myocardial fibrosis detected by the late gadolinium enhancement technique and they showed significantly lower ΔESPVR values. An abnormal stress CMR was found in 25 patients and they showed significantly lower ΔESPVR values. During a mean follow-up of 56.34 ± 30.04 months, 24 cardiovascular events occurred. At receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, a ΔESPVR < 0.02 mmHg/mL/m2 predicted the presence of future cardiac events with a sensitivity of 0.79 and a specificity of 0.68. The noninvasive assessment of the ΔESPVR index during a dipyridamole stress-CMR exam is feasible and reproducible. The ΔESPVR index was independent from rest LV dimensions and function and can be used for a comparative assessment of patients with different diseases. ΔESPVR index by CMR can be a useful and simple marker for additional prognostic stratification.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755478

RESUMO

AIMS: Carpal tunnel (CT) syndrome is a recognized red-flag of cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity. We designed this study to characterize the CV profile of patients with CT syndrome at the time of first surgery and to identify high-risk presentations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed 643 patients who underwent CT surgery between 2007 and 2019. Of them, 130 patients (77 years, 45% male patients, left ventricular ejection fraction 62%) with available CV characterization within ±12 months from CT surgery were included. Abnormal loading conditions causing cardiac left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were investigated to distinguish explained LVH (Ex-LVH) from unexplained LVH (Un-LVH). LVH was found in 66 (51%) patients, 33% of them presented Un-LVH. Compared with the others, Un-LVH patients were older (77 and 75 vs. 70 years in Un-LVH, Ex-LVH, and non-LVH, respectively; P = 0.002), had higher rates of electrocardiogram-echo discrepancy (70%, 14.3%, and 1.6%, respectively; P < 0.001) and of echocardiographic findings of CA (24%, 7%, and 0%, P < 0.001). Among Un-LVH patients, 9 (43%) experienced death and 7 (33%) developed heart failure (HF) at 3.8 and 2.4 years from CT surgery, respectively. Compared with the others, death and HF development rates were higher in Un-LVH patients both at unadjusted (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively) and adjusted analysis for age, gender, and renal insufficiency (P = 0.00038 and P = 0.050, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: At the time of CT surgery, Un-LVH was found in more than 30% of patients with LVH, and 24% of them showed echocardiographic features suggesting an underdiagnosed CA. Un-LVH was associated with higher all-cause mortality and HF development.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 345: 61-67, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of myocardial fiber deformation with cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) has shown to be promising in terms of prognostic information in several structural heart diseases. However, little is known about its role in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aims of the present study were: 1) to assess the prognostic role of CMR-FT derived strain parameters in patients with HCM. METHODS: CMR was performed in 130 consecutive HCM patients (93 males, mean age (54 ± 17 years) with an estimated 5-year risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) <6% according to the HCM Risk-SCD calculator. 2D- and 3D-Global Radial (GRS), Longitudinal (GLS) and Circumferential (GCS) Strain was evaluated by FT analysis. The primary outcome of the study was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including SCD, resuscitated cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT), and hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 51.7 (37.1-68.8) months, 4 (3%) patients died (all of them suffered from SCD) and 36 (28%) were hospitalized for heart failure. After multivariable adjustment for clinical and imaging covariates, among all strain parameters, only GLS remained a significant independent predictor of outcome events in both the model including 2D strain (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23, p = 0.01) and the model including 3D strain (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.30, p = 0.04). The addition of 2D-GLS into the model with clinical and imaging predictors resulted in a significant increase in the C-statistic (from 0.48 to 0.65, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: CMR-FT derived GLS is a powerful independent predictor of MACE in patients with HCM, incremental to common clinical and CMR risk factors including left ventricular ejection fraction and late gadolinium enhancement.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Meios de Contraste , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/epidemiologia , Gadolínio , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609075

RESUMO

Acute heart failure (AHF) affects millions of people worldwide, and it is a potentially life-threatening condition for which the cardiologist is more often brought into play. It is crucial to rapidly identify, among patients presenting with dyspnoea, those with AHF and to accurately stratify their risk, in order to define the appropriate setting of care, especially nowadays due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Furthermore, with physical examination being limited by personal protective equipment, the use of new alternative diagnostic and prognostic tools could be of extreme importance. In this regard, usage of biomarkers, especially when combined (a multimarker approach) is beneficial for establishment of an accurate diagnosis, risk stratification and post-discharge monitoring. This review highlights the use of both traditional biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NP) and troponin, and emerging biomarkers such as soluble suppression of tumourigenicity (sST2) and galectin-3 (Gal-3), from patients' emergency admission to discharge and follow-up, to improve risk stratification and outcomes in terms of mortality and rehospitalization.

17.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 72-78, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656315

RESUMO

There is limited evidence on characterization and natural history of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The aim of this work was to characterize clinical features and long-term evolution of SVT-induced LV dysfunction. Patients consecutively admitted with sustained SVT and heart rate >100 bpm as the only known cause of a new onset LV systolic dysfunction (i.e., LV ejection fraction [EF] <50%) were analyzed. Patients were then revaluated periodically. Recovered LVEF (i.e., ≥50%) and a composite of death, heart transplant or first episode of major ventricular arrhythmias were evaluated as study end-points. We enrolled 83 patients. After SVT therapy, 56 (67%) showed a recovered LVEF at the last follow-up of median 54 (interquartile range 36 to 87) months. Seventeen (30%) of those patients had a temporary new drop in LVEF during follow-up associated to high-rate SVT relapse. At presentation, patients with recovered LVEF were younger (52 vs 67 years respectively, p <0.001) and had higher LVEF (34% vs 27% respectively, p = 0.005) compared to non-recovered LVEF patients. Finally, 4% of recovered LVEF patients vs 26% of nonrecovered LVEF patients experienced death/heart transplant/major ventricular arrhythmias during follow-up (p = 0.004). In conclusion, after almost 5 years of follow-up, two-thirds of patients with high-rate SVT causing a newly diagnosed LV systolic dysfunction recovered and maintained normal LV function after SVT control, with a subsequent benign outcome. Long term individual surveillance is required in those patients, as arrhythmic recurrences and new drops in LVEF are common in the long term.


Assuntos
Taquicardia Supraventricular/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 23(Suppl E): E147-E150, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650375

RESUMO

The pressure overload due to the progressive narrowing of the valve area determines the development of the left ventricular hypertrophy which characterizes aortic stenosis (AS). The onset of myocardial fibrosis marks the inexorable decline of an initially compensatory response towards heart failure. However, myocardial fibrosis does not yet represent a key element in the prognostic and therapeutic framework of AS. In this context, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging plays a major role by highlighting both the focal irreversible fibrotic replacement, using the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique, and the earlier diffuse reversible interstitial fibrosis, using the T1 mapping techniques. For this reason, the presence of myocardial fibrosis would be useful to identify a subgroup of patients at greater risk of events among the subjects with severe AS. Actually, more and more evidences seem to identify the presence of LGE as a powerful prognostic factor to be used to optimize the timing of prosthetic valve replacement. Randomized clinical trials, such as the EVoLVeD trial currently underway, will be needed to better define the importance of myocardial fibrosis assessment in the management of patients with AS.

19.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718528

RESUMO

AIMS: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the most common mode of death in childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The newly developed HCM Risk-Kids model provides clinicians with individualized estimates of risk. The aim of this study was to externally validate the model in a large independent, multi-centre patient cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort of 421 patients diagnosed with HCM aged 1-16 years independent of the HCM Risk-Kids development and internal validation cohort was studied. Data on HCM Risk-Kids predictor variables (unexplained syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, maximal left ventricular wall thickness, left atrial diameter, and left ventricular outflow tract gradient) were collected from the time of baseline clinical evaluation. The performance of the HCM Risk-Kids model in predicting risk at 5 years was assessed. Twenty-three patients (5.4%) met the SCD end-point within 5 years, with an overall incidence rate of 2.03 per 100 patient-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.78]. Model validation showed a Harrell's C-index of 0.745 (95% CI 0.52-0.97) and Uno's C-index 0.714 (95% 0.58-0.85) with a calibration slope of 1.15 (95% 0.51-1.80). A 5-year predicted risk threshold of ≥6% identified 17 (73.9%) SCD events with a corresponding C-statistic of 0.702 (95% CI 0.60-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports the first external validation of the HCM Risk-Kids model in a large and geographically diverse patient population. A 5-year predicted risk of ≥6% identified over 70% of events, confirming that HCM Risk-Kids provides a method for individualized risk predictions and shared decision-making in children with HCM.

20.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 22(11): 894-899, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709228

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 2.69 million deaths and 122 million infections. Great efforts have been made worldwide to promptly develop effective vaccines and reduce morbidity and mortality rates from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Available vaccines have proven highly effective at preventing symptomatic disease in clinical trials and real-world reports and are playing an essential role in flattening the epidemiology curve and, mostly, in reducing COVID-19 hospitalizations. Some concerns have been raised after very rare cases of myocarditis and pericarditis recently reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as potentially associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccinations, namely the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2) and the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273). Therefore, the aim of this document is to explore the possible link between COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and the development of myocarditis and/or pericarditis by performing a critical analysis of available data and to provide indications for specific subgroups of individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cardiologia , Miocardite , Pericardite , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Miocardite/etiologia , Pericardite/etiologia , RNA Mensageiro , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
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