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1.
Hepatology ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617660

RESUMO

In our recent systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that HCC surveillance continues to be underused in clinical practice, with a pooled surveillance of 24.0%.1 In subgroup analyses, the highest surveillance receipt was reported in studies that enrolled patients from Gastroenterology subspecialty clinics and lowest in studies including population-based cohorts, in which many patients were followed in primary care clinics. The letter from Drs. Huang and Nguyen regarding our study raises some points that warrant further discussion.2.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Professional societies recommend abdominal ultrasound (US) with or without alpha fetoprotein (AFP) for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) surveillance; however, there are several emerging surveillance modalities, including abbreviated MRI and blood-based biomarker panels. Most studies have focused on provider perspectives for surveillance logistics, but few have assessed patient preferences. We aimed to measure preferences among patients with cirrhosis regarding HCC surveillance modalities. METHODS: We conducted a choice-based conjoint survey to patients with cirrhosis at four institutions. Participants were provided 15 scenarios in which they were asked to choose surveillance modalities based on five test attributes: benefits, i.e. sensitivity for early HCC (range: 35-95%), physical harm, i.e. false positives requiring additional testing (range: 10-40%), financial harm, i.e. out-of-pocket costs (range: $10-100), test logistics and convenience, i.e. duration of testing (range: 10-60 min). Hierarchical Bayes discrete choice conjoint analysis was used to derive attribute importance, and preference shares were determined by simulation. RESULTS: In total 91% (182/199) of approached patients consented to participate in the study and 98% (n=179) successfully completed the survey. Surveillance benefits (importance: 51.3%, 95%CI: 49.0-53.4%) were valued more than risk of physical harm (importance: 7.6%, 95%CI 7.0-8.2%), financial harm (importance: 15.2%, 95%CI 14.0-16.3%), convenience (importance: 9.3%, 95%CI 8.5-10.1%) and test logistics (importance: 16.7%, 95%CI 15.4-18.1%). Based on simulations including all possible tests, patients preferred abbreviated MRI (29.0%), MRI (23.3%), or novel blood-based biomarkers (20.9%) to ultrasound alone (3.4%) or with AFP (8.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with cirrhosis prioritize early HCC detection over potential surveillance-related harms or inconvenience.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Efforts to assess and improve the effectiveness of Barrett's esophagus (BE) screening and surveillance are ongoing in the United States. Currently, there are limited population-based data in the United States to guide these efforts. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from large commercial and Medicare Advantage health plans in the United States from 2004 - 2019. We identified individuals with BE and analyzed the proportion who developed EAC. EACs were classified as prevalent EAC (diagnosed within 30 days of index endoscopy), post-endoscopy esophageal adenocarcinoma (PEEC, diagnosed 30 - 365 days after index endoscopy), and incident EAC (diagnosed 365 days or more after index endoscopy). Using this cohort, we performed a nested case-control study to identify factors associated with prevalent EAC at BE diagnosis and study healthcare utilization prior to BE diagnosis. RESULTS: We identified 50,817 individuals with incident BE. Of the 366 who developed EAC, 67.2%, 13.7%, and 19.1% were diagnosed with prevalent EAC, PEEC, and incident EAC respectively. Factors positively associated with prevalent EAC versus BE without prevalent EAC included male sex, dysphagia, weight loss, and Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score. In those with prevalent EAC, most patients with dysphagia or weight loss had their symptoms first recorded within three months of EAC diagnosis. Healthcare utilization rates were similar between those with and without prevalent EAC. CONCLUSIONS: Two-thirds of EACs among individuals with BE are diagnosed at the time of BE diagnosis. Additionally, PEEC accounts for 14% of these EACs. These results may guide future research studies that investigate novel BE diagnostic strategies that reduce the morbidity and mortality of EAC.

4.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 7(1): 6, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479224

RESUMO

Liver cancer remains a global health challenge, with an estimated incidence of >1 million cases by 2025. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and accounts for ~90% of cases. Infection by hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are the main risk factors for HCC development, although non-alcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus is becoming a more frequent risk factor in the West. Moreover, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-associated HCC has a unique molecular pathogenesis. Approximately 25% of all HCCs present with potentially actionable mutations, which are yet to be translated into the clinical practice. Diagnosis based upon non-invasive criteria is currently challenged by the need for molecular information that requires tissue or liquid biopsies. The current major advancements have impacted the management of patients with advanced HCC. Six systemic therapies have been approved based on phase III trials (atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, sorafenib, lenvatinib, regorafenib, cabozantinib and ramucirumab) and three additional therapies have obtained accelerated FDA approval owing to evidence of efficacy. New trials are exploring combination therapies, including checkpoint inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors or anti-VEGF therapies, or even combinations of two immunotherapy regimens. The outcomes of these trials are expected to change the landscape of HCC management at all evolutionary stages.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: & Amis: Differences in outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between countries have been largely attributed to variation in the conduct of surveillance and subsequent HCC treatment eligibility. However, differences in outcomes among those detected under surveillance have not been well described. We compared characteristics and prognosis between patients with surveillance-detected HCC from the United States (US) and Japan. METHODS: Patients in whom initial HCC was detected under surveillance between January 2006 and December 2015 from two centers in the US and two from Japan were included. Survival was compared between patients from the US and Japan using multivariable Cox regression analysis and propensity-score matched analysis. We performed subgroup analyses by liver disease etiology, tumor stage, and type of HCC treatment. RESULTS: Of 3788 HCC patients, 1797 (47.4%) were diagnosed under surveillance -715 from the US and 1082 from Japan. Patients from the US diagnosed under surveillance had worse liver dysfunction and larger tumor burden than those from Japan. In multivariate analysis, US patients with surveillance-detected HCC had significantly worse survival than those from Japan (HR 1.17, 95%CI 1.00-1.35), which was also observed in propensity-score matched analysis. However, this difference was no longer significant after adjusting for treatment type (HR 1.07, 95%CI 0.92-1.25). When stratified by treatment type, survival was comparable between the two countries except lower survival among patients who underwent resection in the US versus Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of patients with surveillance-detected HCC is poorer in the US than Japan, primarily driven by differences in treatment delivery. Studies are necessary to elucidate reasons for these differences.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Up to 20% of younger patients (age <50 years) diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) have germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes. Germline genetic testing may guide clinical management and facilitate earlier intervention in affected relatives. Few studies have characterized differences in genetic testing by race/ethnicity. METHODS: We identified young adults (age 18-49 years) diagnosed with CRC between 2009 and 2017 in 2 health systems in Dallas, TX. We evaluated referral to genetic counseling, attendance at genetic counseling appointments, and receipt of germline genetic testing by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Of 385 patients with young-onset CRC (median age at diagnosis 44.4 years), 176 (45.7%) were Hispanic, 98 (25.4%) non-Hispanic Black, and 111 (28.8%) non-Hispanic White. Most patients (76.9%) received immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair proteins, and there was no difference in receipt of IHC by race/ethnicity. However, a lower proportion of Black patients were referred to genetic counseling (50.0% vs. White patients 54.1% vs. Hispanic patients 65.9%, p = .02) and attended genetic counseling appointments (61.2% vs. 81.7% White patients vs. 86.2% Hispanic patients, p < .01). Of 141 patients receiving genetic testing, 38 (27.0%) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in a cancer susceptibility gene. An additional 33 patients (23.4%) had variants of uncertain significance, of which 84.8% occurred in racial/ethnic minorities. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse population of patients diagnosed with young-onset CRC, we observed racial/ethnic differences in referral to and receipt of germline genetic testing. Our findings underscore the importance of universal genetic testing to address racial/ethnic disparities in young-onset CRC.

7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; Publish Ahead of Print2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment can significantly reduce the risk of liver-related mortality; however, many patients remain unaware of their infection in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of inreach, with and without mailed outreach, to increase HCV screening and follow-up in a large, difficult-to-reach patient population. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic randomized clinical trial from August 2018 to May 2019 in a large safety-net health system. Patients born between 1945 and 1965 were randomly assigned (1:1) to inreach with an electronic health record reminder to providers (n = 6,195) or inreach plus mailed HCV screening outreach (n = 6,191) to complete HCV antibody screening. Outreach also included processes to promote HCV RNA testing among those with a positive HCV antibody and linkage to care among those with positive HCV RNA. The primary outcome was completion of HCV antibody testing within 3 months of randomization (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03706742). RESULTS: We included 12,386 eligible patients (median age 60 years; 46.5% Hispanic, 33.0% Black, and 16.0% White). In intent-to-treat analyses, HCV screening completion was significantly higher among inreach-plus-outreach patients than inreach-alone patients at 3 months (14.6% vs 7.4%, P < 0.001) and 6 months (17.4% vs 9.8%, P < 0.001) after randomization. Among those who completed HCV screening within 6 months, a higher proportion of inreach-plus-outreach patients with positive antibody results completed RNA testing within 3 months than inreach-alone patients (81.1% vs 57.1%, respectively, P = 0.02); however, linkage to care within 3 months of HCV infection confirmation did not significantly differ between the 2 groups (48.1% vs 75.0%, respectively, P = 0.24). DISCUSSION: Among difficult-to-reach patients, a combination of inreach and mailed outreach significantly increased HCV screening compared with inreach alone. However, HCV screening completion in both arms remained low, highlighting a need for more intensive interventions.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184976

RESUMO

Using Michigan public health data, we assessed geographical access to specialist providers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in urban and rural areas in Michigan and explored correlates of HCV in these areas to help inform HCV elimination planning and resource allocations. We found higher HCV incidence in urban areas, lower treatment specialist access in rural areas, but few correlates of HCV across adult populations in both areas. State and local HCV elimination planning should include population-based screening among all adults and address geographical barriers to care.

9.
Hepatology ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205463

RESUMO

We appreciate the letter from Wang et al regarding our recent publication. We agree that the study of tumor growth patterns is challenging, and the ideal model for determining tumor growth remains debated. We used the Schwartz equation for our analyses, which remains the most widely used model across cancer types. This model assumes that tumors grow at a consistent (exponential, rather than linear) rate and HCCs are relatively homogeneous. Exponential growth models assume that tumor cells continue to divide without constraint, and therefore are good models of early tumor growth.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015626, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870314

RESUMO

Importance: Deep learning, a family of machine learning models that use artificial neural networks, has achieved great success at predicting outcomes in nonmedical domains. Objective: To examine whether deep learning recurrent neural network (RNN) models that use raw longitudinal data extracted directly from electronic health records outperform conventional regression models in predicting the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This prognostic study included 48 151 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis in the national Veterans Health Administration who had at least 3 years of follow-up after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Patients were identified by having at least 1 positive HCV RNA test between January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2016, and were followed up from the diagnosis of cirrhosis to January 1, 2019, for the development of incident HCC. A total of 3 models predicting HCC during a 3-year period were developed and compared, as follows: (1) logistic regression (LR) with cross-sectional inputs (cross-sectional LR); (2) LR with longitudinal inputs (longitudinal LR); and (3) RNN with longitudinal inputs. Data analysis was conducted from April 2018 to August 2020. Exposures: Development of HCC. Main Outcomes and Measures: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the precision-recall curve, and Brier score. Results: During a mean (SD) follow-up of 11.6 (5.0) years, 10 741 of 48 151 patients (22.3%) developed HCC (annual incidence, 3.1%), and a total of 52 983 samples (51 948 [98.0%] from men) were collected. Patients who developed HCC within 3 years were older than patients who did not (mean [SD] age, 58.2 [6.6] years vs 56.9 [6.9] years). RNN models had superior mean (SD) area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.759 [0.009]) and mean (SD) Brier score (0.136 [0.003]) than cross-sectional LR (0.689 [0.009] and 0.149 [0.003], respectively) and longitudinal LR (0.682 [0.007] and 0.150 [0.003], respectively) models. Using the RNN model, the samples with the mean (SD) highest 51% (1.5%) of HCC risk, in which 80% of all HCCs occurred, or the mean (SD) highest 66% (1.2%) of HCC risk, in which 90% of all HCCs occurred, could potentially be targeted. Among samples from patients who achieved sustained virologic response, the performance of the RNN models was even better (mean [SD] area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.806 [0.025]; mean [SD] Brier score, 0.117 [0.007]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, deep learning RNN models outperformed conventional LR models, suggesting that RNN models could be used to identify patients with HCV-related cirrhosis with a high risk of developing HCC for risk-based HCC outreach and surveillance strategies.

11.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(9): 1210-1220, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unknown to what extent hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are detected very early (T1 stage; ie, unifocal <2 cm) in the United States. The aim of this study was to investigate the trends and factors associated with very early detection of HCC and resultant outcomes. METHODS: Patients with HCC diagnosed from 2004 through 2014 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with T1 HCC detection, and Cox proportional hazard analyses identified factors associated with overall survival among patients with T1 HCC. RESULTS: Of 110,182 eligible patients, the proportion with T1 HCC increased from 2.6% in 2004 to 6.8% in 2014 (P<.01). The strongest correlate of T1 HCC detection was receipt of care at an academic institution (odds ratio, 3.51; 95% CI, 2.31-5.34). Older age, lack of insurance, high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, high alpha-fetoprotein, increased Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, and nonsurgical treatment were associated with increased mortality, and care at an academic center (hazard ratio [HR], 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.48) was associated with reduced mortality in patients with T1 HCC. Liver transplantation (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20-0.37) and surgical resection (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.93) were independently associated with improved survival compared with ablation. This is the first study to examine the trend of T1 HCC using the National Cancer Database, which covers approximately 70% of all cancer diagnoses in the United States, using robust statistical analyses. Limitations of the study include a retrospective study design using administrative data and some pertinent data that were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increases over time, <10% of HCCs are detected at T1 stage. The strongest correlates of survival among patients with T1 HCC are receiving care at an academic institution and surgical treatment.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961340

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to have a dismal prognosis, with 5-year survival below 20%. This poor prognosis can be in part attributed to failures along the cancer screening process continuum such as underuse of screening in at risk patients and appropriate treatments for patients with HCC. Better understanding these process failures, and how they compare to those seen in other cancer types, can help inform potential intervention targets and strategies to reduce HCC-related mortality. Herein, we outline a conceptual model with several discrete steps in the HCC screening process continuum including risk assessment, screening initiation, follow-up of screening results, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment evaluation. The conceptual model illustrates how each step in the screening process is prone to delays or failure, resulting in worse outcomes such as late stage diagnosis or poor survival, and how factors at the patient, provider, and health care system levels can contribute to these failures. We compare cancer screening processes for HCC with those employed in breast and colorectal cancer screening to identify opportunities for improvement. The Translational Liver Cancer consortium was recently established by the National Cancer Institute with the goal of improving early detection of HCC. Studies designed to address failures in the HCC screening process continuum will help accomplish this goal.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance rates are suboptimal in clinical practice. We aimed to elicit providers' opinions on the following aspects of HCC surveillance: preferred strategies, barriers and facilitators, and the impact of a patient's HCC risk on the choice of surveillance modality. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey among gastroenterology and hepatology providers (40% faculty physicians, 21% advanced practice providers, 39% fellow-trainees) from 26 U.S. medical centers in 17 states. RESULTS: Of 654 eligible providers, 305 (47%) completed the survey. Nearly all (98.4%) of the providers endorsed semi-annual HCC surveillance in patients with cirrhosis, with 84.2% recommending ultrasound ± alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and 15.4% recommending computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Barriers to surveillance included limited HCC treatment options, screening test effectiveness to reduce mortality, access to transportation, and high out-of-pocket costs. Facilitators of surveillance included professional society guidelines. Most providers (72.1%) would perform surveillance even if HCC risk was low (≤0.5% per year), while 98.7% would perform surveillance if HCC risk was ≥1% per year. As a patient's HCC risk increased from 1% to 3% to 5% per year, providers reported they would be less likely to order ultrasound ± AFP (83.6% to 68.9% to 57.4%; p<0.001) and more likely to order CT or MRI ± AFP (3.9% to 26.2% to 36.1%; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Providers recommend HCC surveillance even when HCC risk is much lower than the threshold suggested by professional societies. Many appear receptive to risk-based HCC surveillance strategies that depend on patients' estimated HCC risk, instead of our current "one-size-fits all" strategy.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944652

RESUMO

Imaging plays a notable role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment response assessment. Whereas HCC surveillance among at-risk patients, including those with cirrhosis, has traditionally been ultrasound-based, there are increasing data showing that this strategy is operator-dependent and has insufficient sensitivity when used alone. Several novel blood-based and imaging modalities are currently being evaluated to increase sensitivity for early HCC detection. Multi-phase computed tomography (CT) or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed in patients with positive surveillance tests to confirm a diagnosis of HCC and perform cancer staging, as needed. HCC is a unique cancer in that most cases can be diagnosed radiographically without histological confirmation when demonstrating characteristic features such as arterial phase hyperenhancement and delayed phase washout. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System offers a standardized nomenclature for reporting CT or MRI liver findings among at-risk patients. Finally, cross-sectional imaging plays a critical role for assessing response to any HCC therapy as well as monitoring for HCC recurrence in those who achieve complete response.

15.
Crit Care Med ; 48(11): e1054-e1061, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cirrhosis is frequently complicated by electrolyte disturbances, with prior studies primarily focused on the importance of hyponatremia. Emerging evidence on patients with chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease has identified hypochloremia as an independent predictor for mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of serum chloride and its association with mortality in cirrhotic patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The medical ICU at Parkland Memorial Hospital, a tertiary care public health system in Dallas, Texas. PATIENTS: Adult patients with confirmed diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis who were admitted to the ICU between March 2015 and March 2017. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard ratio models were performed to determine the impact of hypochloremia on 180-day mortality. Of the 389 enrolled patients, 133 (34.2%) died within 180 days of ICU admission. Patients with hypochloremia had higher 180-day mortality than those with normochloremia (45.2% vs 26.7%; p < 0.0001). Cumulative survival via the Kaplan-Meier method was significantly lower in the hypochloremic group. Serum chloride was independently associated with 180-day mortality with multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; p = 0.001) or after adjusting for Model for End-stage Liver Disease or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Contrarily, the inverse association between serum sodium and mortality no longer existed in all multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS: Serum chloride is independently and inversely associated with short-term mortality in critically ill cirrhotic patients. Hypochloremia, but not hyponatremia, remained associated with mortality with multivariable analyses, suggesting that hypochloremia may account for the mortality risk previously attributed to hyponatremia. These findings signify the prognostic value of serum chloride and potential inclusion of chloride into future cirrhosis prognostic scores.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of a cancer screening programs is defined by its balance of benefits and harms; however, there are few data evaluating both attributes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance. We aimed to characterize benefits and harms of HCC surveillance in a large prospective cohort of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a clinical trial evaluating HCC surveillance among patients with cirrhosis at a safety-net health system enrolled between December 2014 and July 2015. We quantified surveillance-related benefits, defined as early HCC detection and curative treatment receipt, and physical harms, defined as diagnostic procedures for false positive or indeterminate results, over an 18-month period. RESULTS: Of 614 cirrhosis patients with ≥1 surveillance exam, abnormal results were observed in 118 (19.2%) patients. Twenty-six patients developed HCC during follow-up, of whom 16 (61.5%) were detected by surveillance. The proportion of HCC detected at BCLC stage 0/A (62.5% vs 50%, p=0.69) and who underwent curative treatment (43.8% vs. 40.0%, p=1.0) did not significantly differ between surveillance-detected patients and those diagnosed incidentally/symptomatically. Physical harms were observed in 54 (8.8%) patients who underwent surveillance - most of mild severity with only one diagnostic CT or MRI and none undergoing invasive testing such as biopsy. Incidental findings on follow-up imaging were found in 40 (6.5%) patients -23 of low clinical importance and 17 medium clinical importance. CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients with cirrhosis, HCC surveillance was associated with high early tumor detection and minimal physical harms.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depression and anxiety can have negative effects on patients and are important to treat. There have been few studies of their prevalence among patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to characterize the prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety in a large multi-center cohort of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a telephone-based survey of patients with cirrhosis at 3 health systems in the United States (a tertiary-care referral center, a safety net system, and a Veterans hospital) from April through December 2018. Of 2871 patients approached, 1021 (35.6%) completed the survey. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the PHQ-9 (range 0-25) and STAI (range 20-80) instruments, with clinically significant values defined as PHQ-9 ≥15 and STAI ≥40. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with significant depression and anxiety. RESULTS: The median PHQ-9 score was 7 (25th percentile-75th percentile, 3-12) and the median STAI score was 33 (25th percentile-75th percentile, 23-47); 15.6% of patients had moderately severe to severe depression and 42.6% of patients had high anxiety. In multivariable analyses, self-reported poor health (odds ratio [OR], 4.08; 95% CI, 1.79-9.28), being widowed (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.07-4.05), fear of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.42), higher household income (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.95), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33-0.97) were associated with moderately severe to severe depression. Male sex (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.98), self-reported poor health (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.73-4.32), and fear of hepatocellular carcinoma (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.33-3.78) were associated with high anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 1 in 6 patients with cirrhosis have moderately severe to severe depression and nearly half have moderate-severe anxiety. Patients with cirrhosis should be evaluated for both of these disorders.

19.
Clin Imaging ; 67: 146-151, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) for treatment of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to identify risk factors for treatment failure and local progression. METHODS: 145 unique HCC [87 (60%) RFA, 58 (40%) MWA] were retrospectively reviewed from a single tertiary medical center. Adverse events were classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the Society of Interventional Radiology Adverse Event Classification system. Primary and secondary efficacy, as well as local progression, were determined using mRECIST. Predictors of treatment failure and time to local progression were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and Cox regression, respectively. RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 143/145 (99%) HCC. There were 1 (0.7%) severe and 2 (1.4%) moderate adverse events. Of the 143 technically successful initial treatments, 136 (95%) completed at least one follow-up exam. Primary efficacy was achieved in 114/136 (84%). 9/22 (41%) primary failures underwent successful repeat ablation, so secondary efficacy was achieved in 128/136 (90%) HCC. Local progression occurred in 24 (19%) HCC at a median of 25 months (95% CI = 19-32 months). There was no difference in technical success, primary efficacy, or time to local progression between RFA and MWA. In HCC treated with MWA, same-day biopsy was associated with primary failure (RR = 9.0, 95% CI: 1.7-47, P = 0.015), and proximity to the diaphragm or gastrointestinal tract was associated with local progression (HR = 2.40, 95% CI:1.5-80, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in primary efficacy or time to local progression between percutaneous RFA and MWA.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Ablação por Cateter , Micro-Ondas , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Biópsia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652308

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is expected to have a long-lasting impact on the approach to care for patients at risk for and with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to the risks from potential exposure and resource reallocation. The goal of this document is to provide recommendations on HCC surveillance and monitoring, including strategies to limit unnecessary exposure while continuing to provide high-quality care for patients. Publications and guidelines pertaining to the management of HCC during COVID-19 were reviewed for recommendations related to surveillance and monitoring practices, and any available guidance was referenced to support the authors' recommendations when applicable. Existing HCC risk stratification models should be utilized to prioritize imaging resources to those patients at highest risk of incident HCC and recurrence following therapy though surveillance can likely continue as before in settings where COVID-19 prevalence is low and adequate protections are in place. Waitlisted patients who will benefit from urgent LT should be prioritized for surveillance whereas it would be reasonable to extend surveillance interval by a short period in HCC patients with lower risk tumor features and those more than 2 years since their last treatment. For patients eligible for systemic therapy, the treatment regimen should be dictated by the risk of COVID-19 associated with route of administration, monitoring and treatment of adverse events, within the context of relative treatment efficacy.

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