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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779188

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: This study focused on enhancing resilience of soybean crops to drought and salinity stresses by overexpression of GmFAD3A gene, which plays an important role in modulating membrane fluidity and ultimately influence plants response to various abiotic stresses. Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are a class of enzymes that mediate desaturation of fatty acids by introducing double bonds. They play an important role in modulating membrane fluidity in response to various abiotic stresses. However, a comprehensive analysis of GmFAD3 in drought and salinity stress tolerance in soybean is lacking. We used bean pod mottle virus (BPMV)-based vector for achieving rapid and efficient overexpression as well as silencing of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase gene from Glycine max (GmFAD3) to assess the functional role of GmFAD3 in abiotic stress responses in soybean. Higher levels of recombinant BPMV-GmFAD3A transcripts were detected in overexpressing soybean plants. Overexpression of GmFAD3A in soybean resulted in increased levels of jasmonic acid and higher expression of GmWRKY54 as compared to mock-inoculated, vector-infected and FAD3-silenced soybean plants under drought and salinity stress conditions. The GmFAD3A-overexpressing plants showed higher levels of chlorophyll content, efficient photosystem-II, relative water content, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline content and also cooler canopy under drought and salinity stress conditions as compared to mock-inoculated, vector-infected and FAD3-silenced soybean plants. Results from the current study revealed that GmFAD3A-overexpressing soybean plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salinity stresses. However, soybean plants silenced for GmFAD3 were vulnerable to drought and salinity stresses.

2.
Smart Health (Amst) ; 25: 100296, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722028

RESUMO

Given the novel corona virus discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, due to the high false-negative rate of RT-PCR and the time-consuming to obtain the results, research has proved that computed tomography (CT) has become an auxiliary One of the essential means of diagnosis and treatment of new corona virus pneumonia. Since few COVID-19 CT datasets are currently available, it is proposed to use conditional generative adversarial networks to enhance data to obtain CT datasets with more samples to reduce the risk of over fitting. In addition, a BIN residual block-based method is proposed. The improved U-Net network is used for image segmentation and then combined with multi-layer perception for classification prediction. By comparing with network models such as AlexNet and GoogleNet, it is concluded that the proposed BUF-Net network model has the best performance, reaching an accuracy rate of 93%. Using Grad-CAM technology to visualize the system's output can more intuitively illustrate the critical role of CT images in diagnosing COVID-19. Applying deep learning using the proposed techniques suggested by the above study in medical imaging can help radiologists achieve more effective diagnoses that is the main objective of the research. On the basis of the foregoing, this study proposes to employ CGAN technology to augment the restricted data set, integrate the residual block into the U-Net network, and combine multi-layer perception in order to construct new network architecture for COVID-19 detection using CT images. -19. Given the scarcity of COVID-19 CT datasets, it is proposed that conditional generative adversarial networks be used to augment data in order to obtain CT datasets with more samples and therefore lower the danger of overfitting.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5765629, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345527

RESUMO

Biomedical researchers and biologists often search a large amount of literature to find the relationship between biological entities, such as drug-drug and compound-protein. With the proliferation of medical literature and the development of deep learning, the automatic extraction of biological entity interaction relationships from literature has shown great potential. The fundamental scope of this research is that the approach described in this research uses technologies like dynamic word vectors and multichannel convolution to learn a larger variety of relational expression semantics, allowing it to detect more entity connections. The extraction of biological entity relationships is the foundation for achieving intelligent medical care, which may increase the effectiveness of intelligent medical question answering and enhance the development of precision healthcare. In the past, deep learning methods have achieved specific results, but there are the following problems: the model uses static word vectors, which cannot distinguish polysemy; the weight of words is not considered, and the extraction effect of long sentences is poor; the integration of various models can improve the sample imbalance problem, the model is more complex. The purpose of this work is to create a global approach for eliminating different physical entity links, such that the model can effectively extract the interpretation of the expression relationship without having to develop characteristics manually. To this end, a deep multichannel CNN model (MC-CNN) based on the residual structure is proposed, generating dynamic word vectors through BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representation from Transformers) to improve the accuracy of lexical semantic representation and uses multihead attention to capture the dependencies of long sentences and by designing the Ranking loss function to replace the multimodel ensemble to reduce the impact of sample imbalance. Tested on multiple datasets, the results show that the proposed method has good performance.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Semântica
5.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205044

RESUMO

People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at an increased risk of severe and critical COVID-19 infection. There is a steady increase in neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection, exacerbating HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in PLWHA. Nutraceuticals, such as phytochemicals from medicinal plants and dietary supplements, have been used as adjunct therapies for many disease conditions, including viral infections. Appropriate use of these adjunct therapies with antiviral proprieties may be beneficial in treating and/or prophylaxis of neurological complications associated with these co-infections. However, most of these nutraceuticals have poor bioavailability and cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this challenge, extracellular vesicles (EVs), biological nanovesicles, can be used. Due to their intrinsic features of biocompatibility, stability, and their ability to cross BBB, as well as inherent homing capabilities, EVs hold immense promise for therapeutic drug delivery to the brain. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the potential role of different nutraceuticals in reducing HIV- and COVID-19-associated neurological complications and the use of EVs as nutraceutical/drug delivery vehicles to treat HIV, COVID-19, and other brain disorders.

6.
Genes Genomics ; 44(3): 327-342, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is considered one of the most prevalent cancers in India. This is mainly because India suffers from high usage of tobacco, which is one of the main causative agents of oral cancer, and lacks proper health and sexual hygiene in rural areas. DISCUSSION: Non-coding RNAs are reported to be involved in the various mechanism and causality of cancer. Numerous reports have identified viable prospects connecting non-coding RNA (ncRNA) with cancer. Specific ncRNAs like long non-coding RNA or lncRNAs are recently being prioritized as potential associations in the cause of cancer. CONCLUSION: This review aims at presenting a concise perspective on the basics and the recent advancements of the lncRNA research pertaining specifically to oral cancer, its recurrence, and the future possibilities of knowledge it might possess.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , RNA Longo não Codificante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Microbes Infect ; 24(3): 104925, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883247

RESUMO

Oral cancer contributes significantly to the global cancer burden. Oral bacteria play an important role in the spread of oral cancer, according to mounting evidence. The most proven instance is the carcinogenic implications of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in chronic periodontitis. It is imperative to understand the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis in OSCC. This review aims to gather and assess scientific shreds of evidence on the involvement of P. gingivalis in the molecular mechanism of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884769

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, including drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, and waterlogging, are the major constraints in crop production. These abiotic stresses are likely to be amplified by climate change with varying temporal and spatial dimensions across the globe. The knowledge about the effects of abiotic stressors on major cereal and legume crops is essential for effective management in unfavorable agro-ecologies. These crops are critical components of cropping systems and the daily diets of millions across the globe. Major cereals like rice, wheat, and maize are highly vulnerable to abiotic stresses, while many grain legumes are grown in abiotic stress-prone areas. Despite extensive investigations, abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants is not fully understood. Current insights into the abiotic stress responses of plants have shown the potential to improve crop tolerance to abiotic stresses. Studies aimed at stress tolerance mechanisms have resulted in the elucidation of traits associated with tolerance in plants, in addition to the molecular control of stress-responsive genes. Some of these studies have paved the way for new opportunities to address the molecular basis of stress responses in plants and identify novel traits and associated genes for the genetic improvement of crop plants. The present review examines the responses of crops under abiotic stresses in terms of changes in morphology, physiology, and biochemistry, focusing on major cereals and legume crops. It also explores emerging opportunities to accelerate our efforts to identify desired traits and genes associated with stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Secas , Clima Extremo , Oryza/fisiologia , Salinidade , Temperatura , Triticum/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia
10.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 63(5): 433-438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789930

RESUMO

AIMS: Special drive campaigns on substance use disorders (SUDs) in India are usually organized in educational institutes, non-governmental organizations, or few selected localities. Hard to reach communities of construction, prison, and industrial sites quite often remain uncovered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a month-long special drive in 2019, under a cross-sectional study, we reached these communities of Solan town through awareness camps and incorporated standardized screening tools for evaluating morbidity patterns of SUDs. RESULTS: Statistically significant relationship existed between 360 participants (90.8% males, 9.2% females; mean age of 33 years) and their educational levels with χ2 (1, n = 360) =130.59, P = 0.000. Fagerstrom's scale inferred very high nicotine dependence in 10.6%, 7.9%, and 2.4% of prisoners, industrial workers, and laborers, respectively. Whereas, Fagerstrom scale for smokeless tobacco revealed 31% of significant dependence potential amongst laborers. Alcohol use disorder identification test revealed 28 persons with harmful alcohol dependence. Drug abuse screening test revealed 13.6% of prisoners having moderate level drug abuse potential. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed a statistically significant difference, in levels and potential of substance use in construction, prison, and industrial sites. CONCLUSION: The study proved the utility of special drives in evaluating SUDs morbidity patterns in hard-to-reach communities.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21433, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728692

RESUMO

Estimating rock-mechanical, petrophysical properties and pre-production stress state is essential for effective reservoir planning, development, and optimal exploitation. This paper attempts to construct a comprehensive one-dimensional mechanical earth model (1D MEM) of the Mandapeta gas reservoir of Krishna Godavari (KG) basin, India. The methodology comprises a detailed stepwise process from processing and analysis of raw log data, calibration of log-derived dynamic properties with static ones using regression models developed from tested core samples, and final rock mechanical property estimation. Pore pressure profiles have been estimated and calibrated with the Repeat formation tester (RFT) data for every thirty-five wells. Overburden and horizontal stresses have also been evaluated and calibrated using data from the Leak-off Tests (LOT) or Extended Leak-off Tests (XLOT). A menu-driven program is developed using PYTHON code for visualization and on-time revision of 1D MEM. The resulting comprehensive 1D MEM predicts and establishes the rock-mechanical properties, pore pressure, and in-situ stress values of the basin. Besides its use in planning future wells, development of the field, and yielding insight into the various well challenges, it can also be used to develop a 3D MEM of the reservoir.

12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429294

RESUMO

Polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PA) of the salivary glands is a rare malignancy that predominantly affects the minor salivary glands of the palate. Major salivary gland involvement is rare (<5%). The submandibular gland is a highly unusual location for this tumour. Recently, the WHO has updated the classification of salivary gland tumours in which the PA subtype has been modified. We report a very uncommon case of a classical variant of PA involving the submandibular gland in a 49-year-old woman managed at our institute and discuss the most recent pathological criteria for diagnosis, management strategy and prognosis of PA.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias das Glândulas Salivares , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Glândulas Salivares , Glândulas Salivares Menores , Glândula Submandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândula Submandibular/cirurgia
13.
Neurol India ; 69(1): 194-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642301

RESUMO

Congenital mobile atlantoaxial dislocation with cervicomedullary astrocytoma has never been described. We present a case of a 7-year-old male child who presented to us with gradually progressive spastic quadriparesis following a fall from table. His lateral radiograph and magnetic resonance images showed mobile atlantoaxial dislocation with intramedullary heterogeneously enhancing cervicomedullary mass. The patient underwent suboccipital craniectomy with C1-4 laminectomy. Tumor was pinkish grey, tenacious with ill-defined plane and cyst at poles. C1-C2 fusion was done using C1 lateral mass and C2 pars screw and rod system with onlay bone graft. Histopathology revealed pilocytic astrocytoma. At the time of discharge, the patient showed improvement in spasticity. Postoperative lateral radiograph showed reduced atlantoaxial dislocation with stable construct.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma , Articulação Atlantoaxial , Luxações Articulares , Lesões do Pescoço , Fusão Vertebral , Astrocitoma/complicações , Astrocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Astrocitoma/cirurgia , Articulação Atlantoaxial/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação Atlantoaxial/lesões , Articulação Atlantoaxial/cirurgia , Parafusos Ósseos , Vértebras Cervicais , Criança , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Masculino
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 32, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403463

RESUMO

In Solan district, the developmental activities associated with chemical based farming, rapid urbanization, and rampant industrialization have led to many diarrhoeal, gastroenteritis, and hepatitis disease outbreaks. This has necessitated for microbiological assessment of indicator organisms, the thermotolerant coliforms, in drinking water sources, and their relationship with diarrhoeal disease. All the 49 Public Health Institutes (PHIs) of the district were categorized into very low, low, moderate, and high disease burden regions by stratification method. For drinking water, 55.5, 16.5, and 17% people preferred springs, borewells, and hand-pump respectively. These sources inventoried by Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey in one of very low and seven of high disease burden regions, and were analyzed by multiple tube fermentation technique. A cross-sectional survey of 200 children was undertaken for diarrhoeal disease estimation. Parwanoo, an industrial and Kurgal, a non industrial region witnessed highest (30.20) and lowest (4.40) Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 ml water of thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. Thermotolerant coliforms were also observed significantly more (16.77 MPN/100 ml water) in monsoon than in post monsoon season (9.04 MPN per 100 ml water). The thermotolerant coliform Escherichia coli was recovered from six and three water sources respectively during monsoon and post monsoon. A strong correlation (r = 0.78) existed between the diarrhoeal disease occurrence and the concentration of thermotolerant coliforms in monsoon whereas it was moderate (r = 0.61) in post monsoon. The study indicated more contamination of water sources due to industrial activities which further got aggravated during the rainy season of the region.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Toluidinas , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 119: 111590, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321635

RESUMO

Amyloids are fibrillar structures formed due to protein aggregation or misfolding when the molecules undergo a conformational change from α-helix to ß-sheet. Although this self-assembly is associated with many neurodegenerative diseases in vivo, the highly ordered amyloidic structures formed in vitro are ideal scaffolds for many bionanotechnological applications. Amyloid fibrillar networks under specific stimuli can also form stable hydrogels. We have used bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model amyloidogenic protein to obtain thermally-induced hydrogels that display tunable sol-gel-sol transitions spanning over minutes to days. High concentrations of BSA (14-22% w/v) were heated at 65 °C for less than 3 min without any cross-linking agent to yield soft, injectable gels that were non-toxic to mammalian cells. A detailed investigation of temperature, concentration, incubation time and ionic strength on the formation and reversal of these gels was carried out using visual inspection, rheology, electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The optimum gelation temperature (Tg) for phase reversal of BSA gels was found to lie between 60 and 70 °C. An increase in protein concentration led to a reduction in the gelation time and increase in the gel-to-rev sol transition time. Gels heated for longer duration than their minimum gelation time yielded irreversible gels suggesting that low incubation periods were favourable for partial protein denaturation and hydrogel formation. This was supported by time-resolved secondary and tertiary structural ensemble studies. Further, the hydrogel networks demonstrated a zero-order drug release kinetics and the rev sol was found to be cytocompatible with HaCaT skin cell lines. Overall, our approach demonstrates rapid, crosslinker-free thermoresponsive BSA gelation with wide tunability and control on the time and material property, ideal for topical drug delivery applications.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Soroalbumina Bovina , Animais , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Reologia , Temperatura
16.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 778270, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082809

RESUMO

Under dryland conditions, annual and perennial food crops are exposed to dry spells, severely affecting crop productivity by limiting available soil moisture at critical and sensitive growth stages. Climate variability continues to be the primary cause of uncertainty, often making timing rather than quantity of precipitation the foremost concern. Therefore, mitigation and management of stress experienced by plants due to limited soil moisture are crucial for sustaining crop productivity under current and future harsher environments. Hence, the information generated so far through multiple investigations on mechanisms inducing drought tolerance in plants needs to be translated into tools and techniques for stress management. Scope to accomplish this exists in the inherent capacity of plants to manage stress at the cellular level through various mechanisms. One of the most extensively studied but not conclusive physiological phenomena is the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging them through an antioxidative system (AOS), which determines a wide range of damage to the cell, organ, and the plant. In this context, this review aims to examine the possible roles of the ROS-AOS balance in enhancing the effective use of water (EUW) by crops under water-limited dryland conditions. We refer to EUW as biomass produced by plants with available water under soil moisture stress rather than per unit of water (WUE). We hypothesize that EUW can be enhanced by an appropriate balance between water-saving and growth promotion at the whole-plant level during stress and post-stress recovery periods. The ROS-AOS interactions play a crucial role in water-saving mechanisms and biomass accumulation, resulting from growth processes that include cell division, cell expansion, photosynthesis, and translocation of assimilates. Hence, appropriate strategies for manipulating these processes through genetic improvement and/or application of exogenous compounds can provide practical solutions for improving EUW through the optimized ROS-AOS balance under water-limited dryland conditions. This review deals with the role of ROS-AOS in two major EUW determining processes, namely water use and plant growth. It describes implications of the ROS level or content, ROS-producing, and ROS-scavenging enzymes based on plant water status, which ultimately affects photosynthetic efficiency and growth of plants.

17.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; 27(2): 80-86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341814

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. The pathophysiology of this virus is not very clearly known, thus, enormous efforts are being made by the scientific community to delineate its evading mechanism. In this review, we have summarized the hyperinflammation and humoral and cell-mediated immune response generated in human body after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The inflammatory response generated after infection by increased proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and complement proteins activation may likely contribute to disease severity. We also discussed the other factors that may affect immunity and could be important comorbidities in the disease severity and outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Alarminas/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Curr Genomics ; 21(7): 504-511, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, whole genome re-sequencing of rust resistant soybean genotype EC241780 was performed to understand the genomic landscape involved in the resistance mechanism. METHODS: A total of 374 million raw reads were obtained with paired-end sequencing performed with Illumina HiSeq 2500 instrument, out of which 287.3 million high quality reads were mapped to Williams 82 reference genome. Comparative sequence analysis of EC241780 with rust susceptible cultivars Williams 82 and JS 335 was performed to identify sequence variation and to prioritise the candidate genes. RESULTS: Comparative analysis indicates that genotype EC241780 has high sequence similarity with rust resistant genotype PI 200492 and the resistance in EC241780 is conferred by the Rpp1 locus. Based on the sequence variations and functional annotations, three genes Glyma18G51715, Glyma18G51741 and Glyma18G51765 encoding for NBS-LRR family protein were identified as the most prominent candidate for Rpp1 locus. CONCLUSION: The study provides insights of genome-wide sequence variation more particularly at Rpp1 loci which will help to develop rust resistant soybean cultivars through efficient exploration of the genomic resource.

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